Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
Facts for Prelims.
2. What is Quorum?
PIB one liner facts.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: What is Contempt of Court? Provisions in this regard, Criticisms and analysis.
Context: The Supreme Court has held that courts are empowered to order parties in a contempt case to surrender their passport in order to ensure their presence in the proceedings.
The court was hearing a contempt case in connection with a civil suit on partition of a disputed property in Delhi.
What is contempt under the Indian law?
In India, the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, divides contempt into civil contempt and criminal contempt.
‘Civil contempt’ is a ‘wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a Court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to the court’.
‘Criminal contempt’ is ‘the publication (whether by words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise) of any matter or the doing of any other act whatsoever which:
- Scandalises or tends to scandalise, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of, any court.
- Prejudices, or interferes or tends to interfere with the due course of any judicial proceeding.
- Interferes or tends to interfere with, or obstructs or tends to obstruct, the administration of justice in any other manner.’
Judiciary ensures justice and equality to every individual and institutions, therefore, the makers of the constitution upheld the sanctity and prestige of the revered institution by placing provisions under articles 129 and 215 of the constitution, which enables the courts to hold individuals in contempt if they attempt to demean or belittle their authority.
Is criticism allowed?
Yes. The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, very clearly states that fair criticism of any case which has been heard and decided is not contempt.
Contempt of Courts (Amendment) Act, 2006:
The statute of 1971 has been amended by the Contempt of Courts (Amendment) Act, 2006 to include the defence of truth under Section 13 of the original legislation.
Section 13 that already served to restrict the powers of the court in that they were not to hold anyone in contempt unless it would substantially interfere with the due process of justice, the amendment further states that the court must permit ‘justification by truth as a valid defence if it is satisfied that it is in public interest and the request for invoking the said defence is bona fide.’
Article 129: Grants Supreme Court the power to punish for contempt of itself.
Article 142(2): Enables the Supreme Court to investigate and punish any person for its contempt.
Article 215: Grants every High Court the power to punish for contempt of itself.
- Powers of SC vs HCs wrt Contempt cases.
- Constitutional provisions in this regard.
- Changes brought about by Contempt of Courts (Amendment) Act, 2006.
- Civil vs Criminal contempt.
Discuss how contempt cases are handled by Supreme Court in India.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
What to study?
For Prelims: Overview of DPP, key changes introduced.
For Mains: Significance of revised DPP.
Context: Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh unveils draft of Defence Procurement Procedure 2020.
It aims at further increasing indigenous manufacturing and reducing timelines for procurement of defence equipment.
Key highlights of the draft:
- Indigenous Content (IC) stipulated in various categories of procurement has been increased by about 10% to support the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
- Leasing has been introduced as a new category for acquisition in addition to existing ‘Buy’ & ‘Make’ categories to substitute huge initial capital outlays with periodical rental payments. Here, the lessor can be both Indian as well as global.
- New Category Buy (Global – Manufacture in India) has been introduced with minimum 50% indigenous content on cost basis of total contract value.
- There is also long-term product support — which would be three to five years after the warranty period is over.
- A “price variation clause” has been introduced that will be applicable to all cases where the total cost of contract is more than Rs 1,000 crore and the delivery schedule exceeds 60 months.
The first DPP was promulgated in 2002 and has since been revised a number of times to provide impetus to the growing domestic industry and achieve enhanced self-reliance in defence manufacturing.
What is DPP?
The Defence Procurement Procedure mainly contains processes that needs to be followed to streamline and simplify defence procurement procedures and ultimately achieve the objective of self reliance in meeting all the security needs of the Indian Armed Forces by promoting indigenous design, development and manufacture of Defence weapon systems and, platforms in a time-bound manner without any delays.
- New clauses and incentives announced.
- DAC- head and functions.
- DPP 2002 vs Draft DPP 2020- key changes.
Discuss the significance and key features of the Draft Defence Procurement Procedure.
Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
What to study?
For Prelims: Key features of the scheme.
For Mains: Significance and the need for such schemes.
Context: TRIFED Launches transformational “Tech For Tribals” program in partnership with Institutes of National Importance (INIs) to develop Tribal entrepreneurship.
Key features of the program:
- Aim: To transform 5 crore Tribal Entrepreneurs.
- It is supported by Ministry of MSME.
- It also aims at capacity building and imparting entrepreneurship skills to tribal forest produce gatherers enrolled under the Pradhan Mantri VanDhan Yojana (PMVDY).
- The trainees will undergo a 30 days program over six weeks comprising 120 sessions.
- The Partners will develop course contents relevant to Entrepreneurship in Value Addition and Processing of Forest Produces.
- The course curriculum will include Achievement Motivation and positive psychology, Entrepreneurial Competencies, Identification of locally available NTFP based Business Opportunities.
Significance of the program:
It will ensure higher success rate of the Tribal Entrepreneurs by enabling and empowering them to run their business with marketable products with quality certifications.
What are Van Dhan Kendras?
- TRIFED under Ministry of Tribal Affairs is establishing 1,200 “Van Dhan Vikas Kendra (VDVK)”, across 28 States engaging 3.6 Lakhs Tribal Forest Produce gatherers.
- One typical VDVK comprises of 15 Self Help Groups, each consisting of 20 Tribal gatherers.
About Van Dhan Vikas Kendras initiative:
- The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood development of tribal gatherers and artisans.
- It mainstreams the tribal community by promoting primary level value addition to MFP at grassroots level.
- Significance: Through this initiative, the share of tribals in the value chain of Non-Timber Forest Produce is expected to rise from the present 20% to around 60%.
- The scheme will be implemented through Ministry of Tribal Affairs as Nodal Department at the Central Level and TRIFED as Nodal Agency at the National Level.
- At State level, the State Nodal Agency for MFPs and the District collectors are envisaged to play a pivot role in scheme implementation at grassroot level.
- Locally the Kendras are proposed to be managed by a Managing Committee (an SHG) consisting of representatives of Van Dhan SHGs in the cluster.
- Van Dhan Kendras- objectives, composition and functions.
- TRIFED- functions.
- What are classified as MFPs?
- Institutes of National Importance (INIs)- recognition and benefits.
Write a note on Pradhan Mantri VanDhan Yojana (PMVDY).
Topics Covered: Issues related to health.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: Overview of the disease, cause, spread, effects and treatment.
Context: Scientists have found that the pathogenic protein called the Huntingtin Protein causes decrease in overall protein production.
What they have found?
- A team of scientists from National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) in Pune have observed that the pathogenic Huntingtin protein causes a decrease in the overall protein production in cells.
- They also found that the Huntingtin clumps collect together (sequester) molecules of another protein called Orb2, which is involved in the process of protein formation.
In simple terms, Scientists have found that in a diseased person the Huntingtin protein interfered with the protein production of the cells. This is how wrong instructions are sent, mainly due to faulty protein level. They also reduced the level of protein production of a normal cell.
What is Huntingtin Disease?
It is a progressive genetic disorder.
It affects the brain that causes uncontrolled movements, impaired coordination of balance and movement, a decline in cognitive abilities, difficulty in concentrating and memory lapses, mood swings and personality changes.
How is it caused?
It is caused by a mutation in a gene called HTT. The HTT genes are involved in the production of a protein called huntingtin.
- They provide the instruction for making the protein. When the genes mutate, they provide faulty instructions leading to production of abnormal huntingtin proteins and these form into clumps.
- The clumps disrupt the normal functioning of the brain cells, which eventually leads to death of neurons in the brain, resulting in Huntington disease.
Topics Covered: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
What to study?
For Prelims: Highlights, key findings and significance of the report.
For Mains: How is happiness related to governance, what needs to be done to increase the level of happiness among citizens?
Context: The World Happiness Report 2020 has been released.
About World Happiness Report:
It is released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations by the UN General Assembly.
It is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness that ranks 156 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.
What’s special about the 2020 report?
This is the eighth World Happiness Report. The 2020 report for the first time ranks cities around the world by their subjective well-being and digs more deeply into how the social, urban and natural environments combine to affect our happiness.
How the countries are ranked?
- Nationally representative samples of respondents are asked to think of a ladder, with the best possible life for them being a 10, and the worst possible life being a 0.
- In the reports, experts in fields including economics, psychology, survey analysis, and national statistics, describe how measurements of well-being can be used effectively to assess the progress of nations, and other topics.
Interconnections between law, governance and happiness: Why do these connections matter?
Happiness has come to be accepted as a goal of public policy. And this discourse has given a fillip to a new narrative where the interconnections between law, governance and happiness are being searched.
Experiences from several nations confirm that the countries with higher GDP and higher per capita income are not necessarily the happiest countries and there exists a link between the state of happiness and rule of law.
The WHRs, over the years, confirmed that people tend to have:
- Poor mental health.
- A low score of subjective well-being.
- Poor perception about the governance and law and order, despite high income levels.
Performance of various countries:
- Finland is the world’s happiest nation for the third year running.
- Nordic states dominated the top 10, along with countries such as Switzerland, New Zealand and Austria.
- India is at 144th
- Rankings of India and neighbours.
- Rankings in the previous edition.
- WHR vs GNH- similarities and differences.
- Top and bottom performers this year.
- Consistent performers.
What is World Happiness Report? How are the countries ranked in this report? Discuss.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
What to study?
For Prelims: G7- objectives, composition and functions.
For Mains: Criticisms surrounding and measures to revamp.
Context: President Donald Trump is scrapping this year’s G7 summit at Camp David near Washington due to the COVID_19 crisis and will instead hold the event by videoconference.
The United States heads the group of seven wealthy democracies in 2020 and Mr. Trump had been due to host fellow leaders at the presidential retreat known as Camp David in June.
The G7 summit is held by the presiding country each year.
What is G7 Summit?
- G7 Summit is an event conducted annually where world leaders from seven powerful economies of the world come together to discuss burning issues happening around the globe.
- They, by mutual understanding, also form policies or figure out remedies for the concerned issue.
What is G7?
The G7, originally G8, was set up in 1975 as an informal forum bringing together the leaders of the world’s leading industrial nations.
The summit gathers leaders from the European Union (EU) and the following countries:
- the United Kingdom.
- the United States.
How did G7 become G8?
- Russia was formally inducted as a member in the group in 1998, which led G7 to become G8.
- However, Russian President Vladimir Putin’s condemnable act of moving Russian troops into eastern Ukrain and conquering Crimea in 2014 drew heavy criticism from the other G8 nations.
- The other nations of the group decided to suspend Russia from the G8 as a consequence of its actions and the group became G7 again in 2014.
G7 is capable of setting the global agenda because decisions taken by these major economic powers have a real impact. Thus, decisions taken at the G7 are not legally binding, but exert strong political influence.
What criticisms have been made of the G7?
- G7 gatherings tend to attract thousands of protesters, and it is protested by thousands every year.
- Many protesters claim the G7 – which has no representative from any African, Russian or Middle Eastern nation – is completely outdated.
- Protest groups also use the worldwide platform as a stage to lobby and campaign on issues that are important to them.
- G7 leaders are creating a wide gap between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ both in their countries as well as across the globe, according to a new report published by non-profit Oxfam International. As a result, they are making the fight against alleviating poverty more difficult, claimed the report.
Need of the hour:
- Work towards implementing tax models for the rich individuals and corporations to pay their fair share of tax.
- Consider how new and existing wealth taxes could be used as a tool to fight poverty and inequality.
- Invest in healthcare and education and provide aid to developing countries.
- Work towards limiting greenhouse gas emissions down to zero well before mid-century.
- G7 vs G8 vs G20.
- Geographical location of member countries.
Discuss the relevance of G7 countries today. What are the reforms necessary to make the grouping more effective?
Sources: the Hindu.
Facts for Prelims
- Navroz is a 3,000-year-old Zoroastrian tradition, a ritual celebration that signals the start of Spring and the Persian new year.
- In 1079 AD, an Iranian king named Jalaluddin Malekshah introduced the Navroz (New Year) festival to generate revenue and collect taxes from people.
- In India, the Parsi community, who follow Zoroastrianism, celebrate Navroz with full fervour.
What is Quorum?
“Quorum“-The minimum number of members required to be present at a sitting of the House or a Committee for valid transaction of its business, which is one-tenth of the total number of members of the House, as provided under article 100(3) of the Constitution.
PIB one liner facts
- ICAR has launched a flagship network project National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA).
- Under the provisions of Consumer Protection Act, 2019, Central Govt. is empowered to frame rules to prevent unfair trade practices in e-commerce.
- A scheme on “Integrated Management of Public Distribution System (IM-PDS)” is being implemented w.e.f. April 2018 in all States/UTs. The main objective of the scheme is to introduce nation-wide portability of ration card holders under National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA), through ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ system.
- The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) is governed under the provisions of the National Food security Act, 2013 (NFSA); which is implemented in all States/ UTs.
- Under POSHAN Abhiyaan, there is also a provision of AAAA&LS (Anganwadi Workers, Anganwadi Helpers, Accredited Social Health Activist, Auxiliary Nurse and Midwives & Lady Supervisors) convergence award under which the field functionaries at ground level AAAA&LS are given award of Rs. 50,000 each.
- The Ministry of Textiles is implementing converged Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana (MGBBY) for providing social security benefits like life, accidental & disability insurance coverage to handloom weavers/workers in the age group of 51-59 years across the country.