Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims:
1. Khongjom Day.
2. What are deep nudes?
GS Paper : 1
Topics Covered: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: About Khudai Khidmatgars and the massacre, implications of the massacre.
Why in News?
Its 90 years for Peshawar’s Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre.
- The massacre was perpetrated by British soldiers against non-violent protesters of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement on April 23, 1930.
Who were the Khudai Khidmatgars?
The Khudai Khidmatgar was a non-violent movement against British occupation of the Indian subcontinent.
- It was led by Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a Pashtun freedom fighter, in the North-West Frontier Province.
- Over time, the movement acquired a more political colour, leading to the British taking notice of its growing prominence in the region.
- Following the arrest of Khan and other leaders in 1929, the movement formally joined the Indian National Congress after they failed to receive support from the All-India Muslim League.
- Members of the Khudai Khidmatgar were organised and the men stood out because of the bright red shirts they wore as uniforms, while the women wore black garments.
Why did the Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre happen?
- Abdul Ghaffar Khan and other leaders of the Khudai Khidmatgar were arrested on April 23, 1930 by British police after he gave a speech at a gathering in the town of Utmanzai in the North-West Frontier Province.
- Khan’s arrest spurred protests in neighbouring towns, including Peshawar.
- Protests spilled into the Qissa Khwani Bazaar in Peshawar on the day of Khan’s arrest.
- British soldiers entered the market area to disperse crowds that had refused to leave. In response, British army vehicles drove into the crowds, killing several protesters and bystanders.
What was the aftermath of the Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre?
- The British ramped up the crackdown on Khudai Khidmatgar leaders and members following the Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre.
- In response, the movement began involving young women in its struggle against the British, a decision in line with tactics adopted by revolutionaries across the undivided India. Women were able to move undetected with more ease than men.
- According to accounts by Khudai Khidmatgar activists, the British subjected members of the movement to harassment, abuse and coercive tactics adopted elsewhere in the subcontinent. This included physical violence and religious persecution. Following the recruitment of women in the movement, the British also engaged in violence, brutality and abuse of women members.
In August 1931, the Khudai Khidmatgar aligned themselves with the Congress party, forcing the British to reduce the violence they were perpetrated on the movement.
The Khudai Khidmatgar opposed Partition, a stance that many interpreted as the movement not being in favour of the creation of the independent nation of Pakistan. Post 1947, the Khudai Khidmatgar slowly found their political influence decreasing to such an extent that the movement and the massacre 90 years ago in the Qissa Khwani Bazaar has been wiped out from collective memory.
- Who were called red shirts during the freedom struggle?
- Contributions of Abdul Ghaffar Khan to the freedom movement.
- When did Khudai Khidmatghars merged with the Congress party?
- What was their response to the partition of India?
Sources: Indian Express.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
What to study?
For Prelims: Overview of Articles 164 and 171, Section 151A of RPA.
For Mains: Options before the incumbent CM and legal hurdles.
What’s the issue?
Maharashtra CM Uddhav Thackeray may end up losing his seat if he is not elected to the Legislative Council of the state before May 24th.
- He took the oath of his office on November 28, 2019 without being a member of either the State legislature or council.
- But, he will have to get elected to either of the houses of the state legislature before May 24, as Article 164(4) of the Constitution stipulates.
- However, the Election Commission has already postponed Rajya Sabha polls, byelections and civic body elections in the wake of Covid 19 pandemic.
What does the Constitution say?
Article 164 of the Constitution allows a non-legislator to occupy a post in the council of ministers, including the office of the chief minister for six months.
What’s the alternative available now?
Article 171 of the Constitution says the governor can nominate eminent persons from the field for literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service.
Uddahv Thackeray does not directly fit into any of the criteria mentioned but social service has a wider scope. And, if governor nominates somebody to the legislative council, his/her decision cannot be challenged in the court, at least as of the precedent right now.
The Maharashtra legislative council has two vacancies to be filled by governor’s nominations.
Then, what is the problem now?
There are some legal hurdles.
Section 151A of Representation of the People Act 1951 puts a bar on the governor’s discretionary power to nominate a person to the legislative council.
It says election or nomination to vacant seats in the legislative council cannot be done “if the remainder of the term of a member in relation to a vacancy is less than one year”.
The tenure of the two vacancies that arose on the account of resignations by members recently ends in June. So, the remainder of the term is less than a year.
So, what next?
Uddhav Thackeray cannot continue unless elected to any of the houses of Maharashtra legislature after May 28.
Technically, he can be reappointed as the Maharashtra chief minister again after he resigns on May 27 or 28 and takes oath afresh.
But, if Uddhav decides to resign and takes oath afresh, there could be another obstacle. This relates to a case in Punjab, where Tej Parkash Singh of the Congress was appointed a minister in 1995 and was reappointed at the expiry of six months’ period in 1996 without getting elected to state assembly.
Litigation followed. And, in 2001, the Supreme Court declared the resign-and-reappoint bid as “improper, undemocratic, invalid and unconstitutional”.
This judgment did not have a bearing on Tej Parkash Singh but may come in the way of Uddav Thackeray if he takes the same route.
- How are MLCs elected?
- How many members can be nominated by the governor?
- Can a person become a minister without being a member of the legislature?
- What does section 151A of RPA say in this?
- Can governor’s decision wrt Article 164(4) be questioned in the Court of law?
Sources: Indian Express.
Topics Covered: Issues related to health.
What to study?
For Prelims: About CSF, symptoms and prevention, the new vaccine.
For Mains: Significance and the need for new vaccines.
Context: More than 1,300 pigs have died across five districts of eastern Assam of classical swine fever.
What is Classical Swine Fever (CSF)?
Hog Cholera or Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine.
- It happens due to the viruses that bring viral diarrhea in pigs and ailments in sheep.
- The disease does not harm humansbut all-important precautions are advised to follow.
Concerns for India:
- Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is one of the biggest pigs’ diseases in India. It causes a loss of about 400 crores of rupees per year in India. This has led to a decrease in the population of pigs in 2019.
- India currently requires 22 million doses of the CSF (Classical Swine Fever) vaccine every year. However, currently, only 1.2 million doses are being produced. The reason behind its less production is that only 50 doses can be prepared from the spleen of a rabbit.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: Key features and significance of the scheme.
Context: The Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan (KKA) is being implemented in 112 Aspirational districts of the country.
About Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan:
Launched in 2018 under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
Aim: to aid, assist and advise farmers to improve their farming techniques and increase their incomes.
- Krishi kalyan Abhiyaan will be undertaken in 25 Villages with more than 1000 population each in Aspirational Districts identified in consultation with Ministry of Rural Development as per directions of NITI Ayog.
- In districts where number of villages (with more than 1000 population) is less than 25, all villages will be covered.
- The overall coordination and implementation in the 25 villages of a district is being done by Krishi Vigyan Kendra of that district.
Various activities to promote best practices and enhance agriculture income are being undertaken under this plan such as:
- Distribution of Soil Health Cards to all farmers
- 100% coverage of bovine vaccination for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in each village
- 100% coverage of Sheep and Goat for eradication of Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) also known as sheep and goat plague
- Distribution of Mini Kits of pulses and oilseeds to all
- Distribution of Horticulture/Agro Forestry/Bamboo plant @ 5 per family(location appropriate)
- Making 100 NADAP Pits in each village
- Artificial insemination saturation
- Demonstration programmes on Micro- irrigation
- Demonstrations of integrated cropping practice
Topics Covered: Indigenization and development of new technology, Biotechnology related issues.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: How it works, significance and concerns.
Context: Researchers from Tamil Nadu have developed a vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 through ‘reverse vaccinology’.
Previously, Reverse vaccinology has been used for developing vaccinations for meningococcal and staphylococcal infections.
What is reverse vaccinology?
- Reverse vaccinology defines the process of antigen discovery starting from genome information.
- This is done with the aid of computers without culturing microorganism.
- The process includes comparative in silico analyses of multiple genome sequences in order to identify conserved antigens within a heterogeneous pathogen population and identification of antigens that are unique to pathogenic isolates but not present in commensal strains.
- In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets are integrated into a selection process that yields a short list of candidate antigens to be tested in animal models, thus reducing the costs and time of downstream analyses.
Finding vaccine targets quickly and efficiently.
Only proteins can be targeted using this process. Whereas, conventional vaccinology approaches can find other biomolecular targets such as polysaccharides.
Sources: the Hindu.
Facts for Prelims
Ir is celebrated in Manipur every year on April 23 to pay tribute to the war heroes of Anglo-Manipuri War 1891 who had sacrificed their lives fighting against the British to protect freedom of Manipur.
What are deep nudes?
Deep nudes are computer-generated images and videos.
Cybercriminals use Artificial Intelligence (AI) software to superimpose a digital composite (assembling multiple media files to make a final one) on to an existing video, photo or audio.
Concerns: Because of how realistic deepfake images, audio and videos can be, the technology is vulnerable for use by cybercriminals who could spread misinformation to intimidate or blackmail people.
Insights Current Affairs Analysis (I CAN) by IAS Topper