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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 1 April 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Most of the rare climatic events are expounded as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree? Given your viewpoint with suitable substantiation.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is around the fact that goes undeniable – that the El Nino has been used to explain unusual climatic changes across the globe.

Key demand of the question:

Explain briefly the concept of El-Nino and its impact on the rare climatic events.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short, explain the concept of El-Nino.

Body:

El Nino means ‘little boy’ or ‘Christ child’ in Spanish. The phenomenon was thus named because it was first recognised by South American fishermen in the early part of the 17th century. The events, i.e., warm waters in the Pacific Ocean, tended to occur in December, hence, the name was chosen.

Then move on to define the likages of El-nino with climatic events.

When the linkage between El Nino and climate effects were initially suggested by the British scientist, Gilbert Walker, it was deemed ridiculous that one phenomenon could have an effect on regions as far off as Australia, India etc and Canada. However, the occurrence of El Nino in the past few decades has proved without a doubt, their far-reaching consequences. Some of the effects of El Nino in the past have been causing of droughts and forest fires in South Asia (Indonesia and Philippines) and Australia, floods in the South American countries in the eastern Pacific region, increased rain in certain other areas of the world etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of El-Nino.

 

Topic:  Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why? Explain.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is straight from the static portions of GS paper I, theme physical geography.

Key demand of the question:

One should explain the reasons owing to which all the Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly on a map show the locations of major hot deserts.

Body:

The hot deserts lie along the Horse Latitudes or the Sub-Tropical High Pressure Belts where the air is descending, a condition least favorable for precipitation of any kind to take place.
• The rain-bearing Trade Winds blow off-shore and the Westerlies that are on-shore blow outside the desert limits.
• Whatever winds reach the deserts blow from cooler to warmer regions, and their relative humidity is lowered, making condensation almost impossible.
• There is scarcely any cloud in the continuous blue sky. The relative humidity is extremely low, decreasing from 60 per cent in coastal districts to less than 30 per cent in the desert interiors. Under such conditions, every bit of moisture is evaporated and the deserts are thus regions of permanent drought. Precipitation is both scarce and most unreliable.
• On the western coasts, the presence of cold currents gives rise to mists and fogs by chilling the on-coming air. This air is later warmed by contact with the hot land, and little rain falls. The desiccating effect of the cold Peruvian Current along the Chilean coast is so pronounced that the mean annual rainfall for the Atacama Desert is not more than 1.3 cm.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a reassertion that the climate, geography have a major role to play in deciding the locations of these hot deserts.

 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. Critically analyse the hardship faced by the migrant laborers in the light of the lockdown owing to COVID-19 scare.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The article brings out the hardship faced by the migrant laborers in the light of the lockdown.

Key demand of the question:

One must present a detailed analysis of hardship faced by the migrant laborers in the light of the lockdown.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The lockdown measures have been in place to slow down the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The measures taken to address the public health challenge have also led to a humanitarian crisis for many among the poorer segments of India’s urban population. The most affected section due to the lockdown has been the inter-State migrant worker community.

Body:

State first the reasons of vulnerability of migrant workers.

 They largely dependent upon casual and daily wage labour and unorganized retail. Lockdown would severely affect their livelihood opportunities.

Lack of hygiene and sanitation facilities makes this section highly vulnerable to such epidemics.

They are generally the primary breadwinners, and the survival of their families back home is entirely dependent on them.

Discuss the lacunae in the role played by the govt. in dealing with migrant workers.

Suggest solutions to address the above issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4. “With the Corona outbreak, democracy and federalism are on trial in India”, Elucidate.(250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why this question:

The editorial talks about the essence of preserving the tenets of

 Democracy and federalism amidst the testing times posed by the pandemic.  

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way democracy and federalism are on trial in India with the coming of the Pandemic.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly bring out facts relevant to the context of the question to begin the answer.

Body:

Explain first why the tenets of Democracy and federalism are on test with the coming of the Pandemic.

One can illustrate the case of China and the way it handled the crisis being an autocratic country in contrast with India which is democratic.

Discuss the importance of federalist characters that the country must stick to to ensure better outcome in terms of solutions to the concerns posed by the outbreak.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions as to what needs to be done to preserve Democracy and ensure the federal character of the country is put to right use and is not harmed.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. With limited fiscal space and amidst the uncalled financial distress, the onus for economic revival rests with the RBI. Do you agree? Examine.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is amidst the financial downturn that India is going to face in its near future owing to the distress caused by the corona outbreak.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way India’s financial distress was exacerbated by the pandemic. With limited fiscal space, the onus for economic revival rests with the RBI.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

First, present the factors that have caused the financial crisis – The constantly evolving Covid-19 pandemic have cast a long shadow on the global economy, which was already jolted by the US-China trade war.

Comment on the fears of a possible   global recession; massive supply-chain related disruptions across a range of industries from containment efforts in China and other economies; amplification of demand-side shocks due to uncertainties as well as lockdowns and other containment measures domestically; and propagation of financial shocks and the US dollar credit crunch etc.

Discuss the role that RBI needs to play to handle the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting measures to address the issue.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6. What is clean hydrogen? Discuss the potential that clean hydrogen industry holds in ensuring cuts in the global greenhouse gas emissions.(250 words)

Reference: Down To Earth 

Why this question:

The article talks about the potential that the clean hydrogen industry holds for doing away with global greenhouse gas emissions.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what clean hydrogen is; discuss its significance in curbing the global greenhouse emissions.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what clean hydrogen is. Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind.

Body:

Highlight the facts pointed out by ‘Hydrogen Economy Outlook’. The report suggested that renewable hydrogen could be produced for $0.8 to 1.6/kg in most parts of the world before 2050.

Explain the fact that Hydrogen has the potential to power a clean economy. In the years ahead, it will be possible to produce it at low cost using wind and solar power, to store it underground for months, and then pipe it on demand to power everything from ships to steel mills.

Take hints from the article and explain the significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the clean hydrogen.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7.  “Our future cannot hinge on on the government alone. The eventual way out lies in the attitudes and the actions of the citizens of the country”. Analyse.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to evaluate the role of citizens; their attitudes and actions on the future of the country. And in what way the government alone cannot change the future.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the role of citizens in sculpting the future of the country.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the role of society in sculpting the future of the country.

Body:

Discuss the concept of active citizenship; Active citizenship means people getting involved in their local communities and democracy at all levels, from towns to cities to nationwide activity. Active citizenship can be as small as a campaign to clean up your street or as big as educating young people about democratic values, skills and participation.

Active citizenship is a combination of knowledge, attitude, skills and actions that aim to contribute to building and maintaining a democratic society.

 Active Citizenship supports democratic cooperation that is based on the acceptance of universal human rights and the rule of law, values diversity and includes the whole community.

Explain then why it is important along with the efforts of the govt.

Quote a case study to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.