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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 April 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

1. The migrant workers’ plight during the lockdown has exposed the inadequacies of the legal safeguards available to them. Analyse.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu 

Why this question:

Seasonal migration is an important issue of our time and the COVID-19 crisis has brought the issue of migration to the centre stage of public discourse. The migrant workers’ plight during the lockdown has exposed the inadequacies of the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the loopholes and lacunae in the legal safeguards available to the migrant workers in the country; suggest what needs to be done to address the situation.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss who constitute migrant workers; what the provisions available to them are.

Body:

To start with, explain the concerns associated with the very definition of migrant workers in the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979. Discuss various legal provisions and framework available to them. Hint towards policies that were directed specifically for them yet had loopholes. Suggest measures to address the issue.

Conclusion:
Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

2. Discuss the conditions of Tribal Women in India, also bring out the efforts of the government to improve their conditions.(250 words)

Reference: shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in 

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to analyse the conditions of tribal women in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the conditions of Tribal Women in India; also bring out the efforts of the government to improve their conditions.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Tribal women are among the most vulnerable people in India. They are faced with a double discrimination of being tribal and being women within the tribal households.

Body:

To start with, state facts that justify the dismal condition of tribal women in the country. Basic amenities are completely absent from tribal settlements. Absence of electricity and basic sanitation facilities impacts the women the most. Only 15.2 per cent of ST households have drinking water which further spells out the burden on the women. Discuss different dimensions like education, availability of rights on lands, lack of legal safeguards, low human resource development etc. Discuss policy measures of the governments from past to present in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to better their conditions and mainstream them inclusively in the agenda of growth and overall development.

 

Topic:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. Examine and review the safeguards provided by National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR).(250 words)

Reference: Indian polity by Lakshmikant, Times Of India 

Why this question:

336% increase in child rape cases from 2001 to 2011. Figures are under reported as majority of child rape cases are not reported to the police. 9/10 rapes and sexual assaults are carried out by people known to the victim. Insensitivity and unhelpful attitude of police, lawyers and untrained hospital staff makes prosecution and conviction difficult.

Key demand of the question:

Examine and review the safeguards provided by National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR).

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly describe the coming of National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) into existence.

Body:

To start with, explain that the Ministry has enacted the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act (CPCR), 2005, extending pan-India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir, under which National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is mandated to function for protection and promotion of child rights. Discuss the functions and powers of the NCPCR. Its roles and responsibilities. Discuss concerns and challenges if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. The admitting of the observer status for India in the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is an opportune move that offers ample opportunities for a mutually beneficial relationship between the IOC member countries and India. Elaborate.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why this question:

India has been recently granted observer status in the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC). Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the impact of such a status granted to India and the opportunities that it brings with it to build mutually beneficial relationship between the IOC member countries and India.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

To start with, discuss the aspects of maritime security in the Indian ocean region. Discuss the role of Indian Ocean Commission till date; Regional Maritime security architecture, Promoting collaboration in the region etc. Explain how it proves to be a Mutually beneficial association. Highlight India’s interests.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India has repeatedly stated its strategic vision for the Indian Ocean based on Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) approach. Such an opportunity would mean more consultative, democratic and equitable engagements in dealing with smaller but equally significant countries in the region.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Fall in oil prices compels the global energy landscape to remain volatile; Do you think it’s the right time for our country to enhance its energy security? Examine.(250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint 

Why this question:

Prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI), the American benchmark for crude oil, fell to less than zero on 20th April 2020 trade. The price of a barrel of WTI fell to minus $37.63 a barrel. What this means is that sellers have to pay buyers to get rid of their crude. This is unprecedented in the oil market, even accounting for its notoriety for being volatile.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the fall in oil prices that have led to a volatile global energy landscape and the opportunities that such a situation brings to Indian energy scenario.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the current scenario with respect to oil crisis.

Body:

Firstly, explain why did oil prices fall like this? Discuss the effect of price crash on the global energy scenario in brief. Explain then how India can benefit from this price crash. Take hints from the article and list down the benefits and advantages that Indian can encash from the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be India’s strategy to harness the potential opportunity posed by the global energy scenario in the current situation.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Name and describe the theories of right action.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of ‘Right Action’.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the various theories relating to the concept of right action in ethics.

Directive:

Describe – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Right actions are the ones that produce the greatest satisfaction of the preferences of the affected persons.

Body:

To start with, explain the significance of right action. Name the different theories propounded by ethical and moral thinkers. Explain – Utilitarian Theory of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, Duty Ethics of Kant etc. Discuss that Right actions are the ones that produce the greatest satisfaction of the preferences of the affected persons. Highlight the advantages and disadvantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance of such a concept even in contemporary times.

Topic:   Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Critically assess the claim that people are free to make moral decisions.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the ability of people to freely make moral decisions.

Key demand of the question:

One must assess the claim that people are free to make moral decisions and provide opinion with suitable justifications.

Directive:

Critically assess – When asked to assess, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

Often, it seems that we make moral decisions almost automatically, and there are occasions when we need to make moral decisions more carefully. It may be because the choices before us involve conflicting values, uncertainty or doubt, peer pressure, or possible negative consequences. Discuss opinions of various scholars, ethical and moral thinkers in this regard. Present examples and suggest your viewpoints.

Conclusion:
Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.