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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 April 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. India traditional theatre forms incorporate common man’s interest as well as regional, local and folk coloring derived from classical elements. Analyse with examples.(250 words)

Reference:  CCRT India 

Why this question:

The question is based on the premise that Traditional art forms reflect the ideals of the society, its determination to survive, its ethos, emotions, fellow-feelings, etc.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way common man’s interest, regional, local and folk coloring derived from classical elements often form the basis of the India traditional theatre forms.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the significance of India traditional theatre forms.

Body:

Quote examples of Indian theatre incorporating common man’s interests. In different regions of India, there are religious festivals, fairs, gatherings, ritual offerings, prayers, almost throughout the year. During these occasions, traditional theatre forms are presented. They reflect the common man’s social attitudes and perceptions. In this social portrayal, there is also the individual’s role which is given due importance. Then explain the influence of classical elements in traditional theatre Further, link traditional theatre to regional, local and folk coloring derived from classical elements. Quote examples at all instances.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of India traditional theatre.

Introduction:

Indian theatre forms are a framework of acting, dialogue, poetry, and music. It started as a narrative form of art where recitations, dance, and music played a central role in depicting the local history, societal ethos etc. It is based on spontaneous creativity emerging from circumstances where the intensity of expressions and natural emotions are drawn from the social system and not from any classical or grammatical roots.

Body:

Traditional theatre forms are generally presented during religious festivals, ritual offering, gatherings, prayers, almost throughout the year. It reflects the local lifestyles, beliefs, social wisdom, and emotions of the common. It is an amalgamation of entertainment and religious traditions.

Traditional theatre performances are usually a combination of the following.

  • Dance
  • Music
  • Singing
  • Acting
  • Dialogue
  • Narration
  • Recitation
  • Puppetry

It is also a combination of costumes, masks, musical instruments. They are not just performed for audiences in a theatre but also importantly performed during rituals or carrying out agricultural activities.

Traditionally the language of ordinary people has an element of creativity, though not based on classical or grammatical roots. This kind of creativity is spontaneous, emerging from the circumstances. When there is intensity of emotions, there is a natural kind of rhythm in the expressions. It is this natural rhythm from which emerges the traditional theatre-form. In this art form, sorrow, joy, frustration, hatred and love have their role and place.

In different regions of India, there are religious festivals, fairs, gatherings, ritual offerings, prayers, almost throughout the year. During these occasions, traditional theatre forms are presented. They reflect the common man’s social attitudes and perceptions. In this social portrayal, there is also the individual’s role which is given due importance.

Traditional theatre forms incorporate not only the common man’s interests but there is also a classical element in them. This classical facet, however, takes on regional, local and folk coloring. It is possible, that those associated with the classical world of Sanskrit drama, went to the neighbouring regions after its decline and intermingled with the local theatre forms. This kind of synthesis, give-and-take must have taken place on various levels such as written, verbal, classical, contemporary, national and local.

In traditional theatre forms there are special styles of dance portraying the entry on to the stage or platform, narrative and descriptive roles. The best example of descriptive acting is the Bidapat naach. In this traditional theatre form, emphasis is not on beauty but on acting itself and narrative and descriptive skills. Dance as a narrative art is the base of theatre form which can be seen in the traditional theatre form of Bhavai of Gujarat. In this form, quick or slow foot movement is a means of narration. The art of making the entry by dancing has been perfected in the traditional Kashmiri theatre form, Bhand Jashn. The way each character walks and enters the platform, identifies him. In Koodiyaattam and Ankia Naat, the entry by dancing itself is complicated and artistic. In the forms, the tempo and basic posture and gesture identifies the role of the character.

In traditional theatre, age-old forms, customs and the desire to improvise are intermingled. It is usually when the significant themes are enacted, that the acting restricts itself to traditional norms, not deviating from it. But, every time the theme inches towards the contemporary, the actors improvise as far as dialogue delivery is concerned.

Traditional theatre forms have definitely been influenced by industrial civilization, industrialization, and urbanization. The socio-cultural aspects of these influences should be carefully studied. There was a time when Kanpur became the centre of the traditional theatre Nautanki. Artists, dancers and singers produced plays based on local heroes, their popularity and traditional love stories. Thus, a local theatre form acquired significance in the field of entertainment.

Traditional theatre forms have a common distinguishing feature that is the element of simplicity. What is the underlying force of traditional theatre forms that has enabled it to survive and maintain its simplicity? The fact remains, that it is the immediate, direct, realistic and rhythmic relationship that the spectators are able to develop with the artists of traditional theatre forms which is generally not experienced in other art forms. It is reflected in the applaud by the spectators by means of clapping their hands.

Conclusion:

Thus, the development of traditional theatre forms is based on such local and regional peculiarities which are not bound and restricted by social and economic divisions, limitations, etc. Tradional art forms have influenced classical art forms and vice-versa. It is an eternal journey in the sphere of ‘culture’.

 

Topic:  Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2. Compare and contrast the provisions under Representation of People’s Act, 1951 with that of the provisions related to elections in the Constitution of India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

Question is straightforward and is about comparing the constitutional provisions related to elections and Representation of People’s Act, 1951.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed comparison of Representation of People’s Act, 1951 and the available constitutional provisions.

Directive:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write a few introductory lines about elections in India.

Body:

Answers must discuss the – Part XV of Indian Constitution which is Elections. Along with it explain constitutional provisions.

  • The Representation of People Act 1950, which provides for allocation of seats and delimitation of constituencies of the Parliament and state legislature, officers related to conduct of elections, preparation of electoral rolls and manner of filling seats in the Council of States allotted to Union Territories.
  • The Representation of People Act, 1951, which provides for the conduct of elections of the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State, the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses, the corrupt practices and other offences at or in connection with such elections and the decision of doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with such elections.
  • Delimitation Commission Act of 1952, which provides for the readjustment of seats, delimitation and reservation of territorial constituencies and other related matters.
  • The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Election Act 1952, which provides for the conduct of Presidential and Vice- Presidential election and mechanism for the settlement of any dispute arising out of such elections.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the importance of the two in general to the electoral system in the country.

Introduction:

India being the largest democracy of the world, elections in India have been the largest electoral exercise in the world since the 1stgeneral elections of 1952.The cultural, linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity of the country make this event more complex. Every individual who is a citizen of India and has attained the voting age shall be entitled to be registered as a voter.

Body:

Part XV of the Constitution of India consists of Articles on Elections.

  • Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission.
  • Article 325: No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex
  • Article 326: Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage
  • Article 327: Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures
  • Article 328: Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature
  • Article 329: Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters
  • Article 329A: [Repealed.]
  • Article 82: In India, delimitation is carried out by the Delimitation Commission, set up after every census by an act of the Parliament.

Constitution allows Parliament to make provisions in all matters relating to elections to the Parliament and State Legislatures. In exercise of this power, the Parliament has enacted laws like Representation of the People Act 1950 (RPA Act 1950), Representation of the People Act 1951 (RPA Act 1951).

Representation of Peoples Act 1950 (RPA Act 1950) provides for the following:

  • Qualification of voters.
  • Preparation of electoral rolls.
  • Delimitation of constituencies.
  • Allocation of seats in the Parliament and state legislatures.

Representation of Peoples Act 1951 (RPA Act 1951) provides for:

  • Actual conduct of elections.
  • Administrative machinery for conducting elections.
  • Poll
  • Election offences.
  • Election disputes.
  • By-elections.
  • Registration of political parties.

Delimitation Commission Act of 1952, which provides for the readjustment of seats, delimitation and reservation of territorial constituencies and other related matters.

The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Election Act 1952, which provides for the conduct of Presidential and Vice- Presidential election and mechanism for the settlement of any dispute arising out of such elections.

Conclusion:

Elections are the life blood of any democracy. The robustness of electoral processes determines the fate of the nation. The timely reforms to the electoral process by ECI, according to the changing needs of the society and the strong review of the judiciary have helped in conduction of free and fair elections till date.

 

Topic:  Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

3. On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of Peoples Act, 1951?explain and also present the remedies available to such persons against his disqualification.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

The question is straightforward from the GS paper II theme constitutional provisions – RPA.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the criteria for disqualifications listed under RPA, 1955 and present the remedies available to such persons against his disqualification.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly set the context of the question.

Body:

The Representation of the People Act, 1951 provides for the conduct of elections to the Houses of Parliament and to the Houses of the State Legislature, the provisions regarding qualification and disqualification for the membership, and remedies of disputes in connection with such elections. Present the certain criteria for disqualifications that the Act of 1951 has laid down. Discuss the remedies available to such persons against his disqualification.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India being the largest democracy of the world, elections in India have been the largest electoral exercise in the world since the 1st general elections of 1952. Representation of Peoples Act 1951 is an act enacted by the Indian provincial parliament before first general elections. The People’s Representation act provides for the actual conduct of elections in India. The act also deals with details like qualification and disqualification of members of both houses of Parliament (i.e. Loksabha and Rajya Sabha) and the state legislatures (i.e. State Legislative Assembly and State Legislative Council). Rules for the mode of conduct of elections is highlighted in detail.

Body:

Grounds for disqualification under RPA, 1951:

Conviction in offences: Section 8 deals with Disqualification of representatives on conviction for certain offences. The various sub-clauses include

  • 8 ( 1 ): A person convicted of an offence punishable under certain acts of Indian Penal Code, Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967, Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002 etc. shall be disqualified, where the convicted person is sentenced to — (i) only fine, for a period of six years from the date of such conviction; (ii) imprisonment, from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.
  • 8 ( 2 ): A person convicted for the contravention of—(a) any law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering; or (b) any law relating to the adulteration of food or drugs; or (c) any provisions of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
  • 8 ( 3 ): A person convicted of any offence and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years [other than any offence referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)] shall be disqualified from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.
  • A fourth subsection, i.e., 8 ( 4 ) was struck down by the Supreme Court in 2013 (Lily Thomas case). This subsection had provisions for convicted lawmakers to retain their seats if they filed an appeal within 3 months of their conviction.
  • In 2013, the Patna High Court also debarred persons in judicial or police custody from contesting elections.

Office of Profit:

  • The other disqualification criteria for an MP as laid down in Article 102 of the Constitution, and for an MLA in Article 191 is holding an office of profit under government of India or state government.
  • If an aggrieved person wants to complain about the corrupt practices going on in any phase of the election process then he can make a complaint to the Election Commission of India where there is the office of Chief Election Commissioner.

Conflict of interest

  • A person fighting elections must not hold any profiteering offices under the government or its subsidaries. This can also be as a secretary, managing agent etc.

Failure to file election expenses:

  • An individual is expected to file his election expenses with the Election Commission of India within a certain period of time after his/her election, failing in which will result in his/her disqualification.

Practicing social evils

  • An individual practicing social evils like sati, dowry, untouchability or promoting enmity between social or religious groups can be disqualified.

Remedies available against disqualification

Judicial petition: The person in question can file a petition in high court and subsequently in Supreme court to challenge the verdict of disqualification.

Conclusion:

Elections are the life blood of any democracy. The robustness of electoral processes determines the fate of the nation. The timely reforms to the electoral process by ECI, according to the changing needs of the society and the strong review of the judiciary have helped in conduction of free and fair elections till date.

 

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

4. Though digital tools can help achieve transparency, efficiency and accountability in governance, meeting these objectives requires much more than just building a large digital infrastructure and mere connectivity. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference:  darpg.gov.in

Why this question:

The question is based on the utility aspects of digital tools and to what extent achieving digital governance requires more efforts than mere availability of digital infrastructure and connectivity.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the idea behind digital tools and e-governance, the efforts that the government needs to take other than creating infrastructure and connectivity.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first that Digital tools are aimed at reforming the functioning of the government. The advantages they bring with them are transparency, efficiency and accountability in governance, making the government citizen friendly.

Body:

  • Explain the idea behind digital tools and e-governance; Improving work culture in government offices, Training and capacity building, proactive disclosure of information, quality as a mission etc.
  • Give some examples of such initiatives.
  • Elaborate upon what else the government needs to do to make digital tools effective.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance and way ahead.

Introduction:

e-Governance which also known as electronic governance is basically the application of Information and Communications Technology to the processes of Government functioning in order to bring about ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent’ governance.

e-Governance involve the use of ICTs by government organisations for exchange of information with citizens, businesses or other government departments, faster and more efficient delivery of public services, improving internal efficiency, reducing costs / increasing revenue, re-structuring of administrative processes and improving quality of services.

Body:

Potential of e-governance with respect to India:

  • Increased effectiveness and efficiency: Improved government services in terms of accomplishing the government purpose and functioning
  • Better services: E-government can provide quick and timely services to stakeholders
  • Transparency by dissemination and publication of information on the web: This provides easy access to information and subsequently makes the system publicly accountable. Also as the web enables the free flow of information, it can be easily accessed by all without any discrimination.
  • Accessible anytime and anywhere: As e-government services are provided through web-enabled technology they can be accessed anytime and anywhere
  • User-centred ICT enabled services: The services are primarily intended for the use of citizens, businesses, and the government itself.
  • Reduced cost and time: As the services are provided through internet they are effective in terms of time and cost

Recommendations of 2nd ARC on e-Governance:

Building a Congenial Environment: Building a congenial environment is a sine qua non for successful implementation of e-Governance initiatives. This should be achieved by:

  • Creating and displaying a will to change within the government
  • Providing political support at the highest level
  • Incentivising e-Governance and overcoming the resistance to change within government
  • Creating awareness in the public with a view to generating a demand for change.

Identification of e-Governance Projects and Prioritisation: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has defined four stages of e-government Projects, each one more demanding than the next. These are:

  • Information: Putting information on web-sites
  • Interaction: Allowing citizens to enquire about services, procedures etc. and filling up forms and submitting them online
  • Transaction: Allowing payments online
  • Transformation: A mix of all the above and allowing the citizen to participate in governance through ICT.

Business Process Re-engineering (BPR): The basic idea behind such re-engineering is to avail of the opportunity provided by ICT in transforming governmental processes and not just in modifying them.

  • For every function a government organisation performs and every service or information it is required to provide, there should be a step-by-step analysis of each process to ensure its rationality and simplicity.
  • Such analysis should incorporate the viewpoints of all stakeholders, while maintaining the citizen-centricity of the exercise.
  • After identifying steps which are redundant or which require simplification, and which are adaptable to e-Governance, the provisions of the law, rules, regulations, instructions, codes, manuals etc. which form their basis should also be identified.
  • Following this exercise, governmental forms, processes and structures should be re-designed to make them adaptable to e-Governance, backed by procedural, institutional and legal changes.

Capacity Building and Creating Awareness: The success of an e-Governance project would depend on building human capacities in terms of necessary knowledge and skills to conceptualize, initiate, implement and sustain e-Governance initiatives across government as also on the ultimate use by citizens of the facilities created.

  • Capacity building efforts must attend to both the organizational capacity building as also the professional and skills upgradation of individuals associated with the implementation of e-Governance projects.
  • Each government organization must conduct a capacity assessment which should form the basis for training their personnel.
  • A network of training institutions needs to be created in the States with the Administrative Training Institutes at the apex.
  • State Governments should operationalise the Capacity Building Roadmap (CBRMs), under the overall guidance and support of the DIT, Government of India.
  • Lessons learnt from previous successful e-Governance initiatives should be incorporated in training programmes.

Developing Technological Solutions: There is a need to:

  • Develop a national e-Governance ‘enterprise architecture’ framework as has been done in some countries.
  • Promote the use of ‘enterprise architecture’ in the successful implementation of e-Governance initiatives; this would require building capacity of top level managers in all government organizations.

Implementation: E-Governance projects could be of a wide variety based on their objectives, technological requirements, dependence on databases, requirement of institutional support etc

  • All organizations should carry out a periodic independent evaluation of the information available on their websites from the citizens’ perspective and then re-design their websites.
  • Each organization should prepare a time-bound plan for providing of transactional information through their websites.
  • Complex e-Governance projects should be planned and implemented like any major project having several parts / components for which Project Management capability should be developed in-house

Public-Private Partnership (PPP): Financial and managerial resources are critically required for successful implementation and more so, the sustainability of e-Governance initiatives. While the normal preference for any reform initiative is through exclusive use of inhouse resources, the merits of inducting the private sector resources into the e-Governance sector have now been appreciated and accepted by policy-makers in Government.

  • Several components of e-Governance projects lend themselves to the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode. In all such cases (PPP) should be the preferred mode.
  • The private partner should be selected through a transparent process.
  • The roles and responsibilities of government as well as the private partner should be clearly laid down in the initial stage itself, leaving no room for any ambiguity.

Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure Assets

  • There is need to develop a critical information infrastructure assets protection strategy.
  • This should be supplemented with improved analysis and warning capabilities as well as improved information sharing on threats and vulnerabilities.

Conclusion:

The above principles and recommendations were given by 2nd ARC in the realm of e-Governance. The NeGP and many other projects are based on the above. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, former President of India, has visualized e-Governance in the Indian context to mean: “A transparent, smart e-Governance with seamless access, secure and authentic flow of information crossing the interdepartmental barrier and providing a fair and unbiased service to the citizen.”

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5.  “In the current times Medical Science gives us quick relief but not the guarantee of good health”. In this context elucidate upon the significance of “AYUSH” in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Deccan Herald 

Why this question:

The question is about evaluating the role of AYUSH medicine the contemporary times.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the role played by AYUSH system in India, in what way it plays a niche role in guaranteeing good health for all to the citizens of the country.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the importance of medical science and in what way it is not a relief in itself.

Body:

To start with, explain the advantages and the challenges that medical science is facing such as Affordability, low adaptation time, lack of access, availability, and short term benefits etc. List down points to support significance of AYUSH system in the country; affordability, accessibility, long term benefits etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

AYUSH is the acronym of the medical systems that are being practiced in India such as Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy. These systems are based on definite medical philosophies and represent a way of healthy living with established concepts on prevention of diseases and promotion of health. The basic approach of all these systems on health, disease and treatment are holistic.

Ministry of AYUSH had issued an advisory on various immunity enhancing steps from the time tested approaches of Ayurveda. The advisory is reiterated again in these testing times to support the efforts of all as a measure towards enhancing one’s immunity.

Body:

Significance of AYUSH in India in current times:

  • In the wake of the Covid 19 outbreak, entire mankind across the globe is suffering. Enhancing the body’s natural defence system (immunity) plays an important role in maintaining optimum health.
  • Prevention is better than cure: While there is no medicine for COVID-19 as of now, it will be good to take preventive measures which boost our immunity in these times.
  • The Ministry of AYUSH recommended some self-care guidelines for preventive health measures and boosting immunity with special reference to respiratory health. These are supported by Ayurvedic literature and scientific publications.
  • Following the AYUSH ministry initiative many state governments also followed up with healthcare advice on traditional medicine solutions to enhance immunity and disease-resistance, which are particularly relevant against the backdrop of the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • the Ministry of AYUSH has also proposed to include AYUSH solutions in the district level contingency plans being drawn up to contain COVID -19 in all the districts across the country.
  • The Odisha State Government has decided to rope in AYUSH doctors to strengthen the frontline medical teams in combating Covid-19 in their respective areas of posting.

Potential of AYUSH:

  • A number of initiatives to promote AYUSH have been recently announced.
    • Creation of AYUSH wings in defence and railway hospitals.
    • Providing soft loans and subsidies for the establishment of private AYUSH hospitals and clinics.
    • Establishing institutes of excellence in teaching and research in AYUSH.
    • 12,500 dedicated AYUSH health and wellness centers are planned to be set up under the Ayushman Bharat mission.
  • AYUSH, represent a pluralistic and integrative scheme of health services. AYUSH can play an important role in realizing the dream of ‘New India’ by providing quality healthcare and medical care for its citizens. The ‘New India’ also needs to be a ‘Healthy India’ where its own traditional systems can play a significant role.
  • With statistics repeatedly indicating that there is a severe shortage of doctors in India with a mere 80 doctors per lakh population. AYUSH provides a way to increase healthcare access
  • AYUSH presents an opportunity to realize the potential of medical pluralism in the current environment where prevention is emphasized along with curative aspects.
  • AYUSH industry may create 26 mn jobs by 2020 according to Government reports.
  • Given the rising popularity of AYUSH and alternative medicine, AYUSH could help boost medical tourism in India.

Challenges faced:

  • Health professionals have often questioned the measures advised by Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic medicine to deal with serious illnesses.
  • Non-integration into mainstream medicine: Our efforts to mainstream AYUSH medicine has been to regard that the major problem lies in the fact that there is a very less proportion of AYUSH in the present mix. Hence, the integration of AYUSH into the health-care system has been focused on having more AYUSH facilities or having them in the place where there aren’t any without worrying about the actual effectiveness of such a move.
  • Status gap: The subservient status of AYUSH has been the major hurdle. AYUSH has been fraught with multiple issues like including dishonest practices and claims by some AYUSH practitioners leading to the ridicule of AYUSH treatments and procedures by sceptics. The mindless cosmeticisation and export promotion of AYUSH products has led to a bad perception of AYUSH.
  • The isolationist approach goes against the cherished ideal of modern medicine to embrace concepts that are backed by evidence. In the case of traditional medicine, an isolationist attitude could deter scientific scrutiny and block some potential value addition.
  • Quality standards of Medicines: Scientific validation of AYUSH has not progressed in spite of dedicated expenditure in past.
  • Lack of human resources: Practitioners are moving away from traditional system for better opportunities
  • The existing infrastructure remains under-utilized.
  • The 2013 Shailaja Chandra report on the status of Indian medicine and folk healing, commissioned by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, noted several instances in States where National Rural Health Mission-recruited AYUSH physicians were the sole care providers in PHCs and called for the appropriate skilling of this cadre to meet the demand for acute and emergency care at the primary level.

Way forward:

  • It is important to gather scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of AYUSH medicines and practices.
  • Work towards capacity building and developing a critical mass of competent professionals in the AYUSH sector through quality education and training at national and international levels.
  • True integration of traditional and modern systems is the need of the hour. This would require a concerted strategy for facilitating meaningful cross-learning and collaboration between the modern and traditional systems on equal terms.
  • The Chinese experience of integrating Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western medicine makes for a good example.
  • An Indian parallel could envision the integration of education, research, and practice of both systems at all levels. This can include training of AYUSH practitioners in modern medicine through curriculum changes and vice versa.
  • Need to ensure substantial groundwork with respect to the prerequisites of an effective integration.
  • Building a strong traditional medicine evidence corpus.
  • Standardizing and regulating AYUSH practices and qualifications.
  • Delineating the relative strengths, weaknesses, and role of each system in an integrated framework.
  • Negotiating the philosophical and conceptual divergences between systems.
  • Addressing the unique issues associated with research into AYUSH techniques.
  • An integrated framework should create a middle path — fusing the two systems, while still permitting some autonomy for each.
  • Accordingly, a medium- and long-term plan for seamless integration should be developed expeditiously in view of the massive drive for achieving universal health care already underway in the country and considering the vast potential of AYUSH to contribute to this cause.

 

Topic:  Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

6 . Can the ongoing COVID-19 crisis be converted into an opportunity for reforming the agri-marketing system in the country? Give reasons in support of your arguments.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The article authored by Ashok Gulati brings a different perspective of the effects of COVID-19 and in what way India can use it as an opportunity to reform its agri markets.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way the ongoing COVID-19 crisis can be converted into an opportunity for reforming the agri-marketing system in the country.

Directive:

Give reasons – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the current situation across the world.

Body:

To start with, explain the crisis that agriculture sector is facing owing to the COVID-19 effects. Explain what needs to be done to the put agri-system on an efficient path. Take hints from the article and list down the suggestions. Discuss the possible challenges involved while suggesting solutions for the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a futuristic approach for the Agri system of the country.

Introduction:

The significant disruption in supply chains as a result of the lockdown has led to farmers being stuck with a large amount of produce, especially of perishables like milk, fruits and vegetables, flowers and even poultry meat and eggs. Due to this glut, farm prices are collapsing, pushing farmers into destitution. Many of them are dumping milk and vegetables on the roads. With the procurement season for rabi crops having started, the mandi system will choke, and social distancing will go for a toss if immediate steps are not taken to organise procurement operations in an orderly manner. The wisdom lies in converting this crisis into an opportunity for reforming the agri-marketing system.

Body:

Hurdles for free movement and trade in agri produce due to lockdown:

  • The supplies are plentiful but the shutting down of hotels, restaurants and catering businesses has led to demand destruction from institutional buyers.
  • With abundant availability and demand now largely restricted to direct household consumption, there could be scope for panic buying and hoarding and people going without food.
  • Inter-state movement restrictions and arbitrary actions by local authorities to enforce the lockdown — including closing down produce collection centres and warehouses of organized retailers.
  • The links in the chain connecting farmers to consumers have broken down, in turn opening up arbitrage opportunities for unscrupulous speculators
  • Agriculture is a ‘state subject’ and a large part of investment as well as regulatory progress is happening at the state level. The lack of coordination between the states at this time of crisis would be a debacle.
  • Limited reach of mandis: Also, this procurement system has failed to cover the entire country evenly (back of the envelope calculation suggests that on an average, a farmer needs to travel 12 kms to reach the nearest mandi and more than 50 kms in NE India) while according to the recommendations by National Farmers Commission, availability of markets should be within a 5 km radius.
  • Inadequate infrastructure for storage: The Planning Commission has recently estimated the gap between agri-warehousing supply and demand at 35 mn MT.
  • Lack of cold storage infrastructure: India’s current cold storage capacity at 25 MT is barely sufficient for 10% of fruit and vegetables produced in the country.

Measures to reform the agri-marketing system in country:

  • Abolish/reframe the APMC Act and encourage direct buying of agri-produce from farmers/farmer producer organisations (FPOs). The companies, processors, organised retailers, exporters, consumer groups, that buy directly from FPOs need not pay any market fee as they do not avail the facilities of APMC yards.
  • The warehouses can also be designated as markets, and the warehouse receipt system can be scaled up. The private sector should be encouraged to open mandis with modern infrastructure, capping commissions.
  • Futures trading should be encouraged by allowing banking finance to hedge for commodity price risks.
  • Promote e-NAM through proper assaying and grading the produce and setting up dispute settlement mechanism; rope in major logistics players for delivery of goods.
  • Procurement must be staggered through coupons and incentives that give farmers an additional bonus for bringing produce to the market after May 10, or so.
  • The amount provided under PM Kisan should be increased from Rs 6,000 to at least Rs 10,000 per farming family to partially compensate them for their losses.

Conclusion:

Post crisis, India must ask for fundamental reforms in the UN System, including the WHO, making it more transparent, competent, and accountable.

 

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. Social and religious norms play a dominant role in influencing behaviour in India. How these norms have been used in the implementation of various schemes by the Government? Elaborate.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is premised on the fact that behaviour of people in India is largely influenced by Social and religious norms.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the possible influence of Social and religious norms on the behaviour of people in the country and in what way such linkages can be used in the better implementation of government schemes.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what influences behavior of an individual in general.

Body:

To start with, explain that the Religion is probably the strongest belief system that has existed for thousands of years. In many ways, it is a code of Conduct, a rule book that allows believers to function in a non-primitive or cultured manner. Explain the use of social and religious norms in the Government schemes. Quote examples from the schemes that use these social and religious norms and tendencies of people towards them.

Conclusion:

It is important to note here that although, religious beliefs may play a causal role in some of the actions, and it is not the only factor that influences behaviour. Rather, it’s an important factor in a pool of other factors like genetics, Environment, parenting, drives, and needs that determine our behaviour.

Introduction:

India’s rich cultural and spiritual heritage, social norms play a very important role in shaping the behaviour. This can be utilized to effect behavioural change. Mahatma Gandhi proposed Seven Sins theory to influence people’s behaviour towards positive social change. Programmes such as Swachh Bharat Mission, Jan Dhan Yojana, GiveItUp Campaign for LPG subsidy, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Khelo India Campaign provide testimony to the potential for behavioural change in India.

Body:

It can help in enhancing public participation in policies such as gender equality, reducing crime and corruption, waste management, environmental concerns, animal welfare, road safety, building human capital, enhancing health and education parameters, etc.

These norms have been utilized to achieve policy objective of welfare programmes:

  • Swachh Bharat mission: Bringing behavioural change towards sanitation. The Open Defecation Free Campaign has led towards a desired outcome.
  • National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) 2018-19 found that 96.5% of the rural households that had access to a toilet, used them. The NARSS also re-confirmed the ODF status of 90.7% of villages.
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) to raise awareness about increasing Child sex ratio and educating Girl Child. BBBP have brought positive results leading to improvement in the child sex ratio in Haryana, a state known for skewed sex ratio.
  • It used ‘social norm’ in its ‘Selfie with Daughter’ initiative to celebrate the birth of girl child.
  • GiveItUp Campaign lead to voluntarily giving up of LPG subsidy by the affluent class and thus large savings to the public money that could be utilised for providing free LPG connections to the poor under Ujjwala Yojana.
  • Success of Jan Dhan Yojana (JDY) through dedicated government efforts and mass media campaign to increase financial inclusion and thus influencing people to increase their savings.
  • Use of socially and culturally identifiable names for various recent schemes like Namami Gange, Ujjawala, Poshan Abhiyan among others has helped to build the affinity of the people for the scheme.

Conclusion:

While several Indian programmes have applied these principles using behavioural economics, there is still ample scope for leveraging these insights to enhance the efficacy of programmes in India.

If these norms can be pulled into the realm of Behavioural economics and implemented diligently then Indian policymaking will be transformed from BBBP to BADLAV (Beti Aapki Dhan Lakshmi Aur Vijay Lakshmi), from Swachh Bharat to Sundar Bharat, from “GiveItUp” for the LPG subsidy to “Think about the Subsidy”, from tax evasion to tax compliance and the dream of New India can be realised.