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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 January 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Throw light on the impact of Jainism and its teachings on the composite culture of Indian Society (250 words)

Class XI NCERT Medieval history

Why this question:

The question seeks to examine the principles and basic tenets of Jainism and the teachings that reflect in today’s Indian society owing to the impact of Jainism.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the impact of the teachings of Jainism in general on our society right from the beginning through our freedom struggle, social life, polity etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Jainism played an important role in Indian Culture. Its impact on society was reflected not only in Indian society but also in national movement and constitution making and many other aspects of day to day life.

Body:

In detail discuss Jain teachings and ideologies as reflected in different aspects of our society- principle of Ahimsa that reflected in the freedom struggle, principles of Secularism, non-violence, position of women, equity etc.

Bring out the articles in our Indian constitution that reflect these tenets and confirm the significance of the teachings of the school.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the importance of Jainism and the need to acknowledge and preserve the religion to ensure its contributions to the composite culture of the country.

Introduction:

Jainism, one of the three major religions of early India, has been continuously practised since around the middle of the first millennium BC. Jainism had given a severe jolt to the Vedic religion. It brought changes in the religious atmosphere of India. By its contribution it enriched the Indian Culture. It cast its shadow over many aspects of Indian Culture.

Body:

Impacts of Jainism and its teachings on the composite culture of Indian Society:

Growth of Language and Literature:

  • Jainism influenced Indian language and literature. Vardhaman Mahavir preached in ‘Ardha-Magadhi’ language, the language of the common man.
  • The people knowing ‘Magadhi’ and ‘Soruaseni’ could easily follow the preaching’s of Mahavir. In due course of time the Jaina Canonical texts were written in Prakrit language.
  • Thus, the vernacular and regional languages were enriched by Jainism.
  • Further, the Jaina texts like ‘Anga’, ‘Upanga’, ‘Kalpasutra’, ‘Archarangasutra’, ‘Uttaradhyayanasutra’ etc. were also written in Sanskrit. Thus, the literature also grew due to the rise of Jainism.
  • Principle of Non-Violence:
    • Mahavira Jaina was the embodiment of peace. He was the preacher of non-violence.
    • He rejected the Vedic rituals and taught to be kind and humane to the animals.
    • Further, he emphasized that both living and non-living beings have life and they get pain.
    • His concept of non-violence largely influenced the course of Indian history.
    • Even a great leader like Mahatma Gandhi followed the principle of non-violence and became successful by ousting the British from India.
  • Influence on Politics:
    • Jainism influenced the Indians politics too. It cast its influence over many rulers.
    • The great Chandragupta Maurya became the famous Chadramuni coming under the spell of Jainism.
    • The mighty emperor Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela became an ardent devotee of Mahavira Jaina.
    • Examples can be multiplied. By following the principle of non-violence the kings became kind hearted and tolerant. This was a lasting impact of Jainism on Indian politics.
  • Growth of Trading Community:
    • Jainism contributed a lot for the growth of trading community.
    • At first, Jainism became popular among the traders and merchants. It fostered brotherhood among them which gave rise to guild system in future.
    • The merchants became rich and got a special position in the society.
    • Owing to their wealth and fame they came closer to ruling class.
    • The cooperation between them brought stability in the society.
  • Creation of Healthy Society:
    • Jainism went a long way in creating a healthy society.
    • Mahavir preached against the caste system. With the end of caste system in society the grip of the higher caste over the lower cast ended.
    • The lower class people were not to be exploited by the higher caste people.
    • The bitterness between the two antagonistic sections of the society melted away. This gave rise to a healthy society which influenced the course of Indian history.
  • Growth of Charitable Institutions:
    • Jainism helped a lot in the growth of charitable institutions. Its influenced on the kings and other people was abiding.
    • The kings created many caves for the dwelling of the sages of different castes. They also distributed foods and clothes to the people.
    • With the gradual march of time other rich people followed this practice. They created charitable institutions to serve the people.
    • Thus, social welfare was largely attained due to the growth of charitable institutions.
  • Growth of Art and Architecture:
    • Jainism helped a lot in the growth of Art and Architecture.
    • The kings patronized Jainism. So many Jaina unages and the images of Jaina Tirthankara were found in many parts of India.
    • The image of Bahuvalin in Shravanavelgola in Karnataka (known as Gomateswara) is the highest Jaina image ever craved in India.
    • The Jaina images found in Mathura, Bundelkhand, Northem Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Benares are important Jaina Art remains in India.
    • The cave art of Udayagiri in Bhubaneswar, Madhya Pradesh, Ellora and Maharashtra are unique examples of Jaina art.
    • The Dilwara Jaina temple at Mount Abu of Rajasthan is a dream in marble. Thus, Jainism helped in the growth of art and architecture in India.
  • Literature:
    • Jainism has also rendered valuable contribution to the growth of vernacular literature.
    • While the Buddhist and the Brahmans preached in Pali and Sanskrit, the Jains preached in the language of the people.
    • Most of the Jain literature was written in Prakriti.
    • Large literature was produced in the vernacular language also.
    • For example, Mahavira preached in a mixed dialect called Ardha Magadhi so that people of the area could understand his teachings
    • The Jains also influenced the Kanarese literature in the South. It may be noted here that certain Jain works were also produced in Sanskrit language.
  • New Touch of Life:
    • Jainism gave a new touch to life.
    • It criticized the Vedic religion and the pre-dominance of Brahmanism.
    • Thus, the people turned away their attention from the unnecessary ritualistic practices. They led a very simple and normal life.
    • This influences the society a lot and moulded its character in future.

Conclusion:

In fact, Jainism went a long way in influencing the Indian culture. Mahavir Jaina raised voice against Brahmanism. His simple life and teachings brought him closer to the mess. In due course of time, Jainism received royal patronage and flourished inside the country. In the field of art and architecture, society, religion. Jainism left is indelible marks.

 

Topic:  Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2. How does India Socialism contrast with Socialism embraced by the Communist countries? Discuss the idea of Democratic socialism. (250 words)

Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

The question tries to point out the idea of socialism that is different from the socialism adopted by the other world countries.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the Idea of Indian socialism in contrast with socialism of the west and other communist countries of the world.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with general idea of Socialism.

Body:

Discuss first the idea of socialism in communist countries- In Socialism espoused by Communist countries, system of production is owned by the people collectively through their government. There are no private landlords and factory owners and all business is conducted by the State and all profits go to the state treasury i.e. industries are operated not with a view to profit by sale to other people, but for the direct service of those whom the authority or association represents.

Then move on to present the idea of Indian Democratic socialism. Features like – Socialism Combined with Modernism: “Democratic Socialism” and the “mixed economy’ demanded equality of opportunities for all and it was the basic theme. Nehru’s vision of a technologically progressive India was also inspired by a socially inspired process of integrating the technology with the modern methods of agriculture and production.

Inclusive Socialism: India also imbibed core socialism spirit through planned economic development, initiation of land reforms, labour laws, progressive taxation, expansion of education and health and rapid expansion of the

Public sector.

Discuss the concept of Democratic socialism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of Indian flavor of Socialism.

Introduction:

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Broadly, it’s a political and economic system under which the means of production are owned by the community as a whole, with government ensuring the equitable distribution of wealth.

Body:

Indian Socialism:

However, despite aiming for the same goals, India adopted socialism which drew inspiration from Gandhi and Nehru rather than Marxian socialism. Whereas Gandhian socialism was based on satya, ahimsa, trusteeship and decentralisation and Nehru’s socialism was a liberal and a type of fabianist socialism, Marxian socialism emphasised on class wars and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

India in its modified socialist pursuit relied on three pillars of development strategy–

  • planning for rapid industrial and agricultural growth which was not under the absolute control of State.
  • a public sector to develop strategic industries, which was to progressively become a self-sustained profit-making sector.
  • a mixed economy- Mixed economy was preferred earlier due to lack of adequate resources, but the private sector was to work under a broad framework of planning.

It differed from core socialism as it went for a mixed economy rather than complete government control, the public sector had hold on only core industries, industrialists participated in planning (Bombay Plan), emphasis was on industrialisation along with agriculture and the aim was to make the public sector a profit-generating sector rather than being just a welfare tool for income redistribution.

However, India also imbibed core socialism spirit through planned economic development, initiation of land reforms, labor laws, progressive taxation, expansion of education and health and rapid expansion of the public sector.

Communist Socialism:

  • Communism, sometimes referred to as revolutionary socialism, also originated as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, and came to be defined by Marx’s theories—taken to their extreme end.
  • In fact, Marxists often refer to socialism as the first, necessary phase on the way from capitalism to communism.
  • Marx and Engels themselves didn’t consistently or clearly differentiate communism from socialism, which helped ensure lasting confusion between the two terms.
  • Under communism, there is no such thing as private property.
  • All property is communally owned, and each person receives a portion based on what they need.
  • A strong central government—the state—controls all aspects of economic production, and provides citizens with their basic necessities, including food, housing, medical care and education.
  • In communism, a violent revolution in which the workers rise up against the middle and upper classes is seen as an inevitable part of achieving a pure communist state.

Democratic Socialism:

  • Democratic socialists believe that both the economy and society should be run democratically—to meet public needs, not to make profits for a few.
  • To achieve a more just society, many structures of our government and economy must be radically transformed through greater economic and social democracy so that ordinary citizens can participate in the many decisions that affect our lives.
  • Democratic socialists do not want to create an all-powerful government bureaucracy. But we do not want big corporate bureaucracies to control our society either. Rather, we believe that social and economic decisions should be made by those whom they most affect.
  • Democratic socialists favor as much decentralization as possible. While the large concentrations of capital in industries such as energy and steel may necessitate some form of state ownership, many consumer-goods industries might be best run as cooperatives.
  • Democratic socialists have long rejected the belief that the whole economy should be centrally planned. While we believe that democratic planning can shape major social investments like mass transit, housing, and energy, market mechanisms are needed to determine the demand for many consumer goods.

Conclusion:

Despite its contributions to Indian economy and society through welfare policies, cooperative societies, planned growth, land reforms etc., socialism in India is yet to achieve all its intended objectives.

Consequently, while retaining socialism as a principal constitutional value, as declared in Preamble, Fundamental Rights and DPSP, India didn’t shy away from approaching a more liberal economy and means of distributive justice when needed. It smoothly transitioned to LPG reforms in the 1990s, opened its sectors and markets to global opportunities and competition, to continue its growth story keeping up with the changing times and needs.

 

Topic:   Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

3. while drawing participants from countries that are at odds with each other, Raisina has emerged as an important global forum on geopolitics. Discuss. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The article highlights the significance of Raisina dialogue as a global platform for geopolitics.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the significance of Raisina dialogue to India and the associated geopolitics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate about the Raisina platform.

Body:

Discuss in what way the Raisina dialogue has emerged as an important global forum on geopolitics.

Explain that Raisina has been successful in drawing participants from countries that are at odds with each other — US, China, Russia, Iran and the Gulf Arabs.

Bring out the growing international interest in India amidst its rapid economic growth in the new millennium and the recognition of its salience in shaping the future of international order.

Discuss the advantages of having such a forum from Indian perspective.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Raisina dialogue is an annual geo-political event, organised by the Ministry of External Affairs and Observer Research Foundation (ORF). It is designed to explore prospects and opportunities for Asian integration as well as Asia’s integration with the larger world. The Fifth edition of the Raisina Dialogue was held in New Delhi. The title of the Raisina Dialogue this year (2020) is “Navigating the Alpha Century”.

Body:

Importance of Raisina Dialogue:

  • The Raisina Dialogue was born in 2016, in the belief that the Asian century that the world was talking about was not about any exclusive geographical region.
  • It was rather about the engagement of global actors with Asia and of Asia with the world.
  • So this dialogue took birth as a platform, where the old and the new could work together, to discover their connections, their inter-dependence.
  • It is predicated on India’s vital role in the Indian Ocean Region and how India along with its partners can build a stable regional and world order.

Raisina’s growing importance on geopolitics:

  • Part of the reason for Raisina’s success is the growing international interest in India amidst its rapid economic growth in the new millennium and the recognition of its salience in shaping the future of international order.
  • It is also due to the fact that it is based on collaboration between the government and a private think tank.
  • This collaboration has helped shed the dull rigidity that has marked the government’s past engagement with the global strategic community.
  • Raisina emerged out of a recognition five years ago that Delhi did not have effective international platforms of its own despite the globalisation of India’s economy — trade now contributes nearly 40 per cent of India’s GDP.
  • India is at once more influential in world affairs as well as more susceptible to external developments. But its policy discourse appeared stuck in the past.
  • Raisina was part of the strategy to recalibrate that discourse and discard the traditional bureaucratic pretence that the government knows best.
  • Along with the Raisina Dialogue, the MEA had helped launch two other international forums — one on technology policy in Bengaluru and another on business in Mumbai.

Way forward:

  • Delhi needs a separate forum focused on India’s immediate neighbourhood.
  • Delhi needs to devote a lot more attention to engaging the strategic and economic elites in the Subcontinent to make a success of its declared policy that puts the “neighbourhood first”.
  • While government-supported forums like Raisina are welcome, Delhi needs to make it easier for the civil society groups to develop trans-border and international conversations.
  • Successive governments in recent decades have tightened the visa restrictions for conferences and made it harder to obtain official clearances to host such events.
  • Only a genuine liberalisation of these rules will help India realise the full potential of its global engagement.

 

Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. What is happening in Libya? Does a ceasefire still looks far-fetched? Discuss in the light of recently concluded Berlin Summit.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

World leaders made a fresh push for peace in Libya at a summit in Berlin on Sunday, in a desperate bid to stop the conflict-wracked nation from turning into a “second Syria”. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the ongoing Syrian crisis and the possibility of ceasefire in near future.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe what is happening in Libya currently.

Body:

Explain what is happening in Libya; Libya has been wracked by conflict since the 2011 uprising which ousted long-time strongman Muammar Gaddafi.

Discuss the efforts by foreign powers to resolve the crisis.

Explain the possibility of ceasefire, role of UN etc.

Take hints from the article and comment upon the Berlin action.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done.

Introduction:

World leaders made a fresh push for peace in Libya at a summit in Berlin on Sunday, in a desperate bid to stop the conflict-wracked nation from turning into a “second Syria”. The participation of so many major powers embroiled in the conflict signalled a renewed sense of urgency to stop spiralling violence, but the future of what was agreed upon depends in large part on the good faith of the signatories and their ability to load pressure on their Libyan allies, both of which remain seriously in doubt.

Body:

Libya

Incidents in Libya:

  • Libya has been wracked by conflict since the 2011 uprising which ousted long-time strongman Muammar Gaddafi.
  • Gen Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA) controls much of eastern Libya, and last April he launched an offensive against the country’s rival Government of National Accord (GNA) in the capital, Tripoli.
  • His forces have so far been unable to take the city, but earlier this month the LNA captured the country’s third-biggest city, Sirte.
  • According to the UN, the fighting has killed hundreds of people and displaced thousands more from their homes.
  • A truce was announced earlier this month between Gen Haftar and the GNA, led by Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj.
  • But both sides blame each other for reported breaches of the agreement, and attempts to broker a lasting ceasefire broke down last week at a summit in Moscow.

Role of foreign states:

  • The role of foreign states in the conflict has come into focus in recent months, with Turkey passing a controversial law to deploy troops to help GNA forces in Tripoli.
  • Gen Haftar’s LNA has the backing of Russia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Jordan.

Berlin Summit:

  • The Presidents of Russia, Turkey and France joined other global chiefs at the talks hosted by Chancellor Angela Merkel and held under the auspices of the United Nations.
  • The summit’s main goal is to get foreign powers wielding influence in the region to stop interfering in the war — be it through weapons, troops or financing.
  • The UN hopes all sides will sign up to a plan to refrain from interference, and commit to a truce that leads to a lasting end to hostilities, according to a draft of a final communique seen by AFP.
  • That document also urges all parties to re-commit to a much-violated UN arms embargo and raises the prospect of intra-Libyan political talks in Geneva at the end of the month.

The ceasefire still looks far-fetched:

  • Analysts doubt good faith is enough to end bloodshed as world powers pledge to end foreign interference and back truce.
  • Turkey has repeatedly urged Europe to stand united behind Sarraj’s government, warning that Tripoli’s fall could allow jihadist groups like the Islamic State or Al-Qaeda to regroup.
  • Turkey has also cautioned that further unrest could prompt a new wave of migrants to head for Europe.
  • For Turkey, a fall of Sarraj’s GNA could jeopardise a maritime boundary agreement the parties signed. It gives Ankara extensive rights over the eastern Mediterranean where the recent discovery of undersea gas reserves has triggered a scramble by littoral states.
  • With so many regional rivals and competing interests facing off, Wolfram Lacher, Libya expert at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, was sceptical about the chances of a Berlin breakthrough.

Conclusion:

A political solution agreed upon by all involved in the conflict is the best possible way out. The UNSC [United Nations Security Council] should impose appropriate sanctions on those who are found to be in violation of the ceasefire arrangements and on Member States to enforce these. If there is eventually a long-enough ceasefire in place, it would allow the UN to go back to the political drawing board, and design a fresh political process for the country.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. Discuss the prospects and challenges posed by Blockchain technology; what opportunities does it have to offer to the social sectors in the country? Discuss. (250 words)

News on Air

Why this question:

The question aims to ascertain the applications of Blockchain technology and its aid to social sector. National Informatics Centre (NIC) has set up the Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Blockchain Technology in Bengaluru, Karnataka.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the significance of Blockchain technology and its application.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Blockchain technology.

Body:

Blockchain technology is upcoming & niche technology and adoption of the same in sectors such as health, finance, agriculture and various other sectors would aid the government in implementing various programmes and provide trust and immutability to the assets.

Explain the applications of Blockchain technology, With National Informatics Centre (NIC) providing a robust and an agile infrastructure, the CoE shall also provide Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) for efficient hosting of Blockchain network.

Conclusion:

Conclude with futuristic advantages of Blockchain Technology.

Introduction:

Blockchains are a new data structure that is secure, cryptography-based, and distributed across a network. The technology supports cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, and the transfer of any data or digital asset. Anything recorded on them cannot be deleted, and is instantly uploaded to all users on that blockchain. Blockchain is being researched across the banking and financial services industries.

Body:

In Karnataka, Bengaluru has come up with a Centre for Excellence in Blockchain Technology. This technology helps in enhancing transparency and trust in e-Governance system by allowing all stakeholders benefit from shared learning, experiences and resources. Set up by the National Informatics Centre, the Centre for Excellence would help to bring a revolutionary change in the lives of the people by delivering e-governance services effectively through the data-centric model.

Advantages_Bolckchain

Prospects:

  • Bitcoin is just one of the applications for the technology, whose use is being tested across industries.
  • Healthcare, banking, education, agriculture, electricity distribution and land records are sectors that could benefit.
  • Blockchain-powered smart contracts, where every piece of information is recorded can enhance ease of doing business.
  • It will augment the credibility, accuracy and efficiency of a contract while reducing the risk of frauds, substantially.
  • Blockchain could play a crucial part in health insurance claims management by reducing the risk of insurance claim frauds.
  • The technology can also be used to prevent the sale of spurious drugs in the country by tracking every step of the supply chain network.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things (IoT) can gain immensely from blockchain applications.
  • In an IoT world, thousands of devices would need to rapidly and seamlessly transact with each other in real time.
  • The adoption of blockchain by India’s banks could help avert frauds such as the one at Punjab National Bank as the technology updates information across all users simultaneously.
  • It could be used to further strengthen our national institutions, including the judiciary and the Election Commission.
  • Critical citizen information like land records, census data, birth and death records, business licenses, criminal records, intellectual property registry, electoral rolls could all be maintained as blockchain-powered, tamper-proof public ledgers.

Challenges:

  • Blockchain technology is expensive to initially put it in place.
  • The massive usage of energy for the functioning of blockchain.
  • Safeguarding the privacy of individuals and companies as blockchains are usually open ledgers for everyone to see.
  • Knowledge of the benefits of distributed ledger technology is still limited.
  • If automated risk management, smart contracts, and similar tools are deployed across a network, cascades of rapid and hard-to-control obligations and liquidity flows could propagate across a network.
  • This interdependence will likely call for creative organizational thinking to address the need for governance and strong risk management

Blockchain in Social sectors:

  • Personal Identification: Governments manage vast amounts of personal data from birth and death records to marriage certificates, passports and census data. Blockchain technology offers a streamlined solution for managing all of it securely.
  • Fight corruption: Registering government transactions in the blockchain helps create a trusted history for any transaction and significantly eases the auditing process. This would contribute to making public procurement more transparent
  • Cut redtapism: As government agencies currently store data in autonomous centralized databases, they tend not to interoperate in an optimal way. This results in duplication, overlap and contradiction in the information held. Blockchain eliminates this lack of interoperability which generates unnecessary red tape in obtaining relevant information from a user, and makes the process for sharing data between agencies clear and inexpensive.
  • Identity and Land rights: The World Identity Network and Humanized Internet project can store identifiers such as birth certificates and university degrees on a blockchain, in the form of distributed digital lockboxes. Users can keep their information private and secure, but also give permission for anyone to access it anywhere in the world. Several governments, including those in Dubai, Estonia, Georgia, and Sweden are making early forays into blockchain-based approaches to securing property rights.
  • Agriculture: First of all, it can reduce contamination and food fraud. This can happen with the help of blockchain efficiency and transparency. Blockchain’s role is to improve the third party involvement by ensuring that they are tracking, collecting and managing data in the best possible way. With blockchain, farmers and distributors are going to get their payments faster than ever-improving their ability to work on their next set of projects faster.
  • Health: The health sector is one of those sectors that have tons of initiatives by both for-profit and non-profit organizations. With blockchain, healthcare can improve digital healthcare records. It also improves pharmaceutical supply chain management. As usual, blockchain offers a decentralized, efficient and secure solution.
  • Governance and democracy: Government and civil society can also leverage blockchain technology to strengthen democratic processes and participation. Blockchain systems such as Ballotchain can manage online elections with secure and anonymous voting that participants can verify at any time.
  • Environmental protection: In the environmental arena, new blockchain-supported supply chain management systems, which are transparent but cannot be tampered with, can track products from the farm to the table, and show whether or not a food product is organic or Fair Trade.
  • Philanthropy and Aid: Billions of dollars are invested in helping the needy. However, these aids are mostly misused due to a lack of transparency. In fact, most of the aid never reaches the intended people. This has also led people to not contribute to these non-profit organizations. Blockchain can solve all of these problems and help elevate the confidence in non-profit in utilizing the funds.
  • Crowdfunding: As with traditional crowdfunding, a blockchain powered crowdfunding campaign seeks to secure investment for a new project from an interested community. But in this instance, funding is most likely to come in the form of bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies.

Way Forward:

  • Blockchain, with all its possibilities, needs a serious look at its vulnerabilities and commerciality.
  • Before introducing blockchain into the public sector data-handling system, we need a robust and informative data repository.
  • Linking IndiaChain with Aadhar, thus creating a secure personal identity for all Indians.
  • Proper regulations for the use of blockchain technology in the country.
  • Identifying and resolving key issues and challenges in implementing this technology, the prime amongst those being data privacy.
  • India should effectively channel its technical human capital surplus to position itself as one of the pioneers during this upcoming wave of innovation.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6. Regardless of the ‘Make in India’ initiative being a well-wished-for policy, it suffers from key limitations. Deliberate. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article examines critically the performance of “Make in India”. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the objectives of the Make in India, explain the limitations and take hints from the article.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the details of the scheme.

Body:

The ‘Make in India’ initiative is to encourage manufacturing in India and galvanize the economy with dedicated investments in manufacturing and services.

Explain the progress made so far.

Discuss the setbacks that the scheme has witnessed, explain the challenges.

Take hints from the article and explain the issues involved and suggest what reforms need to be brought out to address the challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the lacunas need to be addressed to ensure viability of the scheme and attain success for the program for a long term period.

Introduction:

The Indian government announced the ‘Make in India’ initiative in 2014 to encourage manufacturing in India and galvanize the economy with dedicated investments in manufacturing and services. Immediately after the launch, investment commitments worth crores were announced. In 2015, India emerged as the top destination for foreign direct investment, surpassing the U.S. and China. In line with the national programme, States too launched their own initiatives.

Body:

Make in India:

  • The three major objectives were:
    • to increase the manufacturing sector’s growth rate to 12-14% per annum in order to increase the sector’s share in the economy;
    • to create 100 million additional manufacturing jobs in the economy by 2022; and
    • to ensure that the manufacturing sector’s contribution to GDP is increased to 25% by 2022 (revised to 2025) from the current 16%.
  • The policy approach was to create a conducive environment for investments, develop modern and efficient infrastructure, and open up new sectors for foreign capital.
  • The focus of Make in India programme is on 25 sectors. These include: automobiles, aviation, chemicals, IT & BPM, pharmaceuticals, construction, defence manufacturing, electrical machinery, food processing, textiles and garments, ports, leather, media and entertainment, wellness, mining, tourism and hospitality, railways, automobile components, renewable energy, biotechnology, space, thermal power, roads and highways and electronics systems.

Appraisal of Make in India after 5 years:

  • Investment:
    • The last five years witnessed slow growth of investment in the economy.
    • Gross fixed capital formation of the private sector, a measure of aggregate investment, declined to 28.6% of GDP in 2017-18 from 31.3% in 2013-14 (Economic Survey 2018-19).
    • Interestingly, though the public sector’s share remained more or less the same during this period, the private sector’s share declined from 24.2% to 21.5%.
    • Part of this problem can be attributed to the decline in the savings rate in the economy. Household savings have declined, while the private corporate sector’s savings have increased.
    • Thus we find a scenario where the private sector’s savings have increased, but investments have decreased, despite policy measures to provide a good investment climate.
  • Output Growth:
    • The monthly index of industrial production pertaining to manufacturing has registered double-digit growth rates only on two occasions during the period April 2012 to November 2019.
    • In fact, data show that for a majority of the months, it was 3% or below and even negative for some months. Thus, negative growth implies contraction of the sector.
  • Employment Growth:
    • Employment, especially industrial employment, has not grown to keep pace with the rate of new entries into the labour market

Reasons for slow growth in Make in India:

  • Ambitious targets: It set out too ambitious growth rates for the manufacturing sector to achieve. An annual growth rate of 12-14% is well beyond the capacity of the industrial sector.
  • Multiple targets: The initiative brought in too many sectors into its fold. This led to a loss of policy focus. Further, it was seen as a policy devoid of any understanding of the comparative advantages of the domestic economy.
  • Excessive dependence on foreign capital: The policy relied too much on foreign capital for investment. Thus in the uncertainties of the global economy and ever-rising trade protectionism, the initiative was spectacularly ill-timed.
  • Low Productivity: Productivity of Indian factories is low and workers have insufficient skills. McKinsey report states that Indian workers in the manufacturing sector are, on average, almost four and five times less productive than their counterparts in Thailand and China.
  • Complex Labour Laws: One of the major reasons behind small companies is the complicated labour regulations for plants with more than 100 employees. Government approval is required under the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947 before laying off any employees and the Contract Labour Act of 1970 requires government and employee approval for simple changes in an employee’s job description or duties.

Conclusion:

Make in India and reforms that followed have led to an improvement in ‘Ease of Doing Business’ ranking. However, investments are yet to arrive. The ‘Make in India’ programme may have the potential to transform India into a manufacturing hub but if we are to achieve that potential, the government would have to move beyond rhetoric to actual implementation of the announced policies.