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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 March 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1. Language is not only a manifestation of the diversity of the country but also the carrier of the caste system, cultural tyrannies and societal inequalities. Remark. (250 words)

Reference: IGNOU Material – Sociology.

 Social Problems In India – Ram Ahuja.

Why this question:

The question is assertive and highlights in what way language in India not only signifies diversity but also the caste, culture and social inequalities.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must reflect upon the factors that language brings out and how it is carrier of caste system, cultural oppression and societal inequities.

Directive:

Remark – here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss about the linguistic diversity of the country.

Body:

First account for linguistic diversity of the country.

Explain how it is carrier of caste system, cultural oppression and societal inequities.

Usage or prominence of a particular language often reflects the dominance of one community in the Indian society. For example, sanskrit, most of the times has been associated with the dominance of brahmanism in society. The idea of ‘purer’ forms of language and its distinction from ‘dialects’ propagates the influence of a particular caste or community which marginalises all the other ‘impure’ forms.

Bring out the cultural tyranny factor – There is a north-south divide mainly due to attempts of imposition of Hindi as the link-language of India. This has roots in anti-Brahmanism Dravidian movements in South India, which opposed caste based society and Hindi was also seen as a language that perpetuates a ‘backward’ culture of caste and gender oppression.

Hint towards the social inequalities.

Suggest way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of language and solutions to the unwanted problems posed by it.

 

Topic:  Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2. What do you understand by communalism? Deliberate upon the causes and impact of communalism on Indian society. (250 words)

Reference: IGNOU Material – Sociology.

Social Problems In India – Ram Ahuja.

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the theme of communalism in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss and deliberate upon the causes of communalism and its impact in the Indian society.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss what you understand by Communalism.

Body:

Have the following aspects discussed in detail in the answer body –

Discuss the reasons contributing to Communalism; Vested political interests, Rise of communal organisations, Politicization of local problems, Religious fundamentalism etc.

Discuss the impact of communalism on Indian society; impact on social fabric, economy, polity etc.

Suggest way forward for eradicating communalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Public awareness needs to be raised about the harmful impact of communalism. Our constitution, which labels India as a secular nation makes provisions to protect the interests of all religions and goes beyond the code of any religion. Hence one must learn to put national interests above one’s religious views.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

3. Bring out the need for complete revamp of NHRC to make it more effective and a watchdog of human right violations in the country while discussing the challenges involved. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The author talks about the need to giving Human Rights Commissions more teeth amidst the pending case before the High Court of Madras that has assumed great significance. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer should explain the need for complete revamp of NHRC to make it more effective while discussing the challenges involved.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the coming of NHRC, its objective, roles and responsibilities.

Body:

NHRC of India is an independent statutory body established on 12 October, 1993 as per provisions of Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, later amended in 2006.

An important facet of institutions in a healthy, functioning democracy is the existence of regulatory mechanisms that keep power in check. Then explain that Perhaps that is why NHRC remains the target of successive political dispensations that are eager to escape accountability. 

List down the issues concerning the functioning of NHRC, the lacunae.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Discuss the challenges facing Indian telecom sector today. What should the Government of India do to save the telecom sector? (250 words)

Reference: Business Standard 

Why this question:

 Nearly five months after winning its legal battle in the Supreme Court against telecom majors including Vodafone and Bharti Airtel for payment of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) dues worth several lakhs of crores of rupees, the Centre did a virtual U-turn on Monday by urging the court to give the companies a 20-year window to pay the money back. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should explain the challenges facing Indian telecom sector today. What should the Government of India do to save the telecom sector.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the recent happenings with respect to Telecom companies and service providers.

Body:

Present the case of AGR and the issue associated; discuss in detail how the issue unfolded.

Highlight the concerns such as – Already stressed sector: This order has added to the stress of the telecom industry reeling under a debt of over ₹4 lakh crore and has been seeking a relief package from the government. Insolvency: if forced to pay AGR immediately, the companies could face insolvency which would have a severe ripple effect on the overall economy, as well as the overall service quality of all telcos.

List down the challenges facing the sector; financial health, rapidly falling ARPU (average revenue per user), delays in the rollout of innovative products and services, low broad band penetration, limited spectrum availability, high competition and tariff war etc.

Highlight the govt. initiatives to address these challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Telcos are a necessary part of any future consumer proposition, regardless of who owns the platform. The path forward is leveraging this strength while navigating the potholes of regulation, changing technology and consumer dynamics.

 

Topic:  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

5. Critically examine the recent judgment on minority rights upholding the West Bengal Madrasah Service Commission Act, 2008. Is the judgment contrary to the law? Present your viewpoint. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

In the latest judgment on minority rights, a two-judge bench of Justice U.U. Lalit and Justice Arun Mishra upheld the West Bengal Board of Madrasah Education Act, 1994, and the West Bengal Madrasah Service Commission Act, 2008, both of which take away the autonomy of madrasas in the State.

Key demand of the question:

One must critically evaluate the judgment and present arguments with suitable justifications.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly bring out the fact that in the last one year, a new trend has emerged in the Supreme Court. Smaller benches now do not hesitate to overrule larger benches’ decisions. Increasingly, judicial discipline is losing its charm.

Body:

Explain that protection of minorities is the hallmark of a civilisation. There is no way that India can overcome its developmental challenges by pitting one religious group against another and turning some Indians into second-class citizens.

Discuss the constitutional provisions available to Minorities; Rights under Article 30.

Present your case with suitable justifications. Explain the nuances of the ongoing case.

Highlight other judgments in the past to back your opinion.

Conclusion:

It is believed that, it would have been much better if the learned judge had relied on Bihar State Madrasa Education Board (1990), which he did cite.

Here, the court had observed that “under the guise of regulating educational standards to secure efficiency in institution, the state is not entitled to frame rules or regulations compelling the management to surrender its right to administration”. The Chief Justice of India has now referred this judgment to a larger bench and one hopes that the apex court will restore the confidence of the minorities.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6. should Internet be regarded as an essential service, and access to it as a fundamental right? Analyse amidst the fault lines created by digital divide and differential access. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The author highlights in what way the fault lines created by digital divide and differential access are being underlined by coronavirus crisis and that It’s a sobering warning.

Key demand of the question:

Present your arguments as to whether Internet be regarded as an essential service, and access to it as a fundamental right. One must explain the impact of digital divide on the poor especially in the cases of crisis such as that being witnessed currently by the world- the corona crisis.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight why Internet and access to it becomes important element in today’s times.

Body:

Define digital divide – the gulf between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not.

Discuss how and why in an information society, unequal access to the Internet creates and reproduces socio-economic exclusions.

Explain what are the impact and challenges of internet access and digital literacy on socio-economic development?

Present the case amidst the corona pandemic; take hints from the article and justify your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the role of the present government in this direction while suggesting suitable measures to address the problem.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  social influence and persuasion.

7. “Recently announced ‘Janata curfew’ to combat the COVID-19 pandemic sets as a classical example of Social influence and persuasion as imperative measures to ensure behavioural change through public policy”. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

 Amid alarm bells of covid-19, PM strikes the right chord as he delivers larger cautionary notes and much-needed assurances. Thus the question evaluates the significance of governance model that is premised on persuasion and social influence.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the need and importance of Social influence and persuasion as imperative measures to ensure behavioural change through public policy.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the context of the question, explain what and why is the ‘Janata curfew’.

Body:

Explain first the significance of public policy – Public policy is a dynamic mechanism where the government addresses public problems and counters them by reforming existing policy.

Discuss that to effectively implement the public policy, active participation of citizenry is imperative. Social influence and persuasion are the most efficient tools to bring about change in the participation levels of people in policy implementation.

Define social influence and persuasion; present the case of ‘Janata curfew’.

One can contrast such a move with the coercive policies of the governments in the past and how it hindered the policy dimensions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such approaches in public policy making.