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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 March 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

1. What are the factors that determine the location of Silk industries in India? Briefly explain the changes in the location of these industries from 19th century till the present times.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the factors that determine the location of Silk industries in India and as well trace the change in these locations from 19th century till the present times.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly first bring out the current locations of silk industries in the country.

Body:

Explain the factors that determine the location of silk industry.

Comment on the key factors – labor, raw material and market.

Use the map of India to highlight the factors and respective locations – Karnataka, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir etc.

Then move onto trace the changes in the location; discuss the factors such as technology, advancement in science etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the industry in the country.

Introduction:

India’s Silk Industry is world’s second largest after China. The total production of silk in India stood at around 23,000 tonnes in the year 2011-12. India produces four varieties of silk produced, viz. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar and Muga. About 80% of silk produced in country is of mulberry silk, majority of which is produced in the three southern States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Sericulture Provides gainful occupation to around 63 Lakh persons in rural and semi-urban areas in India. About 97% of raw silk in India is produced in five Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir.

Body:

Factors that determine the location of Silk industries in India:

  • Raw Material: Mulberry plants can be grown in any type of soil even in forest fringes, hill slopes. They can withstand draught and grows well in non-green revolution, non-irrigated areas of East and NE India.
  • Labour: Sericulture does not involve hard labor. Silkworms can be reared by women and old people. In Eastern States, Farmers earlier used to grow Jute but Jute demand declined so they shifted to Sericulture.
  • Capital: works on simple technology, no sophisticated equipment needed and can be done by small and marginal farmers, tribals.
  • Market: There is still good demand for Silk Saris in India.

silk_map

Changes in the location of these industries from 19th century till the present times:

  • Technology: Central Silk board located in Bangalore. Further, technical knowledge sharing by Japan Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
  • Machinery /devices: Machinery / devices used for drying, cooking, reeling and re-reeling processes
  • Move from handlooms to machine looms has helped in mass production of silk sarees.
  • Government Policy: Sericulture done via cooperatives, SHGs which are more efficient and standard production compared to individual farmer.
  • Government provides extension service, training to farmers which act as secondary source of income.
  • Export policies which has helped the spread of market to countries across world.
  • Market: The sale of silk sarees through e-Commerce websites.

Conclusion:

High Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) with potential to generate huge employment involving women, augmenting income of farmers, eco-friendly options which help in preserving the biodiversity makes Sericulture a viable option in India.

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

2. Despite being mineral-rich, the Eastern states of India have failed to register expected growth and social indices. Examine the causes for this failure and suggest remedial measures.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the factors that have been responsible to failure of Eastern states in terms of growth and development despite being mineral rich.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by mentioning about the mineral wealth of Eastern India.

Body:

Mention the reasons for poor socio-economic growth of the region; lacunae and neglect in policy making, difficulty owing to terrain and physiography in the region, historical milieu, lack of support from local people, negative impact of mining etc.

Suggest measures to improve the condition. Indicate towards policies which are already in place, suggest improvements if any that can be made.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Inclusive and sustainable growth is the way forward and the policies should focus on it.

Introduction:

As per the ministry of Mines data, the eastern states of India – Jharkhand (7.72%), Chhattisgarh (6.65%) and Odisha (10.62%) account for more than 24.9% of the value of mineral production in the country. Despite being mineral rich region, it remains to be one of the most underdeveloped regions of the country. They continue to fare badly in indicators like health, education, employment and social inclusion.

Body:

Reasons for poor growth and social indices:

  • State failure: In India, governance in the mining sector has been poor for a very long time. When government agencies come into play at all, they typically support the mining companies instead of the people affected. Indeed, the government agencies hardly have the manpower or other resources to check violations or investigate them after they have been committed.
  • Neglect in policy making: The region has a history of exploitation of its mineral wealth without giving due regard to harmful impacts on the environment and local people.
  • Low decentralization: The locals being poor and vulnerable have no say in high level decision making. Even Gram Sabhas do not work as per their mandate.
  • Environmental concerns: Another area of concern is how serious India is about protecting its environment. The multi-city dialogue examined the nature and the intent of the laws on environmental preservation, biodiversity and the manner in which such regulations are circumvented and flouted.
  • Resistance: Rapid growth and industrialization is resisted by local people due to mistrust on governance policies which resulted into growth of Naxalism.
  • Difficult terrain and low outreach: A number of villages are remotely located which creates hindrances in implementation of government programmes like immunization, literacy promotion, etc.
  • Negative impacts of mining: Mining has direct impacts on health and well-being of locals. Cancer cases in the nearby villages of Jaduguda mines of Jharkhand due to radioactive waste generated from uranium mining are widely documented.

Measures needed to improve the situation:

  • Utilizing District Mineral Foundation funds: MMDRA Act 2015 mandates that 60% of the DMF funds must be utilized for high priority areas such as drinking water supply, health care, sanitation, education, skill development, women and child care, welfare of aged and disabled people and environment conservation.
  • There is need to expedite work of Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY) to ensure sustainable livelihood for the affected people.
  • Institutional approaches: National Mineral Policy 2019 suggests establishing an inter-ministerial body to create a mechanism for ensuring sustainable mining with adequate concerns for the environment and socio-economic issues in the mining areas, and to advise the Government on rates of royalty, dead rent etc.
  • Investing in infrastructure: Improving connectivity, increasing irrigated area which is currently only 16.6% in Chhattisgarh and 7% in Jharkhand is the need of the hour.
  • Promoting local specialization and resources: Providing GI tags to local producers which help in export earning, promotion of tourism, cultural heritage and regional identity, simultaneously preserving traditional skills. For ex: Odisha’s Kotpad Handloom fabric, Bastar Iron Craft of Chhattisgarh, etc.
  • Similarly, with India going plastic free, utilizing the minor forest produce like Tendu leaves, jute and handloom products has immense potential to boost the local economy.
  • Boosting tourism potential: The Tribal Circuit of Swadesh Darshan Scheme aims to develop and promote tribal rituals, festivals, customs and culture. This is also necessary to promote national integration by developing a sense of respect for the tribal way of life.

Conclusion:

Development of the Eastern States is critical for achieving Sustainable Development Goals of No poverty, Zero Hunger, Good Health and Well Being, Quality education and Reduced Inequalities. All developmental policies for the socio-economic growth of the region should adhere to the motto of ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’. Inclusive and sustainable growth is the way forward.

 

Topic:  Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. The tenth schedule has become a catalyst of political opportunism in the country, as new innovative measures have been brought up to bypass the law. Critically analyse perils of electoral politics in this context.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

 The perils of electoral politics can be seen recently in the case of Madhya Pradesh. Similar was the case in Uttarakhand assembly last year. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

One must provide for critical analysis of tenth schedule and bring out the lacunae in it while suggesting solutions to address.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the context of the question.

Body:

Explain the provisions under tenth schedule in short.

Then explain the case of Madhya Pradesh that happened recently, one can also mention cases of other states that witnessed similar fate.

Explain the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution was meant to deal with the politics of opportunism however it is working as a catalyst against the mandate with which it was brought in place.

Suggest what needs to be done to address these challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Defection is “desertion by one member of the party of his loyalty towards his political party” or basically it means “When an elected representative joins another party without resigning his present party for benefits”.

The Anti-Defection Law was passed in 1985 through the 52nd Amendment to the Constitution, which added the Tenth Schedule to the Indian Constitution.  The main intent of the law was to combat “the evil of political defections” which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.  The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies. However, there are several issues in relation to the working of this law.

Body:

With Madhya Pradesh government now teetering on the edge after 22 of the ruling Congress’ MLAs rebelled against Chief Minister Kamal Nath, the controversial anti-defection law — or simply The Tenth Schedule of the Indian Constitution — is back into focus. The law, however, has also been applied in the event when an MP or MLA defies a party ‘whip’, or in other words, votes against the party line on key issues, not necessarily linked to the survival of the government. Apart from other loopholes, the law has evoked scrutiny time and again, and also a demand for reforms for resting ‘quasi-judicial powers’ in the hands of the Speaker.

Grounds for disqualification:

  • If a member of a house belonging to a political party:
    • Voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party, or
    • Votes, or does not vote in the legislature, contrary to the directions of his political party.
    • However, if the member has taken prior permission, or is condoned by the party within 15 days from such voting or abstention, the member shall not be disqualified.
  • If an independent candidate joins a political party after the election.
  • If a nominated member joins a party six months after he becomes a member of the legislature.

Exception:

  • Merger: A person shall not be disqualified if his original political party merges with another, and:
    • He and other members of the old political party become members of the new political party, or
    • He and other members do not accept the merger and opt to function as a separate group.
  • This exception shall operate only if not less than two-thirds of the members of party in the House have agreed to the merger.

Power to disqualify:

  • The Chairman or the Speaker of the House takes the decision to disqualify a member.
  • If a complaint is received with respect to the defection of the Chairman or Speaker, a member of the House elected by that House shall take the decision.

Advantages of anti-defection law:

  • Provides stability to the government by preventing shifts of party allegiance.
  • Ensures that candidates remain loyal to the party as well the citizens voting for him.
  • Promotes party discipline.
  • Facilitates merger of political parties without attracting the provisions of Anti-defection
  • Expected to reduce corruption at the political level.
  • More concentration on governance is possible.
  • Provides for punitive measures against a member who defects from one party to another.

Challenges posed/Shortcomings of anti-defection law:

  • The anti-defection law raises a number of questions, several of which have been addressed by the courts and the presiding officers.
  • The law impinges on the right of free speech of the legislators:
    • This issue was addressed by the five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court in 1992 (Kihoto Hollohan vs Zachilhu and others). The court said that “the anti-defection law seeks to recognise the practical need to place the proprieties of political and personal conduct…above certain theoretical assumptions.” It held that the law does not violate any rights or freedoms, or the basic structure of parliamentary democracy.
  • Doubts regarding “voluntarily” resigning from a party:
    • According to a Supreme Court judgment, “voluntarily giving up the membership of the party” is not synonymous with “resignation”.
    • It has interpreted that in the absence of a formal resignation by the member, the giving up of membership can be inferred by his conduct.
    • In other judgments, members who have publicly expressed opposition to their party or support for another party were deemed to have resigned
  • Regarding Whips:
    • Political parties issue a direction to MPs on how to vote on most issues, irrespective of the nature of the issue.
    • It restricts a legislator from voting in line with his conscience, judgement and interests of his electorate.
    • Such a situation impedes the oversight function of the legislature over the government, by ensuring that members vote based on the decisions taken by the party leadership, and not what their constituents would like them to vote for.
  • Challenging the decision of the presiding officer in the courts:
    • The law states that the decision is final and not subject to judicial review. There are several instances that presiding officers take politically partisan view.
    • The Supreme Court struck down part of this condition. It held that there may not be any judicial intervention until the presiding officer gives his order. However, the final decision is subject to appeal in the High Courts and Supreme Court.

Various Recommendations to overcome the above challenges:

  • Dinesh Goswami Committee on electoral reforms: Disqualification should be limited to following cases:
    • A member voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party
    • A member abstains from voting, or votes contrary to the party whip in a motion of vote of confidence or motion of no-confidence. Political parties could issue whips only when the government was in danger.
  • Law Commission (170th Report)
    • Provisions which exempt splits and mergers from disqualification to be deleted.
    • Pre-poll electoral fronts should be treated as political parties under anti-defection
    • Political parties should limit issuance of whips to instances only when the government is in danger.
  • Election Commission
    • Decisions under the Tenth Schedule should be made by the President/ Governor on the binding advice of the Election Commission.

Conclusion:

The anti-defection law seeks to provide a stable government by ensuring the legislators do not switch sides. The true objective to enhance the credibility of the country’s polity by addressing rampant party-hopping by elected representatives should be pursued rather than using it as a political tool to pursue narrow interests of party.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Amidst the all-round disruption caused to the economy by the COVID-19 outbreak, a concern across the world is the possibility of a loss of jobs, discuss the idea of ‘Kurzarbeit’ under such circumstances.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

Amid the all-round disruption caused to the economy by the novel coronavirus outbreak, a concern across the world is the possibility of loss of jobs.

Germany’s Kurzabeit is being mentioned time and again in this context. Also, the German cabinet is planning to extend the benefit of short-time work allowance by the first half of April through legislation. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concept of Kurzabeit and its significance in the current times.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define – Kurzarbeit; it is German for “short-work”. The policy provides for a short-time work allowance, called kurzarbeitgeld, which partially compensates for lost earnings during uncertain economic situations.

Body:

Explain how it works – When companies face a loss of earnings due to unforeseen economic situations, they often need to cut back on their working hours or send some of their employees’ home.

The Kurzarbeit scheme aims to address workers who are impacted by loss of income due to shortened work hours during such times. They can apply for short-term work benefits under the scheme, with the government stepping in to pay employees a part of their lost income.

This helps the companies retain their employees instead of laying them off, and allows the latter to sustain themselves for a period of up to 12 months.

Conclusion:

Conclude with benefits of such a system.

Introduction:

The novel coronavirus outbreak is a concern across the world. Amid the all-round disruption caused to the economy the major possibility is loss of jobs having a lot of implications like poverty, loss of livelihood etc. Various governments have unveiled various measures to address such concerns, and one of the most talked about is Kurzarbeit, Germany’s existing scheme that provides for partial compensation for a worker’s earnings in such situations, and now modified to account for the current crisis.

Body:

Kurzarbeit:

  • Kurzarbeit is German for “short-work”.
  • The policy provides for a short-time work allowance, called kurzarbeitgeld, which partially compensates for lost earnings during uncertain economic situations.

Kurzarbeit in Germany:

  • The German cabinet is planning to extend the benefit of short-time work allowance by the first half of April through legislation.
  • As of now, if a company sees a decline in orders as a result of the current economic situation, it can announce short-time work.
  • It also provided that a minimum of 30 per cent of its workforce will be affected by lack of work.
  • With the new legislation, the ceiling will be revised to 10 per cent of the workforce.

Importance of Kurzarbeit for Indian Economy:

  • When companies face a loss of earnings due to unforeseen economic situations, they often need to cut back on their working hours or send some of their employees’ home.
  • The Kurzarbeit scheme aims to address workers who are impacted by loss of income due to shortened work hours during such times.
  • They can apply for short-term work benefits under the scheme, with the government stepping in to pay employees a part of their lost income.
  • This helps the companies retain their employees instead of laying them off, and allows the latter to sustain themselves for a period of up to 12 months.

Conclusion:

Germany’s use of Kurzarbeit during the 2008-2009 economic crisis has been cited as one of the reasons why the country was able to hold its unemployment rate to within 7.5 per cent even during the recession.

 

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Economic policies can bridge the gap between the brutal downturn and eventual recovery due to COVID19. Deliberate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

Minus 40 per cent, -30 per cent, -22 per cent, and -14 per cent are the estimated impacts (at an annualized rate) on the quarterly growth rates of China, the UK, Eurozone, and the US because of the Covid-19 virus. Thus the context of the question.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to explain the role of economy in addressing the downturn caused by the outbreak.

Directive:

DeliberateWeigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the current case, substantiate with necessary facts and data.

Body:

Explain that Economic policy needs to “bridge the gap” between the downturn and the eventual recovery.

Discuss the key role that economic policies across the countries must play – While public health policies force a sudden stop in the economy to save lives, economic policies need to ensure that the impact from the shutdown is cushioned, incomes of households and firms supported, credit stress is contained, and the recovery is not hamstrung by policy headwinds.

Discuss how these above factors need policy support.

Discuss the issues associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The global pandemic caused by Covid-19 has had its impact on global economy. The estimated quarterly growth rates of China, the UK, Eurozone, and the US are – 40 per cent, -30 per cent, -22 per cent, and -14 per cent respectively. Emerging market economies like Korea and Taiwan are expected to go into recession in the first half of 2020. India will not be spared this growth shock. In fact, the economic impact could be deeper and longer in emerging markets where the capacity of public health systems is limited at the best of times.

Body:

The reason for the slowdown in global economy is due to the way to control the spread of the virus which is through aggressive containment and social distancing that inevitably brings economic activity to a sudden stop.

Impact on Indian economy:

  •  The swathe of the economy that depends on social interaction — retail sales, entertainment, restaurants, and importantly construction and manufacturing — is very large.
  • Even if one believes that rural areas with relatively low population densities will not be affected much, the impact on urban economic activity could be very large.

Role of economic policy in such circumstances:

  • It needs to “bridge the gap” between the brutal downturn and the eventual recovery.
  • economic policies need to ensure that the impact from the shutdown is cushioned.
  • It should ensure the incomes of households and firms supported.
  • The credit stress must be contained.
  • Further it should ensure that recovery is not hamstrung by policy headwinds.
  • Central banks not only need to cut rates but also need to provide adequate liquidity and extend regulatory forbearance to prevent credit stress and non-performing loans from clogging up the already strained financial system when the economy starts to recover.
  • The role of fiscal policy is even larger, from direct and indirect tax cuts or postponement, to targeted credit support for sectors that are likely to be most affected such as airlines and retail trade.
  • the key is income support to the most vulnerable: From daily wage earners to SMEs (small and medium enterprises); this could be done through DBT using JAM and Mudra.

Conclusion:

If India is forced into a longer lockdown, the economic costs will be very large. This critically requires income transfers to vulnerable households and SMEs. India cannot complain that it does not have the fiscal space or the infrastructure to provide it. It must make use of the fiscal space created through the currently low oil prices and increasing the excise on the fuel. The infrastructure would be provided using the tool of JAM.

 

Topic:  , transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints

6. What India is at present facing is not a “supply”, but a “supply chain” problem in its agriculture sector. Analyse the statement amidst hurdles for free movement and trade in agricultural produce owing to lockdown.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The Author explains that amid lockdown, hurdles for free movement and trade in agricultural produce must be cleared immediately.

Key demand of the question:

One should explain the issue the agriculture sector facing in the country and what needs to be done to save the sector amidst the ill-effects of the lockdown to it.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly highlight the ongoing problems in the agriculture sector.

Body:

To start with, explain first the effect of the lockdown on the agriculture system of the country.

Explain – What India is at present facing is not a “supply”, but a “supply chain” problem, list down the causative factors first – inter-state movement restrictions and arbitrary actions by local authorities to enforce the lockdown etc.

Take hints from the article and explain what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Food Corporation of India’s current wheat and rice stocks are over 3.5 times the required normative buffer reserve. Government godowns are also overflowing with surplus stocks of pulses. However, the situation today, arising from the nationwide lockdown to combat the novel coronavirus has led to the breakdown of supply chain posing a big problem in agricultural sector. This would result in food quality issues, huge wastage of food, reduced remuneration to farmers and agrarian distress.

Body:

Hurdles for free movement and trade in agri produce due to lockdown:

  • The supplies are plentiful but the shutting down of hotels, restaurants and catering businesses has led to demand destruction from institutional buyers.
  • With abundant availability and demand now largely restricted to direct household consumption, there could be scope for panic buying and hoarding and people going without food.
  • Inter-state movement restrictions and arbitrary actions by local authorities to enforce the lockdown — including closing down produce collection centres and warehouses of organized retailers.
  • The links in the chain connecting farmers to consumers have broken down, in turn opening up arbitrage opportunities for unscrupulous speculators
  • Agriculture is a ‘state subject’ and a large part of investment as well as regulatory progress is happening at the state level. The lack of coordination between the states at this time of crisis would be a debacle.
  • Limited reach of mandis: Also, this procurement system has failed to cover the entire country evenly (back of the envelope calculation suggests that on an average, a farmer needs to travel 12 kms to reach the nearest mandi and more than 50 kms in NE India) while according to the recommendations by National Farmers Commission, availability of markets should be within a 5 km radius.
  • Inadequate infrastructure for storage: The Planning Commission has recently estimated the gap between agri-warehousing supply and demand at 35 mn MT.
  • Lack of cold storage infrastructure: India’s current cold storage capacity at 25 MT is barely sufficient for 10% of fruit and vegetables produced in the country. 

Solutions to ease the supply-chain:

  • The only way to prevent this is to ensure seamless flow of produce.
  • The trucks should not be held up at state borders due to inter-state movement restrictions.
  • The lockdown guidelines have clearly defined food among the essential goods whose transport and supply are not to be subjected to any hindrances.
  • The prime minister’s message of free flow of goods should be percolated to the ground.
  • The state food and civil supplies departments must ultimately ensure that the wholesale markets in these cities receive enough produce to feed their consumers.
  • Integrated cold chain solutions: They could provide customized solutions for cold storage and refrigerated transportation across India for fresh and frozen commodities.
  • Comprehensive agriculture logistics solutions: Private players that provide integrated post-harvest management solutions have entered the space to fill these gaps. They could also provide collateral management and other value added services (quality testing, agri insurance, bulk procurement and rural retailing) to its clients.
  • Alternate marketplaces: By providing a way to bypass the long chain of intermediaries by directly connecting buyers and sellers of agricultural produce and allied services, via a web and mobile based information exchange platform.
  • Reducing the information asymmetry: Riding on the high mobile penetration in rural India private players are working on the problem of information asymmetry for agricultural producers, by making personalized agricultural market information available to the farmers at minimal costs, through a mobile based service.
  • Innovative ICT tools for supply chain management: A hosted web service for supply chain management, which can be accessed via basic mobile phones and web browsers, which makes it uniquely suitable for in rural markets. It is a configurable service which offers customers the ability to capture and share data in a simple, low-cost way, empowering them to make better logistics decisions.

Conclusion:

These solutions could lead to better supply chain management in Indian agriculture, reducing inefficiencies and increasing farmer realizations, as well as curbing food waste. A coordinated effort at this time of crisis with good policies bolstered by logistics of the private players can help in achieving the goal. Well-functioning markets are the best guarantee against any collapse of exchange entitlements in the ongoing battle against COVID-19.

 

Topic:  Case Study

7.  You are the head of a govt. office. One day you find out that your subordinate is infected with HIV. Before you could stop the news from spreading, it had already become a topic of discussion among other members of the office. Now, they are pressuring you to suspend, sack or transfer him as they fear that his presence in the office might lead to other members getting contaminated with the virus. You try to make them understand that HIV does not spread from touching, but they are so skeptic and scared that they refuse to even listen to your reasoning. They all decide to not work until a decision is met. Your office is already under a lot of work pressure and in the next week you are to finish an urgent work within a deadline. How will you tackle this problem? Elaborate the steps that you will take to handle it.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question deals with the ethical challenge of implementation problem of a decision (already in mind) and not with taking a decision.

Key demand of the question:

One must clearly explain the ethical challenges involved in the problem and suggest suitable solutions that address all the associated concerns in an ethical way.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what your role should be as the head of the govt. office.

Body:

  • One can start by explaining the employees that a diseased person is to be empathized with and definitely not to be hated. To substantiate one’s arguments one can put forward few scientific researches in front of them to make them understand that they are not vulnerable to get infected.
  • In spite of the above if the employees persist with their stand then one can write to one’s seniors apprising of the situation and requesting to arrange an alternative team with similar skill sets so that they can complete the task.
  • In the meantime one can pass an executive order that the complaining employees have no option but to work with the current setup. Besides strict disciplinary action will be taken against all those who fail to comply with official orders.
  • In the meantime one can put all efforts to meet the deadline. One can try to organize medical educational camps to raise awareness.
  • You can set leadership by example, by making that employee sit next to you etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with necessity and importance of ethics and work culture.

Introduction:

The above case study shows the challenges faced as head of a government office. It also reflects on the work culture of an office, the lack of knowledge about the various diseases. In the current scenario, the news of an employee infected by HIV virus has caused fear amongst the other employees leading to a crisis in the workplace. The fact that there is an urgent work within a deadline and employees are unwilling to work in the given situation is also a problem.

Body:

Steps that I would take as head of a government office in the given situation:

HIV-Affected employee:

  • Firstly, I would talk to the patient and give him moral strength because of his current condition of health.
  • I would further assure him that there are medications available to suppress the viral load.
  • I will also ensure that the affected employee will be given sufficient medical care as entitled to him as government servant.
  • I would also meet the family members and boost their morale and assure that all possible support and help would be provided to the affected employee.
  • Lastly, I would encourage the employee to continue with his work with the same diligence he used to work with before and assure him of all support from my side at workplace.

Other employees in the office:

 Immediate measures:

  • The fear psychosis of the other employees has led to crisis in the office leading to protest and stalling of the work.
  • In this situation, I would call in for a meeting with all the employees and listen to their concerns patiently.
  • Further, I would present them the facts about the disease and then educate them the mode of spread of HIV.
  • Later, I would persuade them to resume the work immediately as it could hamper the fast approaching deadline of the project.
  • In case the employees are still reluctant, then I would sternly warn them of the consequences.
  • In the due course, I would also call in a government doctor and ask her to explain the facts and myths about HIV to rebuild the confidence of the other employees.

Long-term measures:

  • As part of the CSR activity, I would approach a NGO working with HIV patients, invite a few of them to office and make them share their experiences to burst the myths and fear about HIV.
  • This would ensure the social stigma associated with HIV patients is wiped out and treated equally at workplace.
  • For a stronger work culture, I would plan some team building activities so that the esprit-de-corps among the employees becomes stronger.

Conclusion:

In the above case, it is emotional intelligence which is necessary to deal with the tricky situation. The lack of knowledge and myths about HIV has caused a fear amongst employees and the stigma of the patient should be wiped out to bring in a strong work culture.