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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 21 April 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Akbar was a great social reformer and these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  Class XI NCERT – Medieval Indian history   

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I and is based on the significance of Mughal ruler Akbar and his contributions.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way Akbar was a great social reformer and how these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present brief background of Akbar’s reign.

Body:

To start with explain the fact that in addition to proclaiming a state based on universal peace and justice, Akbar took steps to create a better understanding of different religions among the subjects; he set up a translation bureau to translate works in Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek, etc. into Persian. Enlist various social reforms taken by him – prohibited slavery, allowed Widow remarriage, prostitution was regulated, and immoral trafficking of women brought under control, Sati of Hindu women was prohibited etc. Explain how these social reforms helped him build better society and gain legitimacy from the Indian masses.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such rulers and well thought social reforms in the past.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. In your opinion, what solutions are desirable to help crush the caste-based exploitation in India? Has economic progress helped realize Dalit empowerment? Critically examine.(250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why this question:

The question is premised on the evaluation of welfare schemes  made available to the Dalit, and to what extent economic progress has helped overcome the caste-based exploitation of the same.

Key demand of the question:

One must evaluate the situation; suggest measures to address the caste-based exploitation of the Dalits and hint on the need and importance of economic progress for their empowerment.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the conditions of the SC and ST in the country from past to present.

Body:

To start with, first present the existing caste based annihilations in the country. Then explain that the vision of the Department of Social Justice and Empowerment, in tune with our constitution, is to build an inclusive society where the most oppressed and backward sections of our population can live a life of dignity, pride and actively contribute to the nation’s human capital. Discuss the various measures taken to overcome it. Explain the importance and relevance of economic empowerment to empower the Dalit in the country. Discuss various steps taken by the government in this direction (Past to present).

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. The country has seen emergence of a generation of ‘new’ educated middle class among SCs and STs. What affirmative policies in education and employment have led to this change? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference:  shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

Why this question:

The question is based on the role played by the affirmative action of the State in bringing new educated middle class among the SCs and STs.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the emergence of a generation of ‘new’ educated middle class among SCs and STs and the reasons behind it, emphasize upon the affirmative action of the State in terms of education and employment.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly set the context of the question.

Body:

Explain in what way Reservations in higher education and in government employment are the main sources of creating a new educated middle class among the SCs and STs in the post-independent India. Discuss that the constitution has recognized the less privileged and more disadvantaged groups for special safeguards and affirmative measures such as anti-discrimination, anti-atrocity and positive discrimination laws such as prohibition of the practice of untouchability, protection of right to the land and habitation, provision of scholarships and reservations in education and employment and more recently, ear-marking sub-plans in union and state budgets cutting across various departments of the Government for the lot of both SCs and STs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges.

4. Social media often acts  as a petri dish for rumors and delusions that can go viral and infect the minds of millions, examine and suggest what needs to be done to overcome the challenges of social media.(250 words)

Reference: India Today ,Economic Times

Why this question:

Few videos, purportedly of the gruesome incident of the Palghar mob lynching have gone viral on social media. The disturbing visuals have resulted in nationwide outrage with hash tags like Palghar and lynching trending on Twitter in India.

Key demand of the question:

One must bring out the evil side of the social media – explain in what way it often acts as a petri dish for rumors and delusions that can go viral and infect the minds of millions. Suggest measures to address the issue involved.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context, discuss the increasing use of social media with respect to rumors and delusions.

Body:

To start with, explain what constitutes social media. Discuss the role played by it; positives and negatives, explain how it is different from the print media and the regulated media. Discuss that Rumours tend to rise in times of uncertainty, Unlike more harmless rumors, conspiracy theories centre on a rejection of mainstream ideas and common sense in favour of a more sinister and secret narrative. Discuss some recent examples justifying the statement in question. Suggest measures to address the problem.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5.  The IMF has stated grave estimates of the global economy in the coming future owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, what measures should India take to avert the worst coming? Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: blogs.imf.org

Why this question:

The question is amidst the economic impact that the COVID-19 outbreak has caused.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concerns highlighted by the IMF concerning the global economy, discuss what role India should play to address and mitigate the situation facing it.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly state the facts pointed out by the IMF with respect to the global economy.

Body:

The International Monetary Fund this week said the global economy is expected to shrink by 3% this year, before growing by 5.8% next year. However, India’s economy is estimated to grow by 1.9% by 2020-2021. Present the role that the Government of India, RBI must play to handle the upcoming economic crisis. Suggest methods, policies that need to be adopted.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

6. What do you understand by a social vaccine? How far did it succeed in the case of HIV pandemic in the past? Can we now replicate it for the case of Corona pandemic? Analyse.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The article talks about the lessons to be learnt from the concept of social vaccine that was applied in the past in the case of the HIV epidemic.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concept of social vaccine, discuss the lessons of HIV pandemic of the past and suggest how the model can be replicated for the case of corona pandemic.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Though there is no biological cure so far, world has used a very known vaccine to contain the pandemic which helped even in the past for containing the pandemics like HIV/ AIDS, SARS. It’s nothing but the social vaccine.

Body:

Explain first – Social vaccine can be defined as spreading socio-behavioural measures which are required to bring awareness among the societies regarding the pandemic. Discuss social vaccine applied to the case of Corona pandemic – In the present situation, socio – behavioural measures include wearing face masks, maintaining proper hygiene, social distancing etc. Discuss the case of social vaccine in the past with respect to HIV AIDS.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what can be done; present a balanced solution with suitable justifications.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  supply chain management.

7.  “Supply chain challenges in a situation of a long nationwide lockdown are immense, and complex.”, discuss the possible role that e-commerce can play in such a situation.(250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express 

Why this question:

The question is based on the Supply chain challenges that the country is witnessing amidst the lockdown.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the role of e-commerce in the present times of lockdown and the prospects that it brings with it to handle and manage the supply chain constraints.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what constitute supply chain, and what are the constraints being witnessed with respect to it in the current times.

Body:

Explain that – Supply chain challenges in a situation of a long nationwide lockdown are immense, and complex. While maintaining the flow of essential supplies, it is equally important that people across the country have access to them, preferably while remaining within their homes. E-commerce can play a big role in this regard, and keep the supply chain efficiently functioning. Take hints from the article and list down the positives.

Conclusion:

Conclude that with suitable logistical linkages and state support, e-commerce can help ensure maintenance of supply chains and facilitating access to essential goods.