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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 March 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

1. Discuss the non-geographical factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is straightforward from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the non- geographical factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world in detail with suitable examples.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by the availability of many factors. Some of them are: raw material, land, water, labor, capital, power, transport, and market. However there are many non-geographical factors too.

Body:

Discuss the non-geographical factors in detail – Capital investment, Availability of loans, Investment climate, Government policies/regulations, Influence of pressure groups etc.

One should quote relevant examples from India and across the world to justify the answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude that It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. In general, it should also be noted that both lower production cost and lower distribution cost are the two major factors while considering the location of an industry. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidized power, lower transport cost, and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas.

 

Topic:  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

2. Fishing industry more developed in Northern Hemisphere than in Southern Hemisphere, why? Explain.(250 words)

Reference: Physical Geography by Savindra Singh

Why this question:

The question is about Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world.

Key demand of the question:

Explain why Fishing industry more developed in Northern Hemisphere than in Southern Hemisphere.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about fishing industry in general.

Body:

Explain the following possible factors:

  • Cool waters favor the reproduction of phytoplankton.
  • Presence of more plankton that are food for fish avail large numbers of fish.
  • In the northern hemisphere, there are extensive continental shelves which favor fishing grounds.
    The rugged and hilly terrain make agriculture difficult, many people opt for fishing as the main economic activity hence its development.
  • The cool temperate climate favors large scale commercial fishing, preservation and storage of fish.
  • Long and cool winters do not favor agricultural activities hence the development of fish.
  • Presence of sophisticated technology that is highly employed in the handling of fish.
  • High income in the northern hemisphere countries is used to develop the fishing industry.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Explain why the Indian Constitution has been argued to have created a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Polity by Lakshmikant  , Live Mint

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II and it aims to ascertain in what way Indian constitution represents a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail why Indian constitution reflects a ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the fundamental basis of Federation in Indian Constitution.

Body:

The debate whether India has a ‘Federal Constitution’ and ‘Federal Government’ has been grappling us since the conception of our Constitution. In India, Federalism is considered as a basic feature of the Constitution, even though the word is not mentioned anywhere in the Constitution.

Discuss the main federal features of the Indian Constitution which makes it closer to Federal state.

Discuss the reasons why India is described as federation with a centralizing tendency.

Conclusion:

Conclude that as stated by K.C. Wheare, in practice the Constitution of India is quasi-federal in nature and not strictly federal. It is a union or a composite of a novel type. Thus, it can be safely said that the Indian Federalism is unique in nature i.e. ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’ and is tailored According to the specific needs of the country.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Deliberate the major amendments in the competition bill 2019 which would meaningfully change the enforcement of competition law in the country.(250 words)

Reference: Financial Express

Why this question:

The Indian Government constituted the Competition Law Review Committee in 2018, with a view to update the Competition Act; 2002.The Committee submitted its report to the Government in 2019. Based on the recommendations made in the report, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has introduced a draft Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2020 to overhaul the Act. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Highlight the major amendments in the competition bill 2019 which would meaningfully change the enforcement of competition law in the country.

Directive:

DeliberateWeigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly first highlight the role of the Competition Commission of India.

Body:

Start with need for the Competition Commission (amendment) Bill 2020.

Discuss then the key amendments being proposed. Explain what advantages it brings with it.

Highlight the key issues that need to be addressed.

Discuss the deliberations that took place; take cues from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. “In the global civil nuclear commerce, India should create a mature domestic market for nuclear power with a sizeable installed capacity of both indigenous and foreign reactors.” Do you agree? Comment.(250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why this question:

During the recent visit of the President of US, a joint statement was released which stated that India and US are encouraging the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited and Westinghouse Electric Company to finalize the techno-commercial offer for the construction of six nuclear reactors in India at the earliest date. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what the challenges before India are with respect to the Nuclear power generation, what are advantages and disadvantages of relying on foreign reactors and discuss the need for indigenization.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly trace the background of Nuke energy as a resource in the country. Discuss India-US ties on this front from past to present.

Body:

To start with explain the Nuke energy scenario in the country presently.

Discuss the need for India to create a mature domestic market for nuclear power with a sizeable installed capacity of both indigenous and foreign reactors.

Highlight the resources available at India’s disposal, need for technology etc.

Discuss the concerns associated in the process.

Highlight the Initiatives adopted by Government in the field of Nuclear Energy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. What is Laser Surface Micro texturing? Discuss the significance of it.(250 words)

Reference: pib.go.in

Why this question:

International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), an autonomous R&D Centre of Department of Science and Technology (DST), has recently developed ultrafast laser surface texturing technology, which can improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines. Thus the context of the question.

 Key demand of the question:

Deliberate what laser surface micro texturing technology is and explain how does it help to improve fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Laser Surface Micro texturing.

Body:

  • In this technology, a pulsating laser beam creates micro-dimples or grooves on the surface of materials in a very controlled manner.
  • The texture surfaces were created on automotive internal combustion engine components, piston rings and cylinder liners using 100 fs pulse duration laser.
  • The created textures were tested in an engine test ring under different speeds and temperatures of coolant and lubrication oil.

Explain the significance of the technology –

  • It offers precise control of the size, shape and density of micro-surface texture features and has gained momentum as a way to control friction and wear.
  • Textures can trap wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate.
  • By using this there was a 16% reduction in the lube oil consumption with the use of texture on the piston rings.
  • Fabrication of a pattern of micro dimples or grooves on the surface of materials results in a change in surface topography which generates additional hydrodynamic pressure, thereby increasing the load–carrying capacity of the surfaces.
  • Hence these become useful for trapping wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate etc.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Case study

7. Mr. X worked in the human resources department that was interviewing applicants for a top job in a widget company. After reading many applications, one stood out way ahead of the others. Then he realized that he knew the applicant, Mr. Y. They had hung out together when they were teenagers. Mr. Y had been a wild kid and once was arrested for shoplifting and the possession of drugs. Mr. Y had completed mandatory counseling and, as far as Mr. X knew, Mr. Y had straightened out his life and had done well during the last twenty years. Mr. Y hadn’t indicated in his application that he had once been arrested and Mr. X feared that the company would never hire someone with a police record, no matter how minor or how long ago the offence was. Do you favor Mr. X revealing the information? (250 words)

Why this question:

The case study is based on the principle of Integrity.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the nuances of the case first, explain the possible approached that one can take and justify your stance with suitable ethical backing.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short explain the demand of the case study.

Body:

Identify the ethical questions involved in the case study first.

Explain what are the possible approaches that are available to resolve the situation.

Explain that global ethics and professional standards demand one to always act with integrity.

Being open and transparent are key to ethics at work.

So Mr. X need to tell the company and let them decide what is the best for

Company’s interest. Moreover, in above case Mr. Y has already committed a crime by not disclosing all the information to company regarding his arrest or conviction so this also need to be taken into account where it is reflected that above person in future could distort the facts for his benefit.

Explain what the concerns are if he holds the information and doesn’t call out for it.

Conclusion:

Suggest a suitable middle path and conclude with a balanced solution.