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What are vaccines? How are they made? Discuss how do they function.

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. What are vaccines? How are they made? Discuss how do they function.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to explain the concept of vaccines, how they are made and their functionality.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the making of vaccines and their functions.


Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:


Briefly define what vaccines are. Vaccines are one of the most effective tools to prevent diseases.


Provide for a brief overview on vaccines.

Discuss how vaccines are made; explain the multiple ways that are available.

Explain the stages of development of vaccines.

Explain immune system, effect of vaccines over it.

Discuss the scenario of India.


Conclude by reasserting significance of vaccines.