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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 April 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

1. Discuss the concept of “people-centered development” and its contributions to global health equity. Illustrate with examples.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The author discusses in detail in what way Prime Minister Narendra Modi has deftly drafted the people into the fight against pandemic. Thus hinting us to analyse the importance of “people-centered development”.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concept of “people-centered development”, discuss its significance in the current times especially with respect to achieving global health equity.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what “people-centered development” is.

Body:

People-centered development is an approach to international development that focuses on improving local communities’ self-reliance, social justice, and participatory decision-making. It recognizes that economic growth does not inherently contribute to human development. Then discuss the origin of the concept. And highlight the importance. The concept of “people-centered development” places the ultimate objective of development in helping humankind lead an affluent and happy life. Explain in what way it can help achieve global health equity ; illustrate using the example of India fighting COVID-19. Discuss any concerns associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance.

2. In the backdrop of the Karnataka state sealing its border for movement from Kerala to avoid the spread of COVID-19 and the subsequent challenge by Kerala in the Judiciary, several legal questions and concerns have come to fore. Analyse.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why this question:

The article brings out the state of Kerala’s grievance over the fact of Karnataka sealing its border with Kerala.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the fact of Karnataka’s restriction on Kerala’s movement across the border. Discuss the legal issues and concerns associated to such an action.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

Explain the background of the decision- Karnataka’s restriction on cross border movement; Kasaragod district of Kerala has reported a very high number of COVID-19 cases and has Kerala’s largest number of positive cases. The Karnataka government has a reasonable apprehension that allowing movement between Kasaragod and its bordering districts might result in the disease spreading to its territory. This led to Karnataka imposing a complete restriction of movement between Kerala and Karnataka even in case of emergency medical needs.

Explain the concerns associated ; present the key legal questions involved – public health emergency, Interestingly, inter-state migration and quarantine are under the Union List, while the prevention of infectious diseases moving from one State to another is under the Concurrent List etc.

Suggest what should have ideally been done, what were the alternatives before the govt. of Karnataka.

Conclusion:

Conclude with observations made by the apex court in this regard and that taking a humane approach is the need of the hour.

 

Topic:  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance.

3. Strong Centre is a stout constitutional mechanism against conflict-ridden forces in India. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, based on the theme of Indian federalism.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way strong centre is a robust constitutional mechanism against divisive forces in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly comment on the aspects of Indian scheme of federalism.

Body:

To start with, explain that the framers intended to provide a sturdy centre keeping the sovereignty and unity and integrity in mind considering wide diversity and pluralism in India. Explain the situations were strong centre has played its role ; past demand for Pakistan-backed Khalistan and clamour for Dravida Nadu created instability in the proposed regions and posed a threat to the unity of the country. Issue of Kashmir in the far north, demand for a separate country for Assamese people etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and uniqueness of Indian federalism.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4. What are ‘Cytokine storms’? Discuss its effect on body’s immune system.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The article presents a detailed discussion of what is the cytokine storm and how is it triggered when a virus (or antigen) enters the body for the first time? How does the body’s immune system work? Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concept of cytokine storms and discuss its effect on body’s immune system.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what cytokines are – Cytokines are a class of immune regulatory proteins that are secreted by the cells especially of the immune system.

Body:

Explain what a Cytokine Storm Syndrome is   – it a form of Systematic Inflammatory Response Syndrome that can be triggered by a variety of factors such as infections and certain drugs. It occurs when large number of white blood cells are activated and release inflammatory cytokines which in turn activate yet more white blood cells. Move on to explain Role of Cytokine storm in the human immune system. Present the case of COVID-19 patient, explain the effect in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the fact that cytokine is seen as a likely major cause of mortality in both 1918-20 spanish flue that killed more than 50 million people worldwide. And H1N1(swine flue) and H5N1 (bird flu) outbreaks in recent years.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5.  In what way can the vision and goals of the newly emerged start-ups be made more realistic during uncertain times in the country? Elucidate.(250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why this question:

The question is amidst the woes start-ups across the country are facing owing to the effects of pandemic.

Key demand of the question:

Explain how the vision and goals of the newly emerged start-ups be made more realistic during uncertain times in the country and that can help start-ups pass the storm.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

A start-up is a company or project initiated by an entrepreneur to seek, effectively develop, and validate a scalable business model.

Body:

Briefly discuss the issues and challenges the start-ups across the country are facing from supply constraints to funding.

Explain with specific examples such as – The outbreak has created new challenges across sectors, with start-ups, particularly those in the health space, bearing the brunt of the disruption caused by the 21-day lockdown.

Suggest measures to address the above challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude that proper strategy, increase in customer interaction etc. help startups to turn adverse situations into their favor and make them realize their goals better than before.

 

Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security.

6. Deliberate upon the case of  ‘infodemic’ of misinformation and cybercrime amidst the  COVID-19 pandemic.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The author highlights the fact that it is time for the digital leaders to flatten the curve of the infodemic. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what is an infodemic and how does it lead to misinformation and cybercrimes; illustrate using the present case of COVID-19.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what constitutes an ‘Infodemic’.

Body:

From selling fake coronavirus cures online to a cyber-attack on hospitals’ critical information systems, criminals are exploiting the COVID-19 crisis.

Infodemics are an excessive amount of information about a problem, which makes it difficult to identify a solution. They can spread misinformation, disinformation and rumors during a health emergency. Infodemics can hamper an effective public health response and create confusion and distrust among people. Explain then the importance of awareness, role of media, cyber security etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that we are fighting an ‘infodemic’. Our common enemy is a virus, but our enemy is also a growing surge of misinformation. So to overcome this virus, we need to urgently promote facts and science. We also need to promote hope and solidarity over despair and division.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world. Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. “A genuine leader is not a searcher for consensus but a molder of consensus.” Discuss the statement with focus on the importance of leadership in administration.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is based on a quote by Martin Luther King and is based on the premise of significance of leadership as a key skill in administration.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the importance of consensus and the role of a leader in moulding the same amongst people..

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what ‘consensus’ means, why is it important?

Body:

Consensus, by definition, means “agreement.” In a corporate setting, this translates to an alignment of purpose.

Setting common goals and working toward them brings a company into alignment. This has to be done on a global level as well as on a department-level or on a project-by-project basis.

Measuring on common goals gives clear indicators when things are falling out of alignment. Good leaders know how to set good goals and how to manage them so that their companies stay on-track.

Also explain the fact that those who disagree and who are not part of the “consensus” play a valuable role, too. Consensus cannot be forced, and this is where the role of leaders comes into place.

Illustrate the quote with any relevant example to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Good leaders can mold consensus, through negotiation and demonstration and through resisting anything contrary to the shared end-goal.