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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Price Monitoring & Resource Unit (PMRU).

2. J&K domicile rules.

3. Counter cyclical capital buffer (CCyB) for banks.


GS Paper 3:

1. Anti-smog guns.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Patriot air defence missiles.


PIB One-liner facts.


GS Paper  : 2


Topics Covered: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Price Monitoring & Resource Unit (PMRU)

What to study?

For Prelims: About PMRU and NPPA.

For Mains: Key functions and Significance of PMRUs.

Context: Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory has become the 12th State where the Price Monitoring & Resource Unit (PMRU) has been set up by National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA). 

Where else has NPPA setup PMRUs?

Kerala, Odisha, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Nagaland, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Mizoram.

What is a Price Monitoring & Resource Unit (PMRU)?

It is a registered society and shall function under the direct control and supervision of State Drug Controller of respective states. The unit shall be funded by  NPPA for its recurring and non-recurring expenses.


  1. Help NPPA and State Drug Controller in ensuring availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
  2. Organise seminars, training programs and other information, education and communication (IEC) activities in the areas of availability and affordability of medicines for all.
  3. Collect samples of medicines, collect and analyse data and make reports with respect to availability and over-pricing of medicines for taking action under the provisions of Drug Price Control Order (DPCO).

Insta Links:

Prelims Link:

  1. Who can set up PMRUs?
  2. Role of states in setting up of PMRUs.
  3. Functions of NPPA in context of DPCO regulation.

Mains Link:

Discuss the role and functions of Price Monitoring & Resource Unit (PMRU).

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

J&K domicile rules

What to study?

For Prelims: What is Domicile? Recent changes.

For Mains: Significance and implications of these changes, criticisms surrounding.

Context: Centre redefines Jammu and Kashmir domicile rules opening up various categories of jobs in the region to people from across the country.

The order has been defined under J&K Civil Services (Decentralisation and Recruitment) Act.

What is domicile?

In law, domicile is the status or attribution of being a lawful permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction.

As per the Changes, who is now deemed to have domicile?

  1. Anyone “who has resided for a period of fifteen years in the UT of J&K”.
  2. Or has studied for a period of seven years and appeared in class 10th/12th examination in an educational institution located in the UT of J&K.
  3. Or those registered as migrants and their children.
  4. Or the children of those central government officials, All India service officials, Officials of Public sector undertaking, autonomous body of central government, public sector banks, officials of statuary bodies officials of central universities and recognized research institutes of central government who have served in J&K for a period of ten years.
  5. Or children of residents of J&K who reside outside the Union Territory in connection with employment or business or for other professional or vocational reasons, but whose parents fulfil any of the conditions provided in the latest gazette notification will also be entitled to domicile status.

What else the order says?

The Order says that the domiciles will be eligible for the purposes of appointment to any post carrying a pay scale of not more than Level 4. The Level 4 post comprises positions such as gardeners, barbers, office peons and watermen, and the highest rank in the category is that of a junior assistant.

Who can issue domicile certificates?

The orders also empowers tehsildars to issue domicile certificates. The government has been empowered to notify any other officer as the competent authority to issue the certificate.


The order now formally allows people from outside J&K to apply for jobs in the UT. While Level IV jobs have been reserved for people with domicile status – as per their definition in the order – other non-gazetted and gazetted jobs have been opened for people from across the country, including people domiciled in J&K.


Last year, the Parliament had given its nod to the legislation for bifurcating the state, a decision that seeks to redraw the map and future of a region at the centre of a protracted militancy movement. Earlier, Section 35A associated with the abrogated Article 370 had given the legislative assembly of the state the power to define a Jammu and Kashmir resident.

Insta Links:

Prelims Link:

  1. Definition of domicile?
  2. Who issues domicile certificates?
  3. What is Article 35A?

Mains Link:

Critically examine the effect of abrogation of Article 370 and Article 35A on the federal fabric of the country.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Counter cyclical capital buffer (CCyB) for banks

What to study?

For Prelims: Meaning of CCyB, about Basel Norms.

For Mains: Need for these measures and their significance.

Context: Reserve Bank has deferred implementation of countercyclical capital buffers (CCyB) and extended the realisation period for export proceeds.


The RBI had put in place the framework on counter-cyclical capital buffer (CCyB) on February 5, 2015, wherein it was advised that the CCyB would be activated as and when the circumstances warranted.

What Is a Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCyB) in Banking?

The countercyclical capital buffer is intended to protect the banking sector against losses that could be caused by cyclical systemic risks increasing in the economy.

  • Countercyclical capital buffers require banks to hold capital at times when credit is growing rapidly so that the buffer can be reduced if the financial cycle turns down or the economic and financial environment becomes substantially worse.
  • Banks can use the capital buffers they have built up during the growth phase of the financial cycle to cover losses that may arise during periods of stress and to continue supplying credit to the real economy.


The rule was first introduced in Basel III as an extension of another buffer (called the capital conservation buffer). Basel III is a voluntary set of measures agreed upon by central banks all around the world. These measures were drafted by the Bank of International Settlements’ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in response to the financial crisis of 2007-09, in order to strengthen regulation of banks and fight risks within the financial system.

 Insta Link:

Prelims Link:

  1. What are Basel norms?
  2. Capital conservation buffer vs Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCyB).

Mains Link:

Write a note on Basel norms and their significance.

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper  : 3


Topics Covered: Pollution related issues.

Anti-smog guns

What to study?

For Prelims: How anti smog guns work?

For Mains: Need for and significance, concerns associated with Delhi Air pollution.

Context: Anti-smog guns installed at 14 large project sites in Delhi.


On January 13, the Supreme Court had said that anti-smog guns should be mandatory in projects that require environmental clearance from the State or Centre, and have a built-up area of over 20,000 square metres. As per this, 47 large projects in Delhi had to have these guns installed.

What is it?

  • Anti-smog gun is a device that sprays nebulised water droplets into the atmosphere to reduce air pollution.
  • Connected to a water tank and mounted on a vehicle, the device could be taken across the city to spray water to settle dust and other suspended particles.
  • It can spray water up to a height of 50 metres and the results were positive as the spray acts like rain and settles dust particles and also PM 2.5.

Why we need such measures?

Delhi has been grappling with hazardous levels of pollution since late October, with the air quality dipping to “severe” category a few times. Air pollution and the resulting smog is an outcome of three inputs – local emission of pollutants, emission transport from other states and regions, and meteorological factors like wind speed and temperature.

Need of the hour:

Fragmented policies and toothless environment bodies won’t help. The centre and states will have to work jointly and quickly. Human lungs don’t understand nuances of federalism and partisan politics.

Sources: the Hindu.


Facts for Prelims


Patriot air defence missiles:

Context: US recently deployed Patriot air defence missiles to Iraq.

Patriot (MIM-104) is a long-range, all-altitude, all-weather air defence system to counter tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and advanced aircraft.

The missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system.

The missile has a range of 70km and a maximum altitude greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is less than nine seconds and the maximum is three and a half minutes.


PIB One-liner facts


  • The National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) is a statutory Corporation set up under an Act of Indian Parliament on 13 March 1963. The objectives of NCDC are planning and promoting programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce etc.
  • The Ministry of Civil Aviation has launched “Lifeline Udan” flights for domestic and overseas movement of essential cargo. The objective is to ensure unhindered supply of medical products across the country.

Insights Current Affairs Analysis (ICAN) by IAS Topper