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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 May 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Elucidate key features of Indus valley civilisation with suitable examples from prominent archeological findings.(250 words)

Reference:  class XI Ancient Indian history by R S Sharma

Why this question:

The question is based on the thematic of Indus valley civilisation and its distinguishable key features.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the key features of the IVC and substantiate them with suitable archeological findings.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the origin and expanse of the IVC, the Indus Valley Civilization was established around 3300 BC. It flourished between 2700 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). It started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.

Body:

To start with, one can explain the salient features of Indus Valley Civilization like the first common feature is Indus script on seals, town planning, fortified citadel at most of the cities, Houses with kitchens and wells, tanks or water reservoirs etc. Give examples of the archeological evidences that support them. the Archaeological Survey of India revealed the existence of a vast unique civilisation in the north west of India, with its two urban centres at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Later archaeologist dug out many other cities, such as Kalibangan, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, Dholavira, Banwali, Sutkagendor, etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance and importance of the civilisation even as of today.

 

Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. What is a heat wave? Explain the occurrence of it in India and discuss how long can it last?(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the phenomenon of Heatwaves, their occurrence in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what Heatwaves are, their occurrence in India and discuss their impact and time period.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Heat waves occur over India between March and June. Meteorologists declare a heatwave event when the maximum (day) temperature for a location in the plains crosses 40 degrees Celsius. Over the hills, the threshold temperature is 30 degrees Celsius. When the day temperature jumps by 4 to 5 degrees above the normal maximum temperature of a location, it is declared as a heatwave.

Body:

Explain the phenomenon in detail. Discuss the context of India, present a timeline of its occurrence in the past and in the present. Explain how long can it last and discuss the spatial pattern of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its impact and solutions to address and mitigate the effect of it.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3. Discuss the need to revamp procedural law in the Indian judiciary to make it more efficient.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Laxmikant

Why this question:

The question is based on the article where the author of the article argues for the need to revamp procedural law in the judiciary to make it more efficient.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the need to revamp procedural law in the Indian judiciary to make it more efficient and suggest as to what needs to be done to achieve the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain how the pandemic and the subsequent lockdown have affected the functioning of courts and tribunals.

Body:

Firstly to highlight the problems facing the Judiciary one has to explain the existing structure of the entire judicial system and its working. Explain the subordinate courts; In subordinate civil courts and High Courts, a significant time of daily proceedings is taken up by cases where only adjournments are sought for procedural matters like filing of replies. Explain the case of supreme court. Give suggestions to improve functioning of the judiciary.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Account for some of the key critical vulnerabilities of Indian society that the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The article talks about the vulnerabilities inherently witnessed and brought out to us by the current Covid situation in our Indian society.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the key critical vulnerabilities of the Indian society that the present Covid -19 situation has brought to fore.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First explain the current situation and its impact in general on the society.

Body:

The critical vulnerabilities of Indian society that the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed are undoubtedly those laid bare by the humanitarian crisis that unfolded as the nation-wide lockdown took effect. List down the vulnerabilities like the humanitarian crisis, migrant crisis, hunger, poverty etc. Suggest what needs to be done to ensure these vulnerabilities are cured.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need for our society to regain its moral compass.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

5. Discuss the contributions of Veer Savarkar to the National Freedom Struggle Movement of India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The question is on the eve of 137th birth anniversary of Veer Savarkar.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the contributions of Veer Savarkar to the National Freedom Struggle Movement of India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Veer Savarkar was born on 28 May, 1883 in the village Bhagpur, Nashik and died on 26 February, 1966, Bombay (now Mumbai). His full name is Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. He was a freedom fighter, politician, lawyer, social reformer, and formulator of the philosophy of Hindutva.

Body:

In the body of the answer discuss why he is known as Veer Savarkar and his contributions in the National Freedom Struggle. Discuss his contributions – He was known for his bravery and so earned nickname ‘Veer’ that is a courageous person. He was influenced by his elder brother Ganesh who had played an influential role in his teenage life. Veer Savarkar also became a revolutionary young man. When he was young, he organised a youth group named ‘Mitra Mela’. He was inspired by radical political leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal and engages the group in revolutionary activities. He enrolled himself at ‘Fergusson College’ in Pune and completed his Bachelor’s Degree. Discuss his works in Prison, his contributions to overall freedom struggle.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of his contributions.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Though India’s overall contribution to global climate change is meager, yet it is one of the major countries affected by climate change. In this backdrop, critically analyse major initiatives undertaken by the government for combating climate change?(250 words)

Reference:  climate.nasa.gov

Why this question:

The question is based on the current conditions of global climate change.

Key demand of the question:

One has to critically analyse major initiatives undertaken by the government for combating climate change.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly give statistics supporting how India’s overall contribution to global climate change is small.

Body:

To start with, List down major initiatives of Indian government for climate action. For example- NDCs at Paris Agreement, NAPCC, ISA etc. The question also asks to critically examine them, thus students must essentially examine whether India is on the right track of fulfilling its climate targets.

Conclusion:

Conclude by discussing how the current global efforts are inadequate (recall the UNEP Emissions Gap Report) and all countries, especially developed ones, need to ramp up efforts based on the principle of CBDR.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: challenges of corruption.

7. “Prevention is better than cure”. How far does this apply to fight against corruption?(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of corruption and the idea of “Prevention is better than cure” applied to it.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way “Prevention is better than cure” can work better in terms of fighting corruption.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the issue around corruption in general and in particular in the country.

Body:

The common wisdom has it that “prevention is better than cure”. This is particularly true for the prevention of corruption, when public trust, the effectiveness of institutions, economic development and the security of the State are at stake. Even the most successful enforcement of criminal law happens after the crime has already been committed and the detrimental consequences of corruption have taken place. Discuss the preventive methods that can be adopted like Adopting effective and coordinated policies against corruption, Fair and transparent system of public procurement, Strengthening the integrity of the public sector, Strengthened transparency and public reporting etc.

Conclusion:

conclude that strengthening the integrity of the judiciary and prosecution services, addressing corruption in the private sector and promoting participation of society are other important elements of the effective system for prevention of corruption.