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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 May 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Nehru-Liaquat pact is not only a landmark agreement in the history of modern India, but also a legacy of frameworks of international relations of the past. Elucidate.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The article talks about the importance of Nehru-Liaquat pact as a landmark agreement in the past and the way it has its inheritance in the frameworks of international relations.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the significance of Nehru-Liaquat pact in the modern Indian history and its importance with respect to the framework of International relations.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short talk about the coming of Nehru-Liaquat pact in place.

Body:

To start with, explain that the plan was signed between the then prime minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru and his counterpart from Pakistan. It was signed Just after Independence of India in 1950. It was signed in the background of the communal partition of India and Pakistan. List down the key provisions of the pact. Discuss the points in favor and against the provisions of the pact. Explain in what way it laid the foundation and inherited from the framework of international relations of those times.

Conclusion:

Nehru-Liaquat pact defines the Indo-Pakistani relationship as one that could be negotiated in inherited frameworks of international relations based on the paramount capacity of the nation state.

Introduction

On 8 April 1950, the prime ministers of India and Pakistan signed an agreement known as the Nehru–Liaqat Pact to resolve the issue of protection of the minorities. This period saw India and Pakistan facilitating a transfer of populations, rationalising bilateral relations after the violence of Partition, sorting out canal-water issues and evacuee property disputes without the venom you see between them today.

Body

The Nehru-Liaquat Pact, also known as the Delhi Pact, was a bilateral agreement signed between India and Pakistan in order to provide a framework for the treatment of minorities in the two countries.

Background

  • The Mountbatten Plan to transfer power from the British to Indian hands was signed on June 3, 1947.
  • Incredibly, in hindsight, most of the people in charge then did not envisage that the partition of Bengal and Punjab would lead to mass population transfers.
  • The need for such a pact was felt by minorities in both countries following Partition, which was accompanied by massive communal rioting.
  • Nearly 12 million (1.2 crore) Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders and nearly a million perished in riots and the migration itself. The two countries had to resettle, feed and house a group as large as the total population of Australia.
  • In 1950 alone, as per some estimates, over a million Hindus and Muslims migrated from and to East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), amid communal tension and riots such as the 1950 East Pakistan riots and the Noakhali riots.

Key Provisions of the Agreement

  • Members of the minorities shall have equal opportunity with members of the majority community to participate in the public life of their country, to hold political or other office, and to serve in their country’s civil and armed forces.
    • Both Governments declare these rights to be fundamental and undertake to enforce them effectively
  • Evacuees returning to their respective countries by December 1950 were promised back their homes and lands. If this was not possible (restoration of immovable property) then government would rehabilitate them and provide alternate arrangement.
    • Both the governments also agreed to make efforts towards restoring looted property.
  • The pact did not recognise forced conversions.
  • It was decided that cabinets in East and West Bengal and Assam would include minority representatives.
  • Migrants were allowed to carry movable property and jewellery with them; adults allowed to carry cash up to ₹150 each and children ₹75 each.
  • There would be no harassment by the customs authorities. At each custom post, there would be liason officer of each country posted to ensure this agreement is adhered strictly.
  • The pact planned formation of minorities’ commissions in each country.

Laid the foundation for future International Relations

  • The bilateral agreement, as Nehru justly claimed, pulled India and Pakistan from a precipice of war.
  • The most remarkable achievement noted is the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 which survived two wars after it was signed.
  • India did extract from it the advantage of using some water from Pakistan’s three “exclusive” western rivers, Sindh, Chenab and Jhelum, for consumptive use, that is, agriculture.
  • In general, the Government of India followed the policy of trying to improve relations with Pakistan and, above all, to prevent the emergence of a climate of hostility and hatred.
  • Nehru, in particular, repeatedly assured the people of Pakistan that India did not think of Pakistan as an enemy .
  • One of the reasons for this policy was the effort to preserve and strengthen the secular atmosphere within India, which was being endangered by the communalism.
    • It was bolstered by India’s spearheading of the Non-Aligned Movement during the cold war period on the foundations of Panchsheel.
    • Although India had to go to war with Pakistan due to former’s misdemeanour, the agreement that followed had it’s roots in the Nehru-Liaqat pact.
  • The Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 was much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an exchange of PoWs).
    • It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan.
  • The Nuclear information exchange agreement was signed on December 31, 1988 and came into force on January 27, 1991.
    • The pact mandates the two countries to inform each other of nuclear installations and facilities to be covered under the agreement on the first of January of every calendar year.
  • And, undoubtedly, it did serve that purpose in the long run, even though it failed to mollify Pakistan or convince it of India’s good intentions.

Conclusion

Future Indo-Pak relations will require nimble footed diplomacy that has its roots in the principles of Nehru-Liaqat pact. However, for any substantial talks to materialise, cross-border terrorism needs to be ceased completely. As the Prime Minister has reiterated “terror and talks cannot go together” and for Pakistan to gain India’s trust, it is the major requirement.

 

Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. The culture of permissiveness with respect to violence against women continues to be the root cause for the Indian society to have a “Locker Room At every Home”, critically analyse the statement. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The question is amidst the recent uproar against the Bois locker room incident that was witnessed on the social platform of Instagram.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to examine the inherent flaws in our Indian society with special attention towards the “Culture of permissiveness” and in what way it is leading to growing violence against women.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the recent incident to highlight the context of the question.

Body:

To start with, discuss what the major factors that foster sexual violence against women in the country are; explain the factors with special emphasis on the cultural aspects of the Indian society. Highlight in what way conversations on sexual violence need to acknowledge the root of the problem. Explain how there is a “locker room” within in each individual, family and the society at large. Suggest solutions to address such issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions to address the key problems associated with violence against women at the societal level.

Introduction

Disturbing screenshots of conversations on an Instagram group called “Bois Locker Room” have recently surfaced on social media. Following social media outrage, Delhi Police registered a case under 67, 67A of the Information Technology (IT) Act, and various sections of the Indian Penal Code.

Body

While action against the boys is imperative in the course of justice, this episode points to a larger societal problem. The conversations followed a familiar pattern of sexual violence against women and girls — of shaming, vile objectification and an assertion of power over them.

Culture of permissiveness with respect to sexual violence against women

  • Product of Patriarchy: The patriarchal mindset of male masculinity and superiority has seeped to new generation.
  • Violence unchecked: As per World Health Organization (WHO) findings about 1 in 3 (35%) women worldwide have experienced either physical or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.
    • Most often the sexual violence is inflicted by the spouses or close relatives. Speaking against it is a taboo even today as it affects the ‘family honour’.
  • Men are more likely to perpetrate violence if they have low education, a history of child maltreatment, exposure to domestic violence against their mothers, harmful use of alcohol, unequal gender norms including attitudes accepting of violence, and a sense of entitlement over women.
  • Lower education: Women are more likely to experience intimate partner violence if they have low education, exposure to mothers being abused by a partner, abuse during childhood, and attitudes accepting violence, male privilege, and women’s subordinate status.
    • As women are financially dependent on their male counterparts without any support from their family, it becomes even more difficult to report domestic violence and other forms of exploitation.
  • Gender inequality: Economic survey 2017 noted that even today there is high “son-meta preference”. This has led to the phenomenon of more than a million “missing girls” and unwanted women due to neglect, female infanticide and foeticide.
    • Eg: Even in 2020, two cases of female infanticide was reported from Tamil Nadu, which relatively scores more on human development indicators.
    • The number of girls getting enrolled in government schools is higher than boys in the age group of 4-8 years, according to the 14th Annual Status of Education Report (ASER)
  • Early marriages: Early marriage with or without the consent of the girl, constitutes a form of violence as it undermines the health and autonomy of millions of girls.

Improving Status of women in recent times

  • Stringent laws: Due to increased violence in recent times, POCSO Act was amended for aggravated sexual assault increasing the minimum sentence.
  • Education enrollment:
    • With the enactment of Right to Education Act in 2009, girl child enrollment in primary school is nearly cent percent.
    • Furthermore, secondary school enrollment is at 80.9% in 2015-16 from 76.4% in 2013-14. This is mainly due to better sanitation in schools under Swachh Bharat.
  • Women centric development
    • Ujjwala Scheme has provided LPG gas connection to 8 crore women, giving them respite from drudgery of indoor pollution and mortality.
    • Nutrition based programmes targeting women such as POSHAN, Laqshya (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) and institutional deliveries has decreased MMR to 122 per lakh (26.9% reduction from 2013)
  • Entrepreneurship
    • Women SHG’s are given loans of upto 1 Lakh under the MUDRA scheme.
    • NITI Aayog has created Women Entrepreneurship Portal wherein it has handholding programme for women.
  • Women and science
    • Women-centric programmes under the Knowledge Involvement in Research Advancement through Nurturing (KIRAN) initiative.
    • ‘Women Scientists Program’ provides fellowship to women who have had a break in the career to pursue research in science and engineering.
  • Reproductive health
    • Maternity Benefit Act has increased the maternity leave to 26 weeks.
    • Pradhan Mantri Matritva Yojana provides cash transfer to women at certain intervals during their pregnancy.

Way-Forward

  • Laws to protect women: It is important to enact and enforce legislation and develop and implement policies that promote gender equality by ending discrimination against women in marriage, divorce and custody laws, inheritance laws and ownership of assets.
  • Financial Independence: Improving women’s access to paid employment and ensuring equal wage for equal work is of utmost importance.
  • Developing and resourcing national plans and policies to address violence against women.
    • Eg : Gender based budgeting has led to women centric development plans.
  • Improve system of collecting crime surveillance data on violence against women. Eg Safe cities scheme and using Nirbhaya Fund for better safety of women.
  • Capacity building and training to service providers and law enforcement officers to handle cases of violence against women. Eg Quick response on nationwide number for women safety 112.
  • Male Mediated Initiatives: Ensure male involvement in devising program for abusers.
  • Prevent recurrence of violence: Through early identification of women and children who are experiencing violence and providing appropriate referral and support
  • Promote egalitarian gender norms as part of life skills and comprehensive sexuality education curricula taught to young people.
  • Gender based surveys: Generate evidence on what works and on the magnitude of the problem by carrying out population-based surveys, or including violence against women in population-based demographic and health surveys, as well as in surveillance and health information systems.

Conclusion

For a long-term solution to ensure the safety of girls and gender equality, it is incumbent on society parents, teachers, classmates, friends and peers to rid young boys of the sexism and misogyny that are often embedded in this culture.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3. Account for the impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu 

Why this question:

The question aims to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the world.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and aims to examine the impact of the pandemic on the SDGs.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that besides having a devastating effect on Global Health, the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected almost all the SDGs.

Body:

To start with, explain briefly the SDGs and map the concerns posed by the pandemic that range from – health that has a significant place in the 2030 agenda (via SDGs) to education to climate change. Explain that in order to contain the pandemic, various countries have gone for lockdown affecting economic activity. Though everybody is feeling the pinch of a tottered economic activity, the people from lower socio-economic strata are finding it very hard and unaffordable. As the situation is today, hunger, unemployment and inequality stand exacerbated. Children and youth are getting deprived of quality education due to the closure of schools and colleges. The reports of domestic violence against women are on the rise. Suggest what needs to be done. Discuss the case of India.

Conclusion:

Conclude that to summarize, human health is inextricably linked to environment, ecosystems and biodiversity which in no case be allowed to get spoiled. It has become all the more imperative that in order to achieve SDGs, a population growth which is sustainable and which goes well with our environment, biodiversity and ecosystems be determined and defined.

Introduction

Amid the coronavirus pandemic, the SDGs are even more relevant today than ever before. The primary cost of the pandemic as seen in the loss of human lives is distressing, but the secondary effects on the global economy, on livelihoods and on sustainable development prospects are even more alarming. The International Monetary Fund estimates that our world has entered into a recession, the costs of the pandemic will be astronomical, with preliminary estimates placing it at a whopping US$2 trillion.

 Body

The coronavirus disaster undoubtedly infects the SDGs’ Agenda 2030 at the very core. Hence the pandemic poses a major threat of delaying the whole process, which was already facing tremendous hardships in its implementation in the first place due to issues of scarce financial resources and political will, technological impediments and monitoring loopholes.

covid_19_pandemic

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Sustainable Development Goals

  • Health: Although in the present scenario, SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being) acts as the linchpin that supersedes all the other development objectives across the world.
    • This pandemic has manifestly exposed the crisis in global health systems.
    • And while it is severely undermining prospects for achieving global health by 2030, critically it is having direct far-reaching effects on all the other SDGs.
  • Poverty: Preliminary projections from the UN system indicate that COVID-19 could lead to the first increase in global extreme poverty in over 20 years, since the Asian financial crisis of 1981.
    • It could push 40 to 60 million people into extreme poverty and could double the incidence of food insecurity in the world.
    • In the worst scenario of a 20 percent economic decline, 419 million more people would be living in extreme poverty on less than $1.90 a day.
  • Marginalization: Quite inadvertently, marginal groups are more vulnerable than ever – women, migrants, informal workers, refugees, indigenous tribes, etc.
    • This in essence comes in direct conflict with the SDGs’ social-inclusivity sermon of “leaving no one behind”.
  • Education: UNESCO estimates that some 25 billion students are affected by this pandemic, posing a serious challenge to the attainment of Goal 4, Quality Education.
  • Unemployment: According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) some 25 million people could lose their jobs with those in informal employment suffering most from lack of social protection during this pandemic. Unfortunately, these might just be the tip of the iceberg.
  • Interlinkage: Crucially, in many parts of the world, the pandemic and its effects are being exacerbated by the crisis in delivering on clean water and sanitation targets (Goal 6), weak economic growth and the absence of decent work (Goal 8), pervasive inequalities (Goal 10), and above all, a crisis in poverty (Goal 1) and food security (Goal 2).
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has temporarily reduced pollution, emissions and exploitation of resources as a result of lockdown. But this should not be a moment of reprieve. Rather, recovery efforts need to build a new reality, embedded in sustainability.
  • Even at this stage in this deadly pandemic, we cannot deny the fact that the crisis is fast teaching us, as global citizens, the utmost value in being each other’s keeper, in working to leave no one behind, and in prioritising the needs of the most vulnerable in society.

Build Back Better

  • Priority must be given to placing vulnerable populations at the center of social policy reform packages in the short- and medium-term, including by establishing systems for universal health care and universal social protection.
  • In the long-term, the note suggests that countries invest in strengthening social protection and enhancing emergency preparedness to minimize the impact of future health emergencies and enhance resilience of economies.
  • Nations must start investing in reducing the digital divide, observing that digital communication has played a key role in enabling social distancing.
  • The need of the hour is to bring together development agencies, national governments, civil society and the private sector in a global effort to protect the livelihoods and lives of the poorest of the poor in the Global South

Conclusion

Although the Covid-19 disaster will delay the timeline for the global goals, the SDGs have to stand the test of time to see how global partnerships in the future can make Agenda 2030 successful. While readjusting to the changing world orders after this pandemic, it is of utmost importance for nations to strive toward the SDGs with a renewed vigor, capitalizing on the fact that this huge challenge in the present is an immense learning opportunity for the entire human race in the future.

 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4. Do you think the current pandemic poses the right opportunity to put India’s agri-marketing and PDS system on a more efficient path? Examine.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The author Ashok Gulati brings to us a detailed overview of the opportunity that the current pandemic has brought to the PDS system of the country.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the opportunities that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the PDS system and India’s agri marketing system and what needs to be done to encash the same.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the existing structure of Indian agri markets and the PDS system.

Body:

To start with, highlight the fact that despite initial disruptions in supply lines, India has somehow managed to feed its large population of 1.37 billion. There have been no large-scale food riots and no major flaring up of food prices for consumers. Talk about the large scale reforms in agri-marketing as well as in the public distribution system (PDS) that are required. Take hints from the article and explain the dos and don’ts. Highlight the significance of the opportunity that India has right now in this sector and what Indian policy makers should actually do.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Despite initial disruptions in supply lines, India has somehow managed to feed its large population of 1.37 billion. There have been no large-scale food riots and no major flaring up of food prices for consumers.

Body

The nationwide lockdown resulted in a collapse in demand, forcing farmers to throw away, re-plough or feed their cattle with perishable produce like vegetables, flowers, poultry and milk.

 

Reforms needed Agri-Marketing and PDS system

  • Market reforms: It is time to open channels for direct buying from farmers/farmer producer organisations (FPOs). Any registered large buyer, be it processors or retail groups or exporters must be encouraged by providing them with a license, that is valid all over India.
    • Eg: Karnataka passed an ordinance to amend the APMC Act. With this ordinance farmers will no longer be bound to the more than 160 APMC markets in the State and they can sell their produce to private players as well.
  • Exempt from cess/tax: Farmer produce should be exempted from any market fee and other cesses as they will not be using the services of the APMC market yards.
  • E-NAM can flourish if grading and dispute settlement mechanisms are put in place.
  • Private mandis with modern infrastructure need to be promoted in competition with APMCs.
  • Another reform pertains to the possibility of another legislation to promote contract farming and linking it to futures commodity markets.
  • Public Distribution System: On the PDS front, we need to move towards cash transfers that can be withdrawn from anywhere in the country.
    • Government is also in process of implementing One Nation One Ration Card that will help the migrants immensely in accessing their benefits all over India and have food security during the time of crisis.
  • Stimulus to Agriculture: It is an opportune moment to strengthen the farm gate infrastructure.
    • Laws to bring in Contract farming can help establish forward and backward linkage for agriculture and realisation of better farm incomes. It will help with modern technology adoption as well.
    • Bee-keeping and fisheries (aquaculture and mariculture) needs to be given impetus to ensure alternate sources of income during non-agricultural season.
    • Infrastructure such as cold storage and Kisan Rail will help in preservation of perishables and maintain quality during transport.
  • The Essential Commodities Act, 1955, that controls trade and commerce of certain commodities will be amended to help realize better prices for farmers by letting them choose their buyers and through deregulation of some crop items.

Significance of opportunity in India’s agri-market and food sector

  • Growth and prosperity: Agriculture still engages India’s largest workforce, with nearly 48% population.
    • And it may be the only sector that registers a respectable growth this year as almost all other major sectors may plummet into negative territory.
    • This will help absorb the shock of the coronavirus on extreme poverty and malnutrition.
    • With majority migrant workers returning back to their native states, it is time to focus on “Doubling farm income” with even more vigour.
  • APMC and market reforms: APMCs’ jurisdiction would be limited to their respective markets and they can levy cess only on transactions within the market area.
    • Private entities can set up their markets/market committees, which will attract investment in infrastructure and offer farmers competitive remuneration.
    • The new unified trading licence will let traders participate in markets all over the state and they can buy directly from farmers without having to pay APMCs a fee.
  • Providing cash in the hands of farmers will help create more demand as the economists have been suggesting, and for the farmers it will also provide them with some resources to plan for the sowing of paddy crop in the days to come.
  • Better inter-state movement of agricultural commodities will help in creating linkage between deficit and surplus states. Meanwhile it’ll help revive the supply chains and the ancillary activities in the process (transport, warehousing etc.)

Conclusion

The farm sector has been the worst hit and the same time also the most essential and crucial sector of the economy that needs handholding. The major problem in agriculture is not production but marketing. The APMC markets are monopolistic, rent-seeking, they charge high rates of commission. Thus, the marketing reforms will provide betters avenues for farmers to sell their produce and at the same time ensure food security for Indians, especially those in the lower strata.

 

Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5. Analyze in detail the provisions for the agricultural sector under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan that was launched recently.(250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times 

Why this question:

The third tranche of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan has listed measures to deal with critical infrastructure gaps and long-pending governance issues that plague the farm sector. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straight forward and aims to assess the benefits that the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan would render to the agriculture sector in the country.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the coming of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan into action.

Body:

To start with, explain the provisions given by the finance minister to the agri sector in the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. Straight away discuss the provisions made for the agri sector in the tranch. Explain the benefits that it would render and how it would help the sector become self-reliant. Point out to challenges if any while suggesting solutions to the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The recent fund allocation of Rs 1 lakh crore under the third tranche of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan underpins the importance of infrastructural development in the agriculture sector and allied activities, especially in local supply systems.

This fund comes as a breather for the farmer producer organisations (FPOs), farmer cooperative societies, agri-entrepreneurs and start-ups which want to integrate and access these facilities within the vicinity of their farmgate and aggregation points.

Body

Provisions for agricultural sector under Atmanirbhar Bharat

  • Food Enterprises: The announcement of Rs 10,000 crore funds for Food Micro Enterprises, which will benefit 2 lakh micro enterprises/ startups is a welcome step.
    • This will strengthen the food micro-enterprises/startups who are facing multiple issues like limited access to capital, lean workforce, vulnerability to sudden market changes, low-risk appetite and high dependency on supply chains.
    • These enterprises can go global with their specialty products such as saffron in Kashmir, ragi in Karnataka and Makhana in Bihar.
  • Agri-Infrastructure: The agricultural cooperative societies, farmer producer organizations (FPOs), and start-ups will be given funds worth ₹1 lakh crores to encourage farm-gate infrastructure.
    • This is to develop cold chain storage and other post-harvest management infrastructure at the farm gate and aggregation points.
  • Fisheries: The fishermen will be allocated ₹20,000 crores under PM Matsya Sampada Yojana. This is being done to boost the fishery segment. The fish production is expected to grow more than 70 lakh tonnes over 5 years with this fund allocation.
  • Livestock: To ensure 100% vaccination of cattle, buffalos, sheep, goats, and pigs, a fair amount of ₹13,000 crores has been allocated.
    • Animal husbandry infrastructure has gained a ₹15,000 crore under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Scheme.
  • Medicinal plants: To carry out the efficient promotion of herbal cultivation, ₹4,000 crores have been allotted.
    • It is expected to boost herbal cultivation in an area of 10 lakh hectare in 2 years.
  • Bee-keeping: The beekeeping segment has been assigned ₹500 crores. This will augment income sources especially for the tribal people who live on minor forest produce. Skill development in bee-keeping has also been a major focus in recent times.
  • Market reform: The Essential Commodities Act, 1955, will be amended to de-regulate cereals, edible oils, oilseeds, pulses, onion, and potato.
    • Reforms in the Agri-Marketing are to be given serious concern to provide adequate choice to farmers for selling their produce at fair prices.

Shortcomings

  • Repackaging of existing schemes: The third tranche of reforms for Agri-sector was replete with additions to existing schemes or reiterations of the government’s commitment to certain programmes.
  • No immediate relief to farmers: The missing item from the third tranche were measures which could provide immediate relief to farmers that have been hit hard by the curbs on movement and transport of goods. There is no component of compensation in the package either.
  • Agri-Economists like Ashok Gulati have criticised government for not raising the PM-KISAN money to 10,000 to aid farmers for the coming cropping season.

Conclusion

There is a greater need to create a better trade facilitation framework which can help farmers to make effective decisions for selling his produce and support during the entire transaction. Therefore, the need of the hour is to develop infrastructure, which will not only support the local supply systems but also help capitalise on high demand, high price markets at distant locations.

 

Topic:  Codes of Ethics

6. Give some examples to illustrate violations of Codes of Ethics.(250 words)

Reference:  Second Administrative reforms Commission Ethics in Governance (Fourth Report)

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of codes of ethics.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the importance of codes of ethics in general and illustrate one example that depicts violation of codes of ethics.

Directive:

Illustrate – A similar instruction to ‘explain’ whereby you are asked to show the workings of something, making use of definite examples and statistics if appropriate to add weight to your explanation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what you understand by codes of ethics.

Body:

The question is based on giving illustrations and may vary from student to student. One is expected to quote relevant examples that portray the violations of codes of ethics. Using suitable illustration discuss how often the codes of ethic are violated and in what way they need to be resolved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to recognize the importance of codes of ethics.

Introduction

Ethics is a set of standards that helps guide conduct. The 2nd ARC noted that, the inculcation of values facilitating the subordination of the self to a larger, societal good, and engendering a spirit of empathy for those in need of ameliorative state interventions are not skills which could be easily imbibed after joining the civil services. Such attitudes need nurturing over not merely individual life-times, but through successive generations – the ‘right’ ethos takes long to evolve.

Body

Code of Ethics: A code of ethics is a set of principles and rules used by individuals and organizations to govern their decision-making process, as well as to distinguish right from wrong. These codes are often more complex and contextual than simple morality, acknowledging specific situations and providing guidance.

The current set of ‘enforceable norms’  for civil servants are ‘Conduct Rules’, typified by the Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules – 1964 and analogous rules applicable to members of the All India Services or employees of various State Governments.

A code of ethics would cover broad guiding principles of good behaviour and governance while a more specific code of conduct should, in a precise and unambiguous manner, stipulate a list of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and action.

The key elements of such a Code are:

  • Compliance with the Law
  • Relations with the Public
  • Limitations on the Acceptance of Gifts, Rewards
  • Hospitality and Discounts
  • Avoiding Conflicts of Interest
  • Limitations on Political Activities
  • Use of Official Property and Services

Violation of Code of Ethics

  • Negligence: A public official not performing his professional responsibilities or performs them in a delinquent manner, causing damage to the state or community. Eg Not fulfilling the services promised under the citizen charter (as it is not backed by law).
  • An officer accepting gifts from businessmen for awarding contract or benefiting indirectly through a sponsored holiday to officer’s family is violation of code of ethics.
  • If Political ideologies of an officer interfere with his working or in the administration would lead to violation of code of ethics. Eg: A civil servant sharing picture with a political party leader and posting it on social media platform.
  • Another example for instance, if an employee working in an organization for Banning Plastic and protecting Environment uses single use plastic himself would be tantamount to violation of code of ethics.
  • Sir M Visveswaraya, on his last day of office went to the government vehicle given to him. However, after the formalities of last day returned back on his own as he thought that using the government resource while he was no longer under government service would be violating ethical code.
  • Officers or ministers not being responsive to the grievances of the people or delaying grants for the poor without legitimate reason is violation of ethical conduct while it may also be called as  illicit and corrupt practice.
  • Higher judiciary Judges taking up jobs after retirement is not barred or illegal. But it may raise suspicion upon the integrity of the judges. Eg Justice A K Sikri refused offer from government to nominate him to Commonwealth tribunal and withdrew his consent to the same.

Steps taken to improve ethical conduct in governance

  • Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules, 1964 was issued by Central Government to regulate the conduct of government employees. However, it does not lay down a broad code of ethics and values.
  • An initiative was attempted by the Department of Administrative Reforms of Government of India in 1997. They prepared a Code of Ethics for public services which was to prescribe standards of integrity and conduct that are to apply to public services.
  • In 2006 the Department Of Personnel drafted a Public Service Bill which enumerated fundamental values of Public Services, a Code of Ethics, a Management Code etc. with the objective of developing public services. The Bill intended to fulfil too many objectives and has not made any headway and seems to be in cold storage.
  • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission in its 4 th report in 2007, extensively covered the issues of ethics in public service, problems with the current bureaucratic structure and how to make it responsible to the public.

Conclusion

The system should promote role models and incorporate the process of disseminating best practices and exemplary actions of civil servants, ministers, judges  to the entire fraternity. Ethics audits to identify risks to the integrity of the most important processes must be done to uphhold ethical conduct in governance.

  

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. What are the elements which influence an individual’s political attitude? What weight will you assign to economic and psychological factors? Discuss.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is about ascertaining the factors that contribute to one’s political attitude. And one has to pay special emphasis on the economic and psychological factors.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the elements which influence an individual’s political attitude with special emphasis on economic and psychological factors. And conclude with how much weight you would give to these two factors.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what you understand by political attitudes.

Body:

Explain various factors that shape political attitude of an individual. Political attitudes are best understood based on the idea of political spectrum. Political spectrum is depiction of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative and reactionary views from left to right along a line. Discuss all factors in detail. Explain the effect of economic and psychological factors and suggest your opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction

Political Attitude means the beliefs and values which underpin the operation of a particular political system. These attitudes were seen as including knowledge and skills about the operation of the political system positive and negative judgments about the system. These attitudes determine how people participate, whom they vote for and which political parties they support.

Body

Elements Influencing Political Attitude

  • Family: Despite family disagreements and generation gaps, children tend to grow up and vote the way their parents do.
    • Families are generally the first, and often the most enduring, influence on young people’s developing political opinions.
    • As people grow older, other influences crisscross the family, and naturally their attitudes tend to diverge from those of their parents.
    • However, the influence still remains.
  • Religion: Religious beliefs often affect the way people vote. Religion is the faith of the people in values and beliefs.
    • Most of the religious leaders regard themselves as teachers and their followers usually attempt socialization of children schooling and socialization converts of all ages through preaching and religious services.
    • In USA the experiences of 1940s generally show that the Jewish voters are more likely to support democrats than are Catholics or Protestants.
    • The recent experiences have shown that the religious right has supported more conservative candidates (in USA) for public office in more favour of the Republican party than to the Democratic Party.
  • Peer Groups: Attitude formulation takes places due to peer groups. The way the peer groups behave that way only patterns of obedience and disobedience are decided.
    • The influence of peer groups becomes dominant when young people tend to become more independent of the influence of their parents.
    • The peer groups supplement the socialization function of the family and prepare an individual for more specific political roles.
  • School/College: Educational institutions provide individuals the knowledge of the political world and the role they are expected to play in political process of the nation.
    • Schools transmit the values and attitude of the society.
    • They play a crucial role in shaping their attitude about the unwritten rules of the game of politics.
    • College and university education may also bring in new values and help in the formation of radical political attitude.
  • Workplace: Political socialization also depends upon job, the workplace and the nature of employment.
    • Individuals identify themselves with a group and become sensitive to the norms of the group and evaluate its actions according to their opinion of what is good for the group and what it stands for.
    • One of the powerful socializing experiences for a worker or a laborer is participating in collective bargaining.

Impact of economic and psychological factors on political attitude

  • Psychological Factors: Political attitude formulation is a psychological concept as it is concerned with the society in general and with individual in particular.
    • The growth of the society is a social process like the growth of the child.
    • A child develops his attitude towards the authority and obedience as per the obedience pattern at family.
    • According to Easton and Dennis there are four stages in the process of political attitude formulation.
      • A child recognizes authority through particular individual such as parents, policemen and the president of the country.
      • There should be a differences made between private and public authority.
      • The understanding about impersonal political institutions such as national legislature, judiciary and voting behaviour is developed.
      • Distinction between political institution and person engaged in the activities associated with those institutions so that idealized images of particular persons such as the president or the congress.
    • Economic Factors: In most nations, there is no economy without a political system. This is because politics is a constant contest of ideas, and whoever rides into office each election cycle is able to project their ideas onto the economy. Hence, politics shapes the economic conditions of the country and vice versa.
      • Economic self-interest: Political scientists have analysed the role of economic factors on political attitudes of the population. Personal economic” self-interest” is a huge criterion that influences political attitudes.
      • Economic welfare: The class to which they belong has a huge influence on the political affiliations people have. For eg, members of the trade unions and associations are influenced by the “pro-worker” policies and will be aligned with such parties whose ideology matches with the same ( Higher minimum wages).
        • Poor will align towards communist / socialist ideology. He’ll vote for a party promising to get food, fertilizer and kerosene subsidy.
      • Income: The higher middle class and elite section would favour a pro-capitalist party, to ensure their welfare. Eg : This class would prefer lower taxes and more incentives for corporates. Indians during the 1950’s-60’s preferred socialism and with growing income came to support capitalism.

Conclusion

Political attitude describes the way you think or feel about our government and related social and economic issues. It can be said that, both social and economic factors have a major share in determining the political attitudes. The sum total of all the factors determine whether an individual is progressive, liberal, conservative, radical or reactionary.