Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims.
1. What is Adjournment, Prorogation and Dissolution of the Lok Sabha?
3. What is Parole?
PIB one liner facts.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
What to study?
For Prelims: What is Section 188 of IPC?
For Mains: Imposition, concerns and how to prevent its misuse.
Why in News?
The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 lays down punishment as per Section 188 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, for flouting orders issued by various state governments to contain the spread of COVID-19.
In the past, the Act has been routinely enforced across the country for dealing with outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, dengue, and cholera. Its penal provisions are currently being invoked by states to contain the COVID-19 pandemic.
So, What is Section 188 of the Indian Penal Code?
Section 188 relates to Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant.
- It says violators can be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both;
- and if such disobedience causes or tends to cause danger to human life, health or safety, or causes or tends to cause a riot or affray, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.
What happens if you violate the lockdown orders?
Under Section 188, there two offences:
- Disobedience to an order lawfully promulgated by a public servant, If such disobedience causes obstruction, annoyance or injury to persons lawfully employed
Punishment: Simple Imprisonment for 1 month or fine of Rs 200 or both
- If such disobedience causes danger to human life, health or safety, etc.
Punishment: Simple Imprisonment for 6 months or fine of Rs 1000 or both
According to the First Schedule of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), 1973, both offences are cognizable, bailable, and can be tried by any magistrate.
These are extraordinary times, but under what circumstances is Sec 188 IPC invoked normally?
To be punishable under S. 188, the order has to be for public purposes by public functionaries. An order made in a civil suit between two parties does not fall under this Section.
There must be evidence that the accused had knowledge of the order with the disobedience of which he is charged. Mere proof of a general notification promulgating the order does not satisfy the requirements of the section. Mere disobedience of the order does not constitute an offence in itself, it must be shown that the disobedience has or tends to a certain consequence.
- Difference between sections 144 and 188.
- When, why and who imposes it?
- Powers to review actions under this act.
- Punishment prescribed under this section.
- Difference between CrPC and IPC.
- Overview of the Epidemics Act.
What is Section 188 of the CrPC? Why is it imposed? Discuss.
Sources: Indian Express.
Topics Covered: Issues related to Health.
What to study?
For Prelims: Overview and key features of the scheme.
For Mains: Significance and issues surrounding its implementation.
Context: In a change of stance, the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) government has announced that it would be implementing the Central government’s Ayushman Bharat — Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana to provide ₹5 lakh health insurance cover to families per year, after having opposed it for several months.
About Ayushman Bharat:
Launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage (UHC).
This initiative has been designed to meet Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and its underlining commitment, which is to “leave no one behind.”
Ayushman Bharat adopts a continuum of care approach, comprising of two inter-related components, which are:
- Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs).
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).
Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY):
It is the largest health assurance scheme in the world which aims at providing a health cover of Rs. 5 lakhs per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.
- It aims to over 10.74 crores poor and vulnerable families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) that form the bottom 40% of the Indian population.
- The households included are based on the deprivation and occupational criteria of Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011) for rural and urban areas respectively.
- PM-JAY was earlier known as the National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS) before being rechristened. It subsumed the then existing Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) which had been launched in 2008.
- PM-JAY is fully funded by the Government and cost of implementation is shared between the Central and State Governments.
- It covers up to 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days post-hospitalization expenses such as diagnostics and medicines.
- There is no restriction on the family size, age or gender.
- Benefits of the scheme are portable across the countrye. a beneficiary can visit any empanelled public or private hospital in India to avail cashless treatment.
- Difference between HWCs and PM- JAY.
- Coverage of private hospitals.
- Fund sharing and implementation.
- Services covered.
- Eligibility criteria.
- Pre and post hospitalization coverage.
Discuss the significance of Ayushman Bharat — Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Issues related to health.
What to study?
For Prelims: TB- causes, symptoms, effects and treatment, World TB day- significance and theme.
For Mains: TB prevention efforts, challenges ahead and need for coordination.
Context: World Tuberculosis (TB) Day is observed on March 24 to raise public awareness about the devastating health, social and economic consequences of TB, and to step up efforts to end the global TB epidemic.
The date marks the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the bacterium that causes TB, which opened the way towards diagnosing and curing this disease.
The theme of World TB Day 2020 is “It’s TIME”.
What is TB?
- TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other sites.
- The disease is spread when people who are sick with pulmonary TB expel bacteria into the air, for example by coughing.
- Diagnostic tests for TB disease include – Rapid molecular test, Sputum smear microscopy, Culture-based methods
- Without treatment, the mortality rate from TB is high.
Some facts on TB:
- TB remains the world’s deadliest infectious killer. Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a joint initiative “Find. Treat. All. #EndTB”with the Global Fund and Stop TB Partnership, with the aim of accelerating the TB response and ensuring access to care, in line with WHO’s overall drive towards Universal Health Coverage.
- WHO has published a global TB report every year since 1997.
Initiatives in India:
- TB treatment is free in India.
- India aims to eliminate TB by 2025. UN aims to eliminate TB by 2030.
- Mass BCG vaccination to prevent TB.
- In 1993, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) was launched, offering free diagnosis and treatment for patients, rescuing them from otherwise sure death.
- Rs 12,000 cr fund to fight TB over the next 3 years.
- TB Harega Desh Jeetega campaign.
- Diseases caused by Virus vs Bacteria vs fungi.
- TB- spread and treatment.
- Initiatives aimed at TB in India and the world.
- Highlights of Global TB report wrt India.
Discuss the challenges faced by India in eradicating Tuberculosis.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Government Budgeting.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: Features, components and significance of the bill.
Context: Finance bill passed ahead of coronavirus lockdown.
What is a Finance Bill?
As per Article 110 of the Constitution of India, the Finance Bill is a Money Bill.
- The Finance Bill is a part of the Union Budget, stipulating all the legal amendments required for the changes in taxation proposed by the Finance Minister.
- This Bill encompasses all amendments required in various laws pertaining to tax, in accordance with the tax proposals made in the Union Budget.
- The Finance Bill, as a Money Bill, needs to be passed by the Lok Sabha — the lower house of the Parliament.
- Post the Lok Sabha’s approval, the Finance Bill becomes Finance Act.
Difference between a Money Bill and the Finance Bill:
- A Money Bill has to be introduced in the Lok Sabha as per Section 110 of the Constitution. Then, it is transmitted to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. The Rajya Sabha has to return the Bill with recommendations in 14 days. However, the Lok Sabha can reject all or some of the recommendations.
- In the case of a Finance Bill, Article 117 of the Constitution categorically lays down that a Bill pertaining to sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) shall not be introduced or moved except with the President’s recommendation. Also, a Bill that makes such provisions shall not be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.
Who decides the Bill is a Finance Bill?
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is authorised to decide whether the Bill is a Money Bill or not. Also, the Speaker’s decision shall be deemed to be final.
Why Finance Bill is needed?
The Union Budget proposes many tax changes for the upcoming financial year, even if not all of those proposed changes find a mention in the Finance Minister’s Budget speech. These proposed changes pertain to several existing laws dealing with various taxes in the country.
- The Finance Bill seeks to insert amendments into all those laws concerned, without having to bring out a separate amendment law for each of those Acts.
- For instance, a Union Budget’s proposed tax changes may require amending the various sections of the Income Tax law, Stamp Act, Money Laundering law, etc. The Finance Bill overrides and makes changes in the existing laws wherever required.
- What changes can be made via Finance Bill?
- How can changes related to income tax be made?
- How can changes to Stamp duty and GST be made?
- Money Bill vs Finance bill.
- Who decides on matters related to Money and Finance Bills.
How does a money bill differ from a financial Bill? Analyze whether the process of classifying a bill as money bill needs change?
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
What is National Supercomputing Mission (NSM)?
It is being implemented and steered jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY).
Implemented by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.
Focus of the mission:
- The Mission envisages empowering national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.
- These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN). The NKN is another programme of the government which connects academic institutions and R&D labs over a high speed network.
- The Mission includes development of highly professional High Performance Computing (HPC) aware human resource for meeting challenges of development of these applications.
The first supercomputer assembled indigenously, called Param Shivay, was installed in IIT (BHU) and was inaugurated by the Prime Minister. Similar systems Param Shakti and Param Brahma were installed at IIT-Kharagpur and IISER, Pune. They are equipped with applications from domains like Weather and Climate, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Bioinformatics, and Material science.
- World-wide supercomputing facilities have enabled countries in their S&T capabilities in areas such as designing vehicles, aeroplanes, massive structures like high rise buildings and bridges, infrastructure, discovery of new life saving drugs, discovery and extraction of new energy sources including oil, natural gas etc.
- Over the years, supercomputers have benefitted mankind in several ways. Weather prediction has reached accuracy of forecast as well as real time tracking of natural phenomenon. Timely warning of cyclones in the recent past have saved many lives and property. The Mission aims to further such capabilities beyond current levels.
- Super computers in India and the world.
- How do they perform faster?
- About NKM.
- Targets under NSM.
Write a note on National Supercomputing Mission (NSM).
Facts for Prelims
What is Adjournment, Prorogation and Dissolution of the Lok Sabha?
- An adjournmentterminates the sitting of the House which meets again at the time appointed for the next sitting. An adjournment also signifies brief break of the sitting of the House which re-assembles at the appointed time on the same day.
- Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution. Usually, prorogation follows the adjournment of the sitting of the House sine die.
- Dissolution of the House means the end of the life of the Lok Sabha either by an order made by the President under article 85 (2) (b) of the Constitution or on the expiration of the period of five years from the date appointed for its first meeting.
Context: More than 900 Yakshagana scripts, including the ones printed in 1905 and 1907, have now been digitised and made available online for free, thanks to the voluntary community effort by some Yakshagana lovers who did it under the banner Yakshavahini, a registered trust.
- Yakshagana is a traditional theatre form of Karnataka.
- It is a temple art form that depicts mythological stories and Puranas.
- It is performed with massive headgears, elaborate facial make-up and vibrant costumes and ornaments.
- Usually recited in Kannada, it is also performed in Malayalam as well as Tulu (the dialect of south Karnataka).
- It is performed with percussion instruments like chenda, maddalam, jagatta or chengila (cymbals) and chakratala or elathalam (small cymbals).
What is Parole?
Parole is a system of releasing a prisoner with suspension of the sentence. The release is conditional, usually subject to behaviour, and requires periodic reporting to the authorities for a set period of time.
- How is it different from Furlough? Furlough is given in case of long-term imprisonment. While furlough is seen as a matter of right, to be granted periodically irrespective of any reason and merely to enable the prisoner to retain family and social ties, parole is not a matter of right and may be denied to a prisoner even when he makes out a sufficient case.
- Granting authority:Parole and furlough are covered under the Prison Act of 1894.Since prison is a subject of the state, the Prison Act of the particular state government defines the rules under which parole is granted. Parole is granted by the state executive. If parole is rejected, the convict can move the High Court challenging the order of the competent authority. Also, apart from regular parole, the superintendent of a jail can also grant parole up to a period of seven days in emergent cases.
Why in News? The Supreme Court has asked the State governments to consider giving parole to those facing up to seven-year jail term in a bid to decongest prisons on account of the COVID-19 outbreak.
PIB one liner facts
- Mission Raksha Gyanshakti was launched in 2018-19, with the objective of creating greater Intellectual Property in Defence Production Ecosystem.
- The per capita income of Delhi is estimated to be ₹3,89,143 in 2019-20, which is about three times the national average, which is estimated to be ₹1,34,432 in 2019-20, according to the Economic Survey of Delhi 2019-20 tabled in the Delhi Assembly on Monday.