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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 March 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

1. Discuss the non-geographical factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is straightforward from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the non- geographical factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world in detail with suitable examples.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by the availability of many factors. Some of them are: raw material, land, water, labor, capital, power, transport, and market. However there are many non-geographical factors too.

Body:

Discuss the non-geographical factors in detail – Capital investment, Availability of loans, Investment climate, Government policies/regulations, Influence of pressure groups etc.

One should quote relevant examples from India and across the world to justify the answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude that It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. In general, it should also be noted that both lower production cost and lower distribution cost are the two major factors while considering the location of an industry. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidized power, lower transport cost, and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas.

Introduction:

Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Body:

Many important geographical factors involved in the location of individual industries are of relative significance. But besides such purely geographical factors influencing industrial location, there are factors of historical, human, political and economic nature which are now tending to surpass the force of geographical advantages. Consequently, the factors influencing the location of industry can be divided into two broad categories – Geographical and Non- Geographical factors.

Non- Geographical factors:

  • Capital: Modem industries are capital-intensive and require huge investments. Capitalists are available in urban centers. Big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai are big industrial centers, because the big capitalists live in these cities.
  • Government Policies: Government activity in planning the future distribution of industries, for reducing regional disparities, elimination of pollution of air and water and for avoiding their heavy clustering in big cities, has become no less an important locational factor.
  • Industrial Inertia: Industries tend to develop at the place of their original establishment, though the original cause may have disappeared. This phenomenon is referred to as inertia, sometimes as geographical inertia and sometimes industrial inertia. The lock industry at Aligarh is such an example.
  • Efficient Organization: Efficient and enterprising organization and management is essential for running modem industry successfully. Bad management sometimes squanders away the capital and puts the industry in financial trouble leading to industrial ruin.
  • Banking Facilities: Establishment of industries involves daily exchange of crores of rupees which is possible through banking facilities only. So the areas with better banking facilities are better suited to the establishment of industries.
  • Insurance: There is a constant fear of damage to machine and man in industries for which insurance facilities are badly needed.
  • Political and economic situation: Political harmony and peace in a particular region encourage the establishment of industrial units. On the other hand, disturbed political and economic set up discourages the growth of industries in the region. On account of Naxalites movement in West Bengal, Industries started moving out of West Bengal. Similarly, is the case in certain other states where, on account of political disturbances, manufacturers have started thinking to settle elsewhere and further industrial expansion has been greatly affected.
  • Availability of research facilities: The main aim of any industrial undertaking is to have maximum production with minimum cost. Constant research and experimentation is undertaken to develop products and improved methods of production.
  • Possibilities of future expansion: The area for location should be such as to provide all possible opportunities for future development and expansion of the industrial unit without involving extra cost. Every industrial undertaking is established with the aim to expand in future.

Conclusion:

Thus, the location of industries is dependent on a combination of geographical and non-geographical factors.

 

Topic:  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

2. Fishing industry more developed in Northern Hemisphere than in Southern Hemisphere, why? Explain.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is about Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

Key demand of the question:

Explain why Fishing industry more developed in Northern Hemisphere than in Southern Hemisphere.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about fishing industry in general.

Body:

Explain the following possible factors:

  • Cool waters favor the reproduction of phytoplankton.
  • Presence of more plankton that are food for fish avail large numbers of fish.
  • In the northern hemisphere, there are extensive continental shelves which favor fishing grounds.
    The rugged and hilly terrain make agriculture difficult, many people opt for fishing as the main economic activity hence its development.
  • The cool temperate climate favors large scale commercial fishing, preservation and storage of fish.
  • Long and cool winters do not favor agricultural activities hence the development of fish.
  • Presence of sophisticated technology that is highly employed in the handling of fish.
  • High income in the northern hemisphere countries is used to develop the fishing industry.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors. The commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input factors in other industrial processes. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture.

Body:

Regions of fishing industry:

  • The North-West Pacific: Vast stretches of Eurasian region, comprising countries like Korea, Japan, C.I.S., are tradi­tionally major fish producing region over last 50 years.
  • The North-West Atlantic: This fishing region extends from Newfoundland in north to New England state of U.S.A. in the South. This region secures fourth position among fishing regions with 9% of the global catch. Different famous banks, namely Grand bank, Seble bank, Georges banks in this region are famous for fish concentration.
  • The North-East Atlantic: At present, this region secures top position in the total catch of fish. It roughly accounts for 21% of the total global catch. This region covers an area that extends from Iceland to Mediterranean coast through C.I.S., Denmark, Norway, Spain, Iceland. U.K. etc. This region is also known as North-West Euro­pean Zone.
  • The North-East Pacific: This region is situated exclusively in North American continent, stretches from Alaska to California in U.S.A. This is the fourth largest fish-producing area on earth, accounting for 7% of the world’s catch. The major areas of fishing include San Francisco, Los Angeles, Vancouver etc. The major fish varieties are salmon, tuna, halibut and herring.
  • Southern Hemisphere: Temperate fishing grounds of Southern hemisphere attained such a massive growth in recent years that it has been able to surpass the traditional producing regions of Northern hemisphere. Among the top five fish-producing countries, two — Peru (second) and Chile (fourth) — are from Southern hemisphere.

Reasons for development of fishing industry in the Northern hemisphere over southern hemisphere:

  • Wide expanse of continental shelf. E.g.: N.W. Pacific which is below 200 metres of depth
  • Presence of shallow water.
  • Confluence of warm and cold current and subsequent growth of abundant plankton. E.g.: warm Kuroshio current with cold Oyashio current; warm Gulf Stream with cold Labrador Current
  • The traditional skill in fishing.
  • Large population of the country and absence of protein food.
  • Absence of alternative occupation.
  • Numerous ports in this region facilitate export-import facilities.
  • Broken coast line provides excellent facilities of port and fishing harbour building.
  • Deposition of abundant product by inland rivers. E.g.: Hoang Ho, Kitakami that is consumed by fish.
  • Cold climate facilitates preservation facilities.
  • Nearby forest provides wood for ship building.

Conclusion:

India’s long coastline has the potential of becoming the strength of the economy particularly through the exploitation of the Blue Revolution. India can grow to the extent of 10 trillion-dollar economy as against 2.7 trillion dollars today with the help of the Blue Economy. India needs to develop more scientifically its fishing system and other related aspects such as freezing, packaging, etc.

 

Topic:  Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Explain why the Indian Constitution has been argued to have created a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Polity by Lakshmikant  , Live Mint

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II and it aims to ascertain in what way Indian constitution represents a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail why Indian constitution reflects a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the fundamental basis of Federation in Indian Constitution.

Body:

The debate whether India has a ‘Federal Constitution’ and ‘Federal Government’ has been grappling us since the conception of our Constitution. In India, Federalism is considered as a basic feature of the Constitution, even though the word is not mentioned anywhere in the Constitution.

Discuss the main federal features of the Indian Constitution which makes it closer to Federal state.

Discuss the reasons why India is described as federation with a centralizing tendency.

Conclusion:

Conclude that as stated by K.C. Wheare, in practice the Constitution of India is quasi-federal in nature and not strictly federal. It is a union or a composite of a novel type. Thus, it can be safely said that the Indian Federalism is unique in nature i.e. ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’ and is tailored According to the specific needs of the country.

Introduction:

Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. The Constitution of India establishes a federal structure to the Indian government, declaring it to be a “Union of States”. Indian model of federalism is called quasi-federal system as it contains major features of both a federation and union.

Body:

Indian constitution is a blend of federal feature with unitary bias. Some of the federal feature are.

  • Dual polity: two government one at the Centre and in states with defined functions and responsibilities.
  • Written and Rigid Constitution: Ratification by states for Constitutional amendment involving federal features. E.g. GST passage requiring consent of the states.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution – Any law or amendment affecting the federal feature will be struck down by the Supreme Court.
  • Division of powers: 7th schedule with 3 lists. States are supreme in their own sphere and have responsible government with law making power to the legislature.
  • Bicameral Legislature: Like other Federations, the Constitution of India also provides for a bicameral Parliament consisting of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
  • Independent judiciary: so that there is no unilateral change in division of power by the Centre.

Yet, Indian federalism deviates from the federal characteristics as below and shows unitary features

  • Constitutional amendment procedure- the power to initiate an amendment to the Constitution lies only with the Centre.
  • States not indestructible- e.g. Recent Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act without popular government support.
  • All India Services- Centre has the ultimate control over the civil servants.
  • Emergency provisions: as H V Kamath notes, this single chapter turns the federal character of Indian political setup to unitary. 1975 emergency is a best example.
  • President rule under article 356: is a loophole to the federal feature and is misused several times. E.g. Unconstitutional imposition of president rule in Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in 2016.
  • Governor’s office- Governors appointment and his/her actions in crucial times has been criticized for being biased towards the power at Centre. Eg. Governor of Karnataka and Manipur inviting the second largest party to form the government instead of single largest party. This shows the Centre influence in state government formation.
  • No Equality of State Representation- Representation in the legislature in the federal states in United States is on an equal basis, which is also not applicable in case of Indian States. Thus, making the federation in India unequal.
  • Deployment of armed forces in states without the consent of states is seen as violation of federal character.

Reasons for a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’:

  •  The framers of the Indian Constitution were influenced, in their task, by a variety of factors.
  • The first was, the status of the provinces into which the country stood divided on the eve of constitution-making.
  • More important than the status of the provinces and the princely states was the question of the integrity and stability of the country in the years to come.
  • India was a vast and populous country with deep diversities of races, religions, languages, traditions, cultures and regions. All of them were contending for recognition and growth.
  • The centrifugal forces had always been strong in the country’s history. They did not die down with the attainment of Independence.
  • The constitution makers perceived the vital need of a strong central government which would keep in check those disintegrating forces and safeguard the solidarity, sovereignty and integrity of the country.
  • The problems created by some of the big princely states and the terms and conditions presented by the Chamber of Princes to negotiate their accession to the Dominion of India firmed up the thinking of the constitution-makers that India should have a strong and powerful government at the center.
  • The third factor uppermost in the mind of the makers of the constitution was that the functions and responsibilities of modern welfare state were so vast and complex and the plans of economic reconstruction and development were so much inter-dependent that only a central government equipped with sufficient resources and authority could discharge them with speed and success.
  • The founding-fathers of the Indian Constitution were also conscious of the vast responsibilities and obligations which a free India would have to undertake in the international arena. These could not be discharged if India were weak, divided or involved in something like a civil strife.
  • In order to avoid all these, it was considered vital that the central government should be strong and powerful.

Conclusion:

The Indian Constitution is neither purely federal nor purely unitary, but it’s a combination of both. Indian Constitution is mainly federal with unique safeguards for enforcing national unity and growth. Also, federalism is not dead in India, as evidenced by the fact that new regions are demanding statehood and union has yielded, thus states like Manipur, Tripura, Goa, etc. have been created.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Deliberate the major amendments in the competition bill 2019 which would meaningfully change the enforcement of competition law in the country.(250 words)

Reference: Financial Express

Why this question:

The Indian Government constituted the Competition Law Review Committee in 2018, with a view to update the Competition Act; 2002.The Committee submitted its report to the Government in 2019. Based on the recommendations made in the report, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has introduced a draft Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2020 to overhaul the Act. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Highlight the major amendments in the competition bill 2019 which would meaningfully change the enforcement of competition law in the country.

Directive:

DeliberateWeigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly first highlight the role of the Competition Commission of India.

Body:

Start with need for the Competition Commission (amendment) Bill 2020.

Discuss then the key amendments being proposed. Explain what advantages it brings with it.

Highlight the key issues that need to be addressed.

Discuss the deliberations that took place; take cues from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2019 aims to bring about structural changes in the governing framework of the Competition Commission of India (CCI). It also proposes to structure and expand CCI’s activities by setting up regional offices across India. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has put the draft Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2020, in the public domain to seek feedback. The Draft Bill proposes certain significant amendments to the Act, including: imprisonment for non-compliance with directions of the Director General; commitment and settlement procedure in non-cartel cases; more expeditious combination review process; and constitution of a Governing Board for non-adjudicatory functions.

Body:

Major amendments in the competition bill 2019:

  • Change in the regulatory structure of the CCI: the CCI has been wearing many hats since its inception. It had been vested with adjudicatory, advisory, investigative, quasi-legislative, and advocacy functions. Recognizing this, the CLRC recommended a change in the regulatory structure to make it more robust and effective to deal with the new age issues.
  • The Bill provides for the constitution of a Governing Body. The Governing Body would comprise
    • the Chairperson of the CCI,
    • its six whole time members,
    • the Secretary of the Department of Economic Affairs,
    • Ministry of Finance or his nominee,
    • Secretary of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and his nominee, and
    • four (4) other part-time members to be nominated by the Central Government.
  • They will be Vested with the power to make regulations, take measures to promote awareness and create a National Competition Policy, the Governing Board will exercise general superintendence, direction and management of the affairs of the CCI.
  • The CCI will now discharge only the adjudicatory functions.
  • Statutory provision to invite public comments: In a very welcome move, the Bill creates an obligation on the Governing Board to seek public comments on all regulations.
  • With a limited exception of urgency in public interests, and regulations pertaining to internal working of the CCI, this provision will bring elements transparency and democratic rule making to the system.
  • Issuing the penalty guidance: The Bill requires the CCI to issue the much awaited penalty guidelines. The penalty guidance is expected to give recognition to the relevant turnover principles and lay down the manner of determination of the percentage of the penalty and application of aggravating and mitigating factors.
  • Streamlining procedure for regulation of combinations: The Bill makes a large number of changes to regulation of combinations. Some of these, such as, reducing the time-limit for deemed approval from two hundred and ten days (210) days to one hundred and fifty days (150) days, make substantive changes.
  • Amendments to streamline the procedure for inquiry into combinations: currently the sections in the Act leave a lot of glaring gaps in the inquiry procedure. Despite this, the CCI through regulations, notifications and practice has been conducting inquiries into combinations. The Bill seeks to fill some of these gaps, giving statutory sanctity to the practices followed by the CCI. This will also reduce the possibility of appeals against combination orders which have been in the past on account of insufficiency of the statutory provisions.
  • New thresholds for merger control: The Bill empowers the CCI and Central Government to define new thresholds for merger notification by introducing a proviso to Section 5.
  • Given the dynamic nature of the digital markets, application of this power requires exercise of caution. This may result in increasing compliance costs for businesses and impact the ease of doing business. It is necessary that the introduction of objective thresholds or criterion is preceded by a detailed economic and legal assessment of the necessity of such thresholds, the basis of the thresholds and the value of the thresholds.
  • Expansion of definition of a cartel: The Bill expands the definition of a cartel to include a buyer’s cartel as well. This implies that even in cases of buyer’s cartel, the presumption of appreciable adverse effect on competition (AAEC) will apply to buyer’s cartel as well.
  • Extending protection to holders of intellection property rights: In line with the recommendations of the CLRC, the Bill, seeks to widen protection offered to holders of IPR. The exemption for IPR holders is currently restricted to anti-competitive agreements. This brings the much-needed parity between the treatment of anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position.
  • The regime of settlements and commitments: In a very significant development, the Bill introduces a system for settlements and commitments permitting the CCI to close the investigation on basis of an application for settlement or commitment moved by the investigated party.

Benefits of amendments:

  • It would benefit the public at large
  • The new startups business would be benefitted a lot
  • The digital economy

Conclusion:

The Bill is a positive step in the direction of an efficient CCI 2.0. While there are somethings which remain desired, one can hope that the consultation process leads to beneficial outcomes and most concerns raised by the stakeholders are appropriately addressed.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. What is Laser Surface Micro texturing? Discuss the significance of it.(250 words)

Reference: pib.go.in

Why this question:

International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), an autonomous R&D Centre of Department of Science and Technology (DST), has recently developed ultrafast laser surface texturing technology, which can improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines. Thus the context of the question.

 Key demand of the question:

Deliberate what laser surface micro texturing technology is and explain how does it help to improve fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Laser Surface Micro texturing.

Body:

  • In this technology, a pulsating laser beam creates micro-dimples or grooves on the surface of materials in a very controlled manner.
  • The texture surfaces were created on automotive internal combustion engine components, piston rings and cylinder liners using 100 fs pulse duration laser.
  • The created textures were tested in an engine test ring under different speeds and temperatures of coolant and lubrication oil.

Explain the significance of the technology –

  • It offers precise control of the size, shape and density of micro-surface texture features and has gained momentum as a way to control friction and wear.
  • Textures can trap wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate.
  • By using this there was a 16% reduction in the lube oil consumption with the use of texture on the piston rings.
  • Fabrication of a pattern of micro dimples or grooves on the surface of materials results in a change in surface topography which generates additional hydrodynamic pressure, thereby increasing the load–carrying capacity of the surfaces.
  • Hence these become useful for trapping wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate etc.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Laser surface micro-texturing offers precise control of the size, shape and density of micro-surface texture features. In this technology, a pulsating laser beam creates micro-dimples or grooves on the surface of materials in a very controlled manner. The International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI) has developed ultrafast laser surface texturing technology, which can improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.

Body:

Laser surface micro-texturing:

  • In this technology, a pulsating laser beam creates micro-dimples or grooves on the surface of materials in a very controlled manner.
  • Such textures can trap wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate.
  • The texture surfaces were created on automotive internal combustion engine components, piston rings and cylinder liners using 100 fs pulse duration laser.
  • The micro dimples of 10-20 μm diameter and about 5-10 μm deep which have been created with laser beams had a regular pattern.

Properties / advantages of micro-texturing using ultrashort pulse lasers are:

  • Machining of extremely small features of down to 10 µm or smaller
  • Very high depth resolution (sub-micrometer)
  • Works on nearly every material, including very hard materials
  • Negligible heat effects: no melt, burrs, or other damage
  • Contact and force-free process

Significance:

  • The created textures were tested in an engine test rig under different speeds and temperatures of coolant and lubrication oil, and it was observed that there was a 16% reduction in the lube oil consumption with the use of texture on the piston rings.
  • The 10-hour lube oil consumption test shows that the blow-by substantially reduced with textured rings.
  • Fabrication of a pattern of micro dimples or grooves on the surface of materials results in a change in surface topography which generates additional hydrodynamic pressure, thereby increasing the load-carrying capacity of the surfaces.
  • These textures can become useful for trapping wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate.

Application areas: There are various applications for the types of textures that can be produced using laser micro-texturing:

  • Decorative textures – Improving the look of parts by adding high definition / low relief textures or LIPSS / color effects to parts
  • Tribology – Changing frictional properties, e.g., reducing friction on moving parts (seals, bearings) or creating soft-touch consumer or medical parts
  • Wetting – Making surfaces super-hydrophobic (water repellent) or super-hydrophilic
  • Optical properties – Altering the surface to reduce glare, change the absorption of light, or even act as a diffraction grating (using LIPSS)

 

Topic:  Case study

7. Mr. X worked in the human resources department that was interviewing applicants for a top job in a widget company. After reading many applications, one stood out way ahead of the others. Then he realized that he knew the applicant, Mr. Y. They had hung out together when they were teenagers. Mr. Y had been a wild kid and once was arrested for shoplifting and the possession of drugs. Mr. Y had completed mandatory counseling and, as far as Mr. X knew, Mr. Y had straightened out his life and had done well during the last twenty years. Mr. Y hadn’t indicated in his application that he had once been arrested and Mr. X feared that the company would never hire someone with a police record, no matter how minor or how long ago the offence was. Do you favor Mr. X revealing the information? (250 words)

Why this question:

The case study is based on the principle of Integrity.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the nuances of the case first, explain the possible approached that one can take and justify your stance with suitable ethical backing.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short explain the demand of the case study.

Body:

Identify the ethical questions involved in the case study first.

Explain what are the possible approaches that are available to resolve the situation.

Explain that global ethics and professional standards demand one to always act with integrity.

Being open and transparent are key to ethics at work.

So Mr. X need to tell the company and let them decide what is the best for

Company’s interest. Moreover, in above case Mr. Y has already committed a crime by not disclosing all the information to company regarding his arrest or conviction so this also need to be taken into account where it is reflected that above person in future could distort the facts for his benefit.

Explain what the concerns are if he holds the information and doesn’t call out for it.

Conclusion:

Suggest a suitable middle path and conclude with a balanced solution.

Introduction:

The above case study shows the issues faced by Mr. X who is working in the HR department. There is conflict of interest faced by Mr. X in hiring Mr. Y. However, Mr. Y has a history of being arrested and has served sentence, which goes against the company policies.

Body:

In the above situation, I would certainly favour Mr. X revealing the true information to the company. This is imperative as the intellectual integrity of Mr. X would be upheld. Further, as an employee of the company, it is important for Mr. X to be honest and work for the betterment of the company. By not revealing the information and being on the HR panel would be a conflict of interest on the part of Mr. X. The best course of action for Mr. X here would be to inform the HR panel and recuse himself from the interview panel. Further, Mr. Y has over the years after having served the jail sentence, has honed his skills and is competent enough to crack the interview to get the job. His job experience of 20 years and his achievements in the due course speaks a lot of his professional prowess. As Mr. Y hasn’t revealed in his job application of his arrest, it would be wise of him to reveal in the interview which shows his honesty and integrity. Further, with his professional skills and his academic strengths and past job record, he could prove his mettle to the HR. If the HR team finds merit in Mr. Y, there are all possibilities that the company policies could be overlooked.

Conclusion:

Mr.Y’s case could be a beacon of honesty and integrity in the company if he speaks out the truth and gains the job by fair means. In the process, Mr. X’s commitment to the company values and his professionalism would also be upheld if he reveals the truth and recuses himself from the selection panel.