Topics Covered: Indigenization and development of new technology, Biotechnology related issues.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: How it works, significance and concerns.
Context: Researchers from Tamil Nadu have developed a vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 through ‘reverse vaccinology’.
Previously, Reverse vaccinology has been used for developing vaccinations for meningococcal and staphylococcal infections.
What is reverse vaccinology?
- Reverse vaccinology defines the process of antigen discovery starting from genome information.
- This is done with the aid of computers without culturing microorganism.
- The process includes comparative in silico analyses of multiple genome sequences in order to identify conserved antigens within a heterogeneous pathogen population and identification of antigens that are unique to pathogenic isolates but not present in commensal strains.
- In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets are integrated into a selection process that yields a short list of candidate antigens to be tested in animal models, thus reducing the costs and time of downstream analyses.
Finding vaccine targets quickly and efficiently.
Only proteins can be targeted using this process. Whereas, conventional vaccinology approaches can find other biomolecular targets such as polysaccharides.
Sources: the Hindu.