Topics Covered: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
Research & Development (R&D) Statistics and Indicators 2019-20 report
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: Key findings, performance of India and significance of these findings.
Context: R&D Statistics and Indicators 2019-20 is based on the national S&T survey 2018 brought out by the National Science and Technology Management Information (NSTMIS), Department of Science and Technology (DST).
The report captures the R&D landscape of the country through various Input-Output S&T Indicators in the form of Tables and graphs. These pertain to Investments in national R&D, R&D investments by Government and Private sector; R&D relationship with economy (GDP), Enrolment of S&T personnel, Manpower engaged in R&D, Outrun of S&T personnel, papers published, patents and their international S&T comparisons.
- India’s gross expenditure in R&D has tripled between 2008 & 2018 driven mainly by Govt sector and scientific publications have risen placing the country internationally among the top few.
- With the rise in publication, the country is globally at the 3rd position on this score as per the NSF database, 3rd in the number of Ph.D. in science & engineering.
- The number of researchers per million population has doubled since 2000. It has increased to 255 in 2017 from 218 in 2015 and 110 in 2000.
- Women participation in extramural R&D projects has increased significantly to 24% in 2016-17 from 13% in 2000-01 due to various initiatives undertaken by the Government in S&T sector.
- India’s per capita R&D expenditure has increased to PPP $ 47.2 in 2017-18 from PPP $ 29.2 in 2007-08.
- India spent 0.7% of its GDP on R&D in 2017-18, while the same among other developing BRICS countries was Brazil 1.3%, Russian Federation 1.1%, China 2.1% and South Africa 0.8%.
- India is ranked at 9th position in terms of Resident Patent Filing activity in the world.
- According to WIPO, India’s Patent Office stands at the 7th position among the top 10 Patent Filing Offices in the world.