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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 5 May 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. Can villages be a big part of the new growth story of India? Analyse in the context of ongoing pandemic situation.(250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times 

Why this question:

The article talks about   the prospects that Indian villages hold amidst the current crisis conditions.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain in what way Villages of India can have a bigger role to play in the new growth story.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present briefly the impact of the Corona pandemic on different aspects such as economy, polity and society of the country.

Body:

To start with highlight the positives of the rural India in general. Explain why the policy makers must make villages part of the growth story to help revive the economy. Discuss the positives and bring out the challenges and concerns associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The main takeaway from these fraught times is that corona virus is now an inextricable part of our lives for some time to come and we need to work around this. While we are proud of India’s achievements as an emerging economy, the grim reality is that a huge percentage of its workforce lives under the pressure of economic uncertainties. They live in harsh conditions in slums around industrial townships and megacities.

Body:

Government’s measures to alleviate the hardship:

  • As the third lockdown begins, the government has tried to ease things for people in several ways.
  • Many restrictions have been lifted in the orange and green zones.
  • Local administrations have been given the responsibility of deciding to what extent restrictions can be relaxed, depending on conditions in different areas.
  • the government has allowed the migrant labourers to go back home. Some of the shramik special trains have even reached their destinations.

Challenges faced by villages:

  • There are only a few opportunities for them in villages, which prompted them to move out of the village in the first place, often leaving behind their families, to brave the harsh conditions of cities.
  • They do this to make a life for themselves and support their families.
  • Cities cannot do without them, and yet, their plight remains understated.

Possible solutions:

  • The Covid-19 crisis seems to be an appropriate, even opportune, moment to revive India’s artisan traditions, handicrafts and also rural agro-industries.
  • This is the time for a renewed focus on the Make in India initiative. This may not generate jobs for everyone, but it will bring hope and long-term gain in rural India.
  • A village-focused approach will bring about a turnaround. They often have interesting cultures and traditions that do not find a place in cities.
  • There are many success stories about initiatives taken in our villages and mofussil towns

Way forward:

Cillage helps rework relationship between city and village:

  • As we embrace the knowledge era and focus on capacity building of rural youth, the opportunities in rural areas should, in principle, become higher than those in urban areas since the rural segment can now benefit from all three (agriculture, manufacturing and services) sectors of the economy.
  • In the knowledge era, with emphasis on capability and capacity building of rural youth in terms of holistic education, appropriate technology and enhanced livelihood, there is a possibility for a more balanced distribution of income as well as population.
  • This would need knowledge bridges to be built between cities and villages, and the creation of an ecosystem which has been conceptualised as a “cillage” — a synergistic combination of city and village.
  • Bridging the knowledge gap between a city and a village would also bridge the income gap between the two, and lead to a faster bridging of the gap between the average individual income in India and that in industrially advanced countries.
  • Developing a “cillage” ecosystem would need a rooted and integrated approach to holistic education and research, technology development and management, as well as technology-enabled rural livelihood enhancement.
  • Facilitating a number of new skills, technologies and support systems that can further leverage current capabilities of these people for starting a new enterprise would be important.
  • Immediate arrangements to facilitate their livelihood, and leveraging their present capabilities could help retain at least some of these people in villages.
  • Going forward, we should take knowledge activities to a higher level so that the products and services created by these people become more competitive. Looking at disruptive technologies for exploiting local opportunities should follow.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

2. NAM provides India a platform to be the torchbearer for smaller countries at multilateral platforms. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The article provides for a detailed examination of NAM as a platform and the significant position that it provides for India.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the significance of NAM and the role of India in the NAM platform; explain how it can be the torchbearer for smaller countries at multilateral platforms.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present briefly the importance of NAM.

Body:

Explain the role of NAM as an essential global grouping. Discuss the positives that the platform brings for smaller countries and explain the role that India can play to aid these countries. One can quote the current example of ongoing corona crisis.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Non-Aligned Movement is an idea that emerged in 1950. NAM is the second-largest platform globally in terms of country membership after the UN. It currently has more than 120 members. Azerbaijan is the president of the grouping from 2019-2022 and the meet is being organised under the leadership of President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev. The title of the summit is “We stand together against COVID-19”. Indian Prime minister Narendra Modi will participate in a video conference meeting of non-alignment movement (NAM) on COVID crisis.

Body:

Significance:

  • This is the first time PM Modi is taking part in a NAM meeting since taking 2014 when he first became the Prime Minister. The last time any Indian PM participated at Tehran NAM meet was 2012 with the then PM Manmohan Singh was present.
  • Both in 2016, 2018 summits of NAM, India was represented at Vice President level.
  • The last NAM Summit happened in 2019 in Azerbaijan, before that it was 2016 in Venezuela.

Importance of NAM for the countries:

  • NAM would help call upon the international community and the WHO to focus on building health-capacity in developing countries.
  • It could also ensure equitable, affordable and timely access to health products and technologies for all.
  • The NAM leaders announced creation of a task force to identify requirements of member countries through a common database reflecting their basic medical, social and humanitarian needs in the fight against COVID-19.
  • NAM can help promote global solidarity. NAM has often been the world’s moral voice. To retain this role, NAM must remain inclusive.
  • COVID-19 has shown limitations of the existing international system. In the post-COVID world, a new template of globalisation, based on fairness, equality, and humanity is needed.
  • NAM can help bring about the much needed international institutions that are more representative of today’s world

NAM’s authority is slowly eroding:

  • The end of cold war lead to unipolar world and now tending towards multi-polarity. The NAM is now reached irrelevance.
  • NAM could not push for reforms in the global bodies like UN, IMF, WTO. Thus, it has dissuaded many developing countries from pursuing it.
  • Disputes within the Global South countries. Example: India-Pak, Iran-Iraq. This has paved way for the blocs to enter.
  • Inability to find solution to the West-Asian crisis. Withdrawal of one of the founder members- Egypt, after the Arab Spring.
  • Most of the members are economically weak; hence they have no say in world politics or economy.

Other challenges faced by NAM:

  • NAM today has grown into a forum where developing nations could blame all their problems on the big powers.
  • It has become a platform for some of the world’s most despicable leaders to preen and posture.
  • NAM’s reason to exist ended in 1989, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Cold War. The world was left with a single superpower, the US, but quickly became multipolar, with China and India emerging as strong magnetic forces in their own right.

Way forward:

There are now new kinds of alignments, more likely to be defined by economics and geography than by ideology. To be aligned is now a virtue, a sign of good leadership. Countries, especially small ones, can and should aim for multiple alignments of their interests. There is now no country in the world that can claim to be non-aligned.

Conclusion:

India is a large and globalised economy with “big stakes in all parts of the world”. Its foreign policy must focus on a pragmatic assessment of India’s interests and the best means to secure them — including partnerships and coalitions — against current and potential threats. A newer, reformed NAM 2.0 can be looked at to continue NAM as our foreign policy.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

3.  The COVID-19 crisis has made virtual diplomacy- a new way of conducting international affairs. Elaborate on the benefits and disadvantages.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The article explains in what way Covid crisis can be turned into an opportunity to conduct diplomatic engagement online.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what the concept of virtual diplomacy is, its prospects for India in the present times and the coming future.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly, define what you understand by virtual diplomacy.

Body:

To start with explain the fact that the international community has been witnessing a drastic reduction in the diplomatic representation of governments and international organizations around the world. Explain that IT enabled diplomacy provides great opportunities for countries, especially the ones in transition. By using innovative ICT tools such as social media, e-services and open data platforms, foreign services can leapfrog and play a greater role on the international stage and thus enabling smaller countries to “punch above their weight” and earn a space at the same table with other strong international stakeholders. Discuss the concerns associated if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Virtual diplomacy refers to diplomacy carried out in a virtual fashion through the use of technology and the Internet, other than traditional face-to-face technology. At its broadest, the term ‘virtual diplomacy’ signifies the altered diplomacy associated with the emergence of a networked globe.   At   its   narrowest, the   term   encompasses   the   decision-making, coordination, communication, and practice of international relations as they are conducted with the aid of information and communications technologies.

Body:

The development of social media tools has changed the way diplomats interact with people, communities, non-governmental organizations and even foreign governments. Diplomats have quickly understood that Facebook, Twitter and other similar social media tools provide an opportunity to spread important information in a very fast manner and at almost no cost. The rise of social media has basically opened a new area for competition on the international stage. Foreign services are now competing for virtual influence on top of geopolitical influence, and one can imagine a scenario where virtual supremacy could someday be more important than geopolitical supremacy.  Social media has diplomatic clients all over the world and on all continents.

Advantages:

  • IT enabled diplomacy provides great opportunities for countries, especially the ones in transition.
  • By using innovative ICT tools such as social media, e-services and open data platforms, foreign services can leapfrog and play a greater role on the international stage.
  • Smaller states during the realization of their foreign policy face many challenges. The main challenge which limits the foreign policy execution of these states is the financial capacity. Digital diplomacy favors all kinds of states, but mostly small states.
  • It enables smaller countries to “punch above their weight” and earn a space at the same table with other strong international stakeholders.
  • e-diplomacy is an easy and cheap tool for other purposes, too: responding to disasters, gathering information and managing relationships. Some diplomats also use Twitter to communicate among themselves.
  • International practice   shows   that   competent   use   of   digital diplomacy tools can bring big dividends to those who invest in it.  Moreover, digital diplomacy does not always require financial investments. On the contrary, it is often aimed at reducing costs.
  • Social media enable diplomats to observe events, gather information, and identify key influencers. They also provide channels to influence beyond the traditional audience. They can help in consultation process, policy formulation and help to share ideas.

Disadvantages:

  • Implementation of virtual diplomacy has its risks. Data protection and security, infrastructure set-up and institutional frameworks are issues countries should think about very carefully.
  • The international diplomatic community has already had a negative experience with the leaking of US State Department cables, which endangered the cooperation between different international players. Nevertheless, modern technology offers possibilities which could mitigate the risks.
  • Obviously, we should not expect virtual diplomacy to totally replace traditional diplomacy.
  • Mutual trust, which is probably the most important concept in international cooperation, can be built only by personal interaction.
  • Diplomatic missions play an important role in promoting economic and trade ties and people-to-people contact. Public diplomacy is critical in strengthening cultural and educational exchanges.

Conclusion:

Virtual diplomacy is being embraced in different forms, by an increasing number of countries and international organizations and it is gaining more and more ground with respect to traditional diplomacy. Nevertheless, it’s without any doubt that virtual and traditional diplomacy could be compliment goods, economically speaking.

Case study: One of the best examples of IT replacing some aspects of the traditional diplomacy is the Virtual Embassy of the United States to Teheran, Iran. It is a website that was developed by the US State Department after the closure of the US Embassy in Tehran. The Virtual US Embassy is no different than any other US embassy website. The significance of this project is that it opens up a new diplomatic space – the virtual one. For the first time in diplomatic history, a country is using the Internet to establish a virtual presence in a particular part of the world. The concept of a “virtual embassy” has great potential and that such an online presence can serve as much more than a source of information about politics, economy, trade or cultural affairs between countries. A virtual embassy can serve as a platform to provide e-services to people from the sending and receiving states. This innovative approach inevitably does not have the full functionality of a traditional embassy or consulate but it is the next best thing when such an embassy or consulate does not exist.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. The new multilateralism in the coming future must place the common interests of humanity at the forefront. Discuss, also highlight the role that India can play amidst such circumstances.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The article talks about the need for having “interests of humanity” at the centre of the agenda of newer multilateral world. Prime minister of India in the recent G-20 summit said that human beings were needed to put in the centre of global prosperity and cooperation. He also called on the leaders to help usher in a new globalization, for the collective well-being of the humanity. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the coming of new multilateralism and the need to recognise that the interests of humanity to be put at the forefront.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present brief context of the question.

Body:

To start with one can highlight India’s view towards collective effort and its strong desire to unify the nations. Discuss the prospects of new multilateralism. Highlight the need to have interests of humanity at the forefront. Explain challenges if any. Present the possible role that India can play amidst these scenarios.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India can take lead in bringing the world together.

Introduction:

The COVID-19 pandemic has effectively exposed flaws in multilateral structures and highlighted the lacunae in national capacities, particularly in healthcare. Multilateralism has suffered retrenchment. Given its scale and unpredictable impact, it has the potential to shake the trust in Multilateralism and its institutions, but that shall be a devastating mistake.

Body:

Current challenges/concerns associated with the multilateral institutions:

The UN Security Council (UNSC) must be faulted for its egregious lack of action in March 2020 when China held the rotating post of the president.

The withdrawal of nearly $500 million worth of annual voluntary funding by the USA to the World Health Organization (WHO) is a debatable move, notwithstanding the global consensus on the WHO’s China-bias.

The major institutions such as UNSC, G20, G7 and the EU were inert

The possible role that multilevel governance and multilateralism would play in post COVID-19 world:

  • to enhance coordination on macro-economic policies, and take well-focused fiscal and monetary measures on both sides of supply and demand in an effort to curb recession, create jobs, protect livelihoods and stabilize the global economy.
  • to sustain coordination in the UN, the G20 and other multilateral frameworks to keep up secure and smooth functioning of global industrial and supply chains, and defend the multilateral trading regime with the WTO as the cornerstone.
  • to work for making development the centrepiece of the global macro policy agenda, and expedite the delivery of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • to champion the approach of consultation and cooperation for shared benefits in governance, take the lead in advancing global governance reform along the right direction.
  • to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests and space for development not just for ourselves but also for all other emerging market and developing countries.
  • The multilateral organizations should offer trade unions and social partners in general the space and impetus necessary to participate in democratic and transparent multilateral decision-making processes.
  • It must also offer them the space to demand enhanced policy coherence, improved enforcement and better accountability.

Role that India can play amidst such circumstances:

  • India enjoys good relations with multiple powers and is well-regarded across the developing world.
  • With excellent long-term economic prospects in the decades ahead, a confident India appears fully capable of absorbing the shocks of the pandemic and striding forth to engage a world riven by trade wars and ideological contestation.
  • Despite hardships, India can, and must, take the lead in bringing the world together to practice a new multilateralism that places the common interests of humanity above narrow national interests.
  • As the world’s largest producer and exporter of cost-effective generic drugs, India’s readiness to ship the anti-malarial drug hydroxychloroquine to fight COVID-19 to others is a “Good Samaritan” act in consonance with the ethos of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”.
  • India is also in the race to produce a vaccine. If China is a “factory to the world”, India has the potential to be a “pharmacy to the world”.
  • It can even take on a new and well-deserved moniker, that of vishwa vaidya (global physician). This provides an opportunity to promote ayurveda, which complements yoga.

Immediate measures needed:

  • There is still a chance for a coordinated push under the auspices of the G20 or the International Monetary Fund.
  • Jointly orchestrated monetary and fiscal policies would provide not just immediate stimulus but also a boost in confidence, as would an agreement to reverse the protectionist policies of the past few years.
  • A mutual ceasefire in the trade war and a return to multilateral trade negotiations would directly boost economic activity by restoring confidence and spurring investment.
  • It would show that the international community is still capable of coming together in meaningful ways to fight a global crisis.

Conclusion:

Taken together, joint action to tackle the pandemic, manage multiple economic shocks, and end the trade war would both limit the severity of the downturn and accelerate the pace of the subsequent recovery. Until recently, restoring multilateral cooperation and rebuilding confidence in the institutions that USA has torn down was a noble objective. Now, it is an urgent and near-existential one.

 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. India and its neighborhood- relations.

5.  critically examine the impact of algal blooms on the economies and societies of countries surrounding the Arabian Sea.(250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint 

Why this question:

The article talks about New study, entitled Ecosystem state change in the Arabian Sea fuelled by the recent loss of snow over the Himalayan- Tibetan plateau region and brings out insights of the impact of it.

Key demand of the question:

One must present a critical examination of the impact of algal blooms on the economies and societies of countries surrounding the Arabian Sea.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

From over almost two decades there is exponential spread of tiny plankton i.e. Noctiluca scintillans in the Arabian sea.

Body:

To start with explain what is Algal bloom, Algal bloom is the rapid increase of algae in the fresh and marine waters which depletes the supply of oxygen leading to the death of marine life. This rapid spread of algal bloom has negative implications on the countries around the Arabian Sea. Discuss then the implications of it on the countries surrounding Arabian sea are India, Yemen, Oman, Iran, Srilanka, Maldives etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that thus countries surrounding the Arabian sea have far reaching economical and societal implications due to the massive growth of algal blooms.

Introduction:

An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. Algal blooms may occur in freshwater as well as marine environments. Blooms which can injure animals or the ecology are called “harmful algal blooms(HAB)”. Harmful Algal Bloom can lead to fish die-offs, cities cutting off water to residents, or states having to close fisheries.

The new study, entitled Ecosystem state change in the Arabian Sea fueled by the recent loss of snow over the Himalayan- Tibetan plateau region, is an unusually all-encompassing snapshot of the interconnected impacts of climate change.

Body:

Linkage between global warming and algal blooms:

  • According to the study, global warming has exerted a disproportionately strong influence on the Eurasian land surface, causing a steady decline in snow cover [in the Himalayas].
  • This has disrupted “winter convective mixing” which occurs when cold winter winds blow over the Arabian Sea, driving the surface waters down, which are in turn replaced by nutrient rich waters from below.
  • That process allows photosynthetic phytoplankton – the basic building block of our ocean food chain to thrive, along with all the fish species that eventually result in the seafood bounty so many of us rely on.

Effects of Algal Bloom:

  • On economies:
    • HAB events adversely affect commercial and recreational fishing, tourism, and valued habitats, creating a significant impact on local economies and the livelihood of coastal residents.
    • Economic concerns associated with HABs include increased drinking-water treatment costs, loss of recreational revenue, loss of aquacultural and fisheries revenue, and livestock sickness or fatalities.
    • Taste-and-odor compounds are of particular concern to drinking-water suppliers because of customer dissatisfaction with malodorous drinking water.
    • Affects navigation due to increased turbidity, thus impacting the shipping.
    • Case study: The stunning growth in Noctiluca “blooms” has calamitous implications for the economies and societies that surround the Arabian Sea. According to Columbia’s in-house The Earth Institute, “In Oman, desalination plants, oil refineries and natural gas plants are forced to scale down operations because they are choked by Noctiluca blooms, and the jellyfish that swarm to feed on them. The resulting pressure on the marine food supply, and economic security may also have fueled the rise in piracy in countries like Yemen and Somalia.
  • On Societies:
    • Exposure to algal toxins may occur through consumption of tainted water, fish, or shellfish; recreational activities; or inhalation of aerosolized toxins.
    • Algal toxins are known to cause illness immediately (hours to days) after exposure.
    • In addition, several algal toxins are believed to be carcinogens or to promote tumor growth, although more research on the effects of long-term exposure is needed.
  • On ecology:
    • Algal Blooms restrict the penetration of sunlight resulting in death of aquatic plants, and hence restricts the replenishment of oxygen.
    • The primary consumers like small fish are killed due to oxygen deprivation caused by algal blooms.
    • Death of primary consumers adversely affects the food chain and leads to the destruction of higher life forms.
    • Loss of coral reefs: Occurs due to decrease in water transparency (increased turbidity).
  • Loss of fresh water lakes:
    • Eutrophication eventually creates detritus layer in lakes and produces successively shallower depth of surface water.
    • Eventually the water body is reduced into marsh whose plant community is transformed from an aquatic environment to recognizable terrestrial
  • New species invasion:
    • Eutrophication may cause the ecosystem competitive by transforming the normal limiting nutrient to abundant level. This cause shifting in species composition of ecosystem.
  • Human health:
    • exposure to Cyanobacteria or their toxins may produce allergic reactions such as skin rashes, eye irritations and respiratory symptoms.
    • The most likely pathway to exposure for humans is through accidental ingestion or inhalation during recreational activities in lakes, rivers and bays.
  • A bloom often results in a colour change in the water. Algal blooms can be any colour, but the most common ones are red or brown. These blooms are commonly referred to as red or brown tides.

Impacts on India:

  • The stunning growth in Noctiluca “blooms” has calamitous implications for the economies and societies that surround the Arabian Sea.
  • The study indicates that countries like India now face an unavoidable reckoning, as the melting of Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers cannot be declined.
  • They are central to our weather, food and health security, and feed the rivers that are integral to our culture and identity.

Measures to mitigate eutrophication:

  • Treating Industrial effluents domestic sewage to remove nutrient-rich sludge through wastewater processing. Using tertiary sewage treatment methods to remove phosphate and nitrate before discharging the effluent into rivers and lakes
  • Riparian buffer: Interfaces between a flowing body of water and land created near the waterways, farms, roads, etc. in an attempt to filter pollution.
  • programs to treat wastewater, reduce the overuse of fertilizers in agriculture and reducing the bulk flow of runoff can be effective for reducing severe algal bloom
  • Nitrogen testing & modelling: N-Testing is a technique to find the optimum amount of fertilizer required for crop plants. It will reduce the amount of nitrogen lost to the surrounding area.
  • Encouraging organic farming.
  • Reduction in nitrogen emission from vehicles and power plants.
  • Reducing the use of phosphates as builders in detergents
  • Aerating lakes and reservoirs to prevent oxygen depletion particularly during algal blooms
  • Further, there is a need to monitor the growth of algal bloom using Space technology.

 

The algal blooms are threatening food-chains in the regions surrounding Arabian sea. Therefore, countries have to act now, to escape the growing crisis.

 

Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Discuss the importance of leadership competencies such as equity and efficiency for effective public administration apart from qualitative aspects of ethics and aptitude.(250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint   

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain importance of leadership competencies such as equity and efficiency for effective public administration.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that Ethos and Ethics depicts qualitative aspect of decision making whereas Equity and Efficiency depicts quantitative ones.

Body:

Define how for effective public administration both qualitative and quantitative aspects become quintessential. Give examples/present a case study to justify your stand better and highlight the need for leadership qualities such as efficiency and equity in a public administrator to be successful.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of these values in effective public administration.

Introduction:

Leadership can be defined as the ability of the management to make sound decisions and inspire others to perform well. It is the process of directing the behavior of others towards achieving a common goal. In short, leadership is getting things done through others.

Ethical leadership is a form of leadership in which individuals demonstrate conduct for the common good that is acceptable and appropriate in every area of their life. It is directed by respect for ethical beliefs and values and for the dignity and rights of others

Body:

Importance of leadership competencies such as equity and efficiency for effective public administration: The government without the support of able public administrators is like a vehicle without wheels.

  • Equity:
    • Public administration is significantly different from the management of private-sector organizations.
    • While the public sector is authorized and controlled largely by law, its mandate is ultimately the collective public good, and it has a long-term horizon.
    • The private sector uses the market as its source of creation and control, the customer as its focus, and has a short-term horizon.
    • The duties of public administrators are multifaceted and often very complex.
    • Public administrators around the world are under increasing pressures to perform and provide quality services with ever-fewer resources and face additional stress emanating from increasing global economic, social, political, and cultural integration.
    • Meeting the demands of public administration requires a unique combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours, commonly referred to as competencies.
    • Decisions and solutions should be made in a manner that takes care of not only the short-term but also middle- to long-term interests of the citizens and the people concerned.
    • Proper analysis of the pros and cons of the alternatives is necessary before a decision is taken. Efforts should be put in to collect the relevant data for decision-making.
    • A public administrator should be able to sift through a large set of information, break down complex issues into smaller problems, identify critical elements for decision-making and find solutions to problems. In times of conflict, public interest should guide the administrator in decision-making.
  • Efficiency:
    • Being ready for change and willing to redesign and innovate in the public delivery systems is an important characteristic of an effective public administrator.
    • They should be on a lookout for situations where innovations can be made to the existing public delivery systems.
    • Use of technology in bringing about change/innovation, in rigorous data analysis for decision-making, in forecasting of the impact of the decisions and in monitoring the effectiveness of the public systems is essential for successful implementation of change.
    • Public administrators need to empower their officials and team members, listen to their viewpoints, be open to new ideas and counterpoints, encourage out-of-the-box thinking, share information with team members.
    • They must understand the power dynamics between team members and inspire them to achieve the goals set before them. In order to inspire the team, an administrator should lead by example; be a role model; and establish a culture of openness, honesty and integrity.

Challenges faced in displaying leadership competencies:

  • Often the pressures and constraints on public administrators are very high.
  • They should be able to work under tremendous stress/adversity and demonstrate decisiveness when under pressure or faced with uncertainty.
  • They should be able to manage the inherent complexity and uncertainty that exists in the work of a public administrator.
  • They should be resilient in times of failures or great difficulty and should have the will to keep working even when things are not very conducive for action.

Ways to improve the leadership competencies:

  • Development of training modules around these competencies should lead to better return on investment and will make training programmes more useful for public administrators.
  • The set of competencies identified can also be used to appraise the performance of public administrators.
  • Officers who exhibit such behaviours while performing their duties may have a higher chance of producing better results.
  • The list of behaviours presented here can help officers understand possible reasons for their failure and in determining remedial steps.
  • Appraising agencies may go through the competency inventory, evaluate and provide feedback to the officers on how often they display each of the behaviours reported within respective competencies.

Conclusion:

A strong ethical leader has four important characteristics – Values, Vision, Voice and Virtue. The main goal of an exemplary leader is to tread the path of ethical behaviour and inspire his/her peers, co-workers also to cultivate and use ethical behaviour.