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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 February 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Chola bronze sculptures had set a new benchmark in the history of art and metallurgy”. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: An introduction to Indian Art Part -I   Class XI  NCERT

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I and aims to analyse the significance of Chola art and architecture.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of the benchmark that the Cholan Bronze sculptures had set in the history of art and architecture.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the coming of Bronze sculptures in India; one can start with the mention of the ‘Dancing girl’ figurine of Mohenjodaro.

Body:

First explain that the making of bronze sculptures reached a high stage of development in South India during the medieval period. Although bronze images were modeled and cast during the Pallava period in the eighth and ninth centuries. Then move onto highlight that the most elegant and exquisite statues were produced during the Chola Period. Discuss their key features; use the examples of kalyanasundara murti, Ardhanarishvara, Nataraja etc.

Conclusion:

The Chola period was an age of continuous improvement and refinement of Dravidian art and architecture. The circumstances in which bronzes were cast during this period, and the contexts within which they were and are sited, continue to have profound relevance for our present-day understanding of art and culture.

Introduction:

Bronze sculptures and statuettes of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain icons have been discovered from many regions of India dating from the second century until the sixteenth century. Most of these were used for ritual worship and are characterised by exquisite beauty and aesthetic appeal. the ‘Dancing Girl’ from Mohenjo-Daro is the earliest bronze sculpture datable to 2500 BCE.

Body:

Chola bronze sculptures:

  • The cire-perdu or ‘lost-wax’ process for casting was learnt as long ago as the Indus Valley Culture.
  • Along with it was discovered the process of making alloy of metals by mixing copper, zinc and tin which is called bronze.
  • The bronze casting technique and making of bronze images of traditional icons reached a high stage of development in South India during the medieval period.
  • Although bronze images were modelled and cast during the Pallava Period in the eighth and ninth centuries, some of the most beautiful and exquisite statues were produced during the Chola Period in Tamil Nadu from the tenth to the twelfth century.
  • Exquisite pieces of art developed during this period. This technique is still practised in south India, particularly in Kumbakonam.
  • The distinguished patron during the tenth century was the widowed Chola queen, Sembiyan Maha Devi.
  • Chola bronzes are the most sought-after collectors’ items by art lovers all over the world.
  • The well-known dancing figure of Shiva as Nataraja was evolved and fully developed during the Chola Period and since then many variations of this complex bronze image have been modelled.
  • A wide range of Shiva iconography was evolved in the Thanjavur (Tanjore) region of Tamil Nadu. The ninth century kalyanasundara murti is highly remarkable for the manner in which Panigrahana (ceremony of marriage) is represented by two separate statuettes.
  • Shiva with his extended right hand accepts Parvati’s (the bride’s) right hand, who is depicted with a bashful expression and taking a step forward.
  • The union of Shiva and Parvati is very ingeniously represented in the ardhanarisvara murti in a single image.
  • Beautiful independent figurines of Parvati have also been modelled, standing in graceful tribhanga posture.

Conclusion:

Given these unique features, great demand of Chola bronze sculptures not only among the devotees but also among the art collectors across the world. Thus, Chola bronze sculptures give us a glimpse of the finesse in metallurgy during the early medieval India. Hence appreciated by the art lovers across the world.

 

Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society

2.  “Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, caste system cannot be eradicated in India”. Do you agree? Comment and  Present your viewpoints with suitable arguments. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question expects us to discuss the evolved nature of caste system in India and comment on whether or not it can be eradicated because of how it has been entrenched in Indian society.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss why caste system is an implicit feature of India and can’t be done away with.

Directive:

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain caste systems in India from past to present.

Body:

Write about the various changes taking place in the caste system. Talk about the greater assertion shown by the lower caste off late. Discuss the making of caste based groups in several sectors like commerce, trade, agriculture etc. Talk about the political associations formed on the lines of caste and why eradicating caste on account of these factors would be difficult.

Conclusion:

Conclude with your view on whether caste system would be eradicated in India or it is something that is tailored deep with the fabric of social life in the country.

Introduction:

Caste system has been prevalent in India since ages immemorial. Caste refers to a broad hierarchical institutional arrangement along which basic social factors like birth, marriage, food-sharing etc are arranged in a hierarchy of rank and status. These sub-divisions are traditionally linked to occupations and decide the social relations with respect to other upper and lower castes.

 It has legitimized the exploitation of lower caste individuals viz. the dalits. However, after Independence an equal society was guaranteed and practices such as Untouchability has been criminalised. However, Caste as a system is adapting to the changing conditions.

Body:

Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms:

  • Rise of caste politics across country makes sure that caste as a system is not forgotten.
  • Formation of caste associations such as Jat sabha.
  • Though pressure groups are formed for well-intentioned purposes around the world in India caste associations are acting as negative pressure groups. Recent rise in reservation demands by Patidar community, Kapu community are some examples.
  • Though caste based discrimination has been externally decreased it has been still prevalent in minds of higher caste communities. This can be indicated by facts such as Inter caste marriages are still very less. Also most of the manual scavengers are from lower castes.
  • Even technology is promoting caste based division. For example, rise of caste based matrimony sites in internet.

Implications of Caste system:

  • Considering that these divisions offer solidarity and psychological strength to various marginalized groups, even if the caste-based discrimination is diffused through the legislative enforcement the divisions of identity will be difficult to erase.
  • weakening of democracy, as leaders are exploiting and people are getting cheated in the name of caste
  • in the era which talks about India to become $5 trillion economy by 2024, caste system is a barrier.
  • excess reservation leading to less competent and less compassionate job seekers
  • There is no point in calling casteism as a system or a process, rather it is an evil.
  • Caste system only increases the hate, anger but never create brotherliness
  • Caste is an age old system which are followed traditionally. So people find it difficult to accept the new ideal

Way forward:

  • Political will is the need of the hour. This would make sure that caste based politics are reduced.
  • Also EC must make sure that caste based politics must be abolished with the help of Government.
  • Awareness has to be created among adults. Also value based education emphasising on equality must be inculcated to young minds.
  • Reservation demands by communities can be reduced by providing them employment. For this govt must bring reforms in all three sectors.
  • Also reservation system must reach to every person of lower caste community which would lead to their upheaval and with this the reservation system can be removed in a phased manner.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. Do you agree that India needs to have an open mind on trade in an economically interconnected and technologically inseparable world? Comment and suggest measures to be taken in this aspect. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The article is in the backdrop of the recent India’s international trade posture that has appeared to turn protectionist in the past week.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the need for India to have an open mind on trade in an economically interconnected and technologically inseparable world. And suggest what Indian policy makers should do to achieve the same.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

Explain the nature of present globalization and technological advancements in the world. Present your opinion if India should open its doors in discussing Free Trade Agreements or remain cautious about its domestic manufacturers. Discuss the probable consequences of such a move. Suggest suitable measures to be taken in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

India has recently sent out two indications which reflects, it turning inward and becoming protectionist. The first indicator was that laying out the Budget for the year, the finance minister made several references to the problems with free trade and preferential trade agreements (FTAs and PTAs). The other indicator was that India declined to attend a meeting of trade negotiators in Bali that was discussing the next step in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)-led Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) trade agreement.

Body:

Yes, India needs an open mind on trade because:

  • India’s absence in the Bali meeting, it has sent a clear signal that it does not want to engage on the multilateral front but deal with countries bilaterally.
  • But for other countries, since they are part of multilateral grouping, any bilateral meeting with India could take place only after the multilateral process is completed. This also means that the other countries may not offer anything substantial on the bilateral level to India as they would be bound by multilateral RCEP agreement.
  • India and Australia began Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) talks in 2011 but negotiations since then has not reached any consensus.
  • India-United Kingdom have initiated the FTA talks too. However, it is unlikely that the U.K. will actually be able to proceed with a dialog until U.K.’s full withdrawal from the European Union (EU) is completed.
  • India’s talks with the EU for a Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) is unlikely to make much headway.
  • The motive may be to protect Indian markets from dumping but the consequence of the changes will put Indian importers on notice and discourage imports in general.

Need for India to reconsider its decision:

  • The government has invoked the massive $57-billion trade deficit with China to explain protectionist measures, but it forgets its own trade surpluses with smaller economies, particularly in the neighbourhood, where Indian exports form more than 80% of total trade with Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, respectively.
  • With the door to RCEP all but closed, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) virtually abandoned, India is not a part of any regional FTA.
  • The trend across the world does not favor trade in services the way it does in goods, as most countries have turned migration-averse.
  • India’s strength in the services sector and its demand for more mobility for Indian employees, is thus becoming another sticky point in FTA negotiations.
  • The debate over trade is as much about India’s leadership ambitions in the world, and the factors that could inhibit its rise. It would be hard to argue that India can rise in Asia without closer trade links with the East or the backing of South Asia.

Measures needed:

  • It is necessary to have open mind in handling trade relations, calculative cost benefit analysis is equally important.
  • The technological interventions, military & space intelligence sharing between nations is equally crucial for India to become well equipped & developed. Hence, FTA & regional Trade pacts are highly essential in handling relations.
  • FDI from developed nations will be possible when trade relation will be effective. It will impact the future of investment for India.
  • Review of the previously signed FTA’s with countries like Japan and South Korea.
  • Encouraging domestic markets to be more competitive.

Conclusion:

India’s demographic might is certainly attractive for international investors, but only if that vast market has purchasing power and is not riven by social unrest and instability. Therefore, in this modern, economically interconnected and technologically inseparable world, India should have an open mind on trade.

 

Topic:  Investment models. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4.Discuss the advantages of disinvestment as a mode for mobilization of resources for the government with recent cases. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

Union Minister of Finance recently announced that the government plans to sell a part of its holding in Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) by way of an Initial Public Offering (IPO). Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the advantages of disinvestment as a mode for mobilization of resources for the government with recent cases.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the aspects of disinvestment in general for an economy.

Body:

Disinvestment is the action of an organization or government selling or liquidating an asset or subsidiary. Disinvestment also refers to capital expenditure reductions, which can facilitate the re-allocation of resources to more productive areas within an organization or government-funded project. It is also known as divestiture; it is the opposite of an investment and is usually done when that subsidiary asset or division is not performing up to expectations. Discuss the types of disinvestments. Explain the advantages while highlighting the concerns involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of such measures to the economy.

Introduction:

Disinvestment, or divestment, refers to the act of a business or government selling or liquidating an asset or subsidiary or the process of dilution of a government’s stake in a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). In the most recent developments, the government in the Union Budget proposed to sell a part of its holding in Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) by way of an initial public offering (IPO).

Body:

Advantages of disinvestment as a mode for mobilization of resources for the government:

  • Some believe that “the government has no business being in business”.
  • The government’s role is to facilitate a healthy business environment
  • To earn additional income from the proceeds of a stake sale.
  • The government has to spend higher amounts on infrastructure to boost economic growth, along with its commitments on health and education.
  • India is currently facing an economic slowdown in which indirect tax collections are below par.
  • The government has cut corporate tax rates. As a result of cut and to-be-cut tax rates, the government would have less and less cash for its own expenditure in infrastructure and the social sector.
  • Disinvestment proceeds will be critical for the government to stick to its Fiscal Deficit target.
  • If the fiscal deficit goes out of hand, global rating agencies lower the country’s investment grade.
  • This would make any future foreign currency loans costlier.
  • Here is where proceeds from strategic sales give the government extra spending cushion.
  • Improving the structure of incentives and accountability of PSUs in India.
  • Brings about greater efficiencies for the economy and markets as a whole.
  • Bring relief to consumers by way of more choices and better quality of products and services, e.g. Telecom sector.

Way forward:

  • Define the priority sectors for the government based on its strategic interests.
  • Investment in PSU’s has to be in terms of generation of adequate social and strategic returns.
  • Financial return cannot be the sole reason for investment in PSUs. They have to serve social/strategic purposes. The key role of a PSU is to maintain competition in the sector and limit excessive monopoly.
  • Government ownership is required for sectors with strategic relevance such as defence, natural resources, etc. The government should, therefore, exit non-strategic sectors such as hotels, soaps, airlines, travel agencies and the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
  • The outlook towards strategic divestment should move from the current policy of emphasizing on public ownership and retaining majority shareholding to looking at the strategic interest.
  • It is important to realize that ownership is not a substitute for regulation.
  • Therefore, instead of creating PSUs in non-priority sectors, the government should look into strengthening the regulatory framework that ensures efficient market conditions. The regulations should also ensure that the basic necessities of the consumers are met.

 

Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

5. ‘piracy is a global beast’, In this context, critically examine the challenges involved in the e-commerce sector with respect to the threats of counterfeits and piracy with special focus on India. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why this question:

E -commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. The question is in such a backdrop where the growth of the e-commerce sector is a welcome thing on one hand, the issues associated with piracy is another.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the challenges involved in the e-commerce sector with respect to the threats of counterfeits and piracy.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain why Piracy is a global beast.

Body:

One has to explain in detail the fact that – Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorized and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime. Highlight and list the challenges involved. Suggest solutions to address such challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude by need to address the issue with a multi-pronged approach.

Introduction:

Piracy refers to the unauthorized duplication of copyrighted content that is then sold at substantially lower prices in the ‘grey’ market. The ease of access to technology has meant that over the years, piracy has become more rampant. E -commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026.

Body:

Challenges of Piracy in e-Commerce sector:

  • Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace.
  • E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods.
  • The majority of copyright infringement is done through illegal reproduction of journals, magazines and books, video piracy, cable piracy, and imitation and distribution of computer programmes without the permission of the original copyright holders.
  • Unlike the problem of physical piracy and counterfeiting, the piracy of content is easy and damaging.
  • It is easy because the content of the original product is retransmitted and, therefore, there is no new creation, no infrastructure is required, no money is invested in creating content, and the same content of the same quality is made available to everyone for free.
  • Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
  • when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits.
  • One of the greatest difficulties in tackling content theft and piracy is the jurisdictional challenge. While laws have national boundaries, piracy is a global beast. One can sit on a non-compliant jurisdiction, upload content, and make it available throughout the world. Indian laws will not be applicable in this case.

Measures needed:

  • There is a need for constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters.
  • A big step has been taken by the government in bringing in the draft e-commerce policy, which has indicated clear guidelines on the expectations from brand owners and e-commerce players.
  • It is the first time that a government document has listed concrete steps for combating counterfeiting.
  • It categorically states that the details of sellers should be made available on a marketplace website for all products, and that sellers must provide an undertaking to the platforms about the genuineness of their products.
  • Trademark owners should be given the option to register with an e-commerce platform so that wherever a trademark product is uploaded for sale on the platform, it should notify the respective trademark owner.
  • If the trademark owner desires, the e-commerce platform can only list or offer for sale any of the owner’s products only with prior permission.
  • Additionally, in case of a customer complaint of counterfeiting after the sale, compensation will be paid and financial disincentives imposed on the seller found dealing in counterfeit products.

Conclusion:

It is important that we have regulations for e-commerce. Best practices need to be followed, technological tools and training of enforcement agencies needs to be done, the judiciary needs to be strengthened and more commercial courts opened to deal with the intricacies of IPRs, and to ascertain the extent of counterfeiting and piracy.

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6.“Gandhi’s martyrdom was his final sacrifice in his Altar for Hindu-Muslim harmony. “Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The question is based on the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and the sacrifices he made to ensure Hindu-Muslim harmony.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the contributions of Mahatma Gandhi to the Hindu-Muslim harmony of the country.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain Gandhi’s strong belief in – “To be ready even to lay down one’s life for true welfare”.

Body:

The article discusses in detail the Gandhian philosophy and the essence of it. One should take cues and explain the significance of such life lessons in preserving the religious harmony of the country. Quote situations where Gandhi applied these principles and highlight the significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of such key philosophy.

Introduction:

Gandhi’s conception of religion is primarily concerned with spiritual development.  It is essential not only for the countries practicing religious pluralism but also for the re-education of the human race. His idea on religion and world endorses the view of the political philosopher Thomas Paine who considered the world as his country, all mankind are his brethren and to do good is his religion.

Body:

Gandhiji’s ideas of religious harmony:

  • For Mahatma Gandhi, in the same way as for Ghaffar Khan and Maulana Azad, the real challenge was to ensure that the secular public sphere could uphold the constitutional rights for all religious minorities.
  • Through his “soft reading” of the Hindu scriptures, as also the texts of Christianity and Islam, Gandhi found a clarion call for active non-violence in all these religions.
  • As such, he thought faith can only push a person, be that a Christian, a Jew or a Muslim, to promote peace and non-violent social change.
  • For him, the basic principles of religions were not just pious ideals, but actual laws of action in the world.
  • He pointed out that selfish priests, Brahmins, and mullahs had distorted the teaching of Christianity and other religions, and misled the people.
  • All religions held soul force to be superior to brute force. There is no room in religion for anything other than compassion.
  • A man of religion will not wish ill even to his enemy. Therefore, if people want to follow the path of religion, they must do nothing but good.
  • Like Rabindranath Tagore, Gandhi’s religion was not confined to temples, churches, books, and other such outer forms. Gandhi was convinced that a mere doctrinaire approach in the field of religion does not help to create inter-religious fellowship.
  • Dogmatic religions do not help promote creative dialogue. Dogmas tend to directly or indirectly breed an attitude of dislike towards other religions.
  • Mahatma Gandhi’s mission was to find a common ground based on non-violence among religions.
  • Disheartened by the “us-and-them” divisions and mutual disregard between the Muslims and the Hindus, Gandhi engaged in an open dialogue with Islam and the Muslims.
  • He never accepted the argument that Hindus and Muslims constituted two separate elements in Indian society.
  • In Gandhian conception, oneness is attained by accepting all radical others as equally significant because they variously manifest one Supreme Being.
  • Thus, to tolerate is to refrain from interfering in the life of others not despite our hatred for them, but because we love them as alternative manifestations of our own selves or because we deeply care for some basic norm common to all of us.

Conclusion:

Gandhi’s religious vision encouraged multiple attachments, multiple belongings, and multiple religious identities. It’s time to challenge the idea of religion as a monolith and follow Gandhi who encouraged multiple religious attachments

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7.What are Moral Emotions? How are they different from basic emotions? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: NCBI

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of moral emotions and there relevance along with the basic emotions.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of moral emotions, differentiate the same with basic emotions and explain the key role played by them.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define moral emotions and their role with examples.

Body:

Moral emotions are a variety of social emotions that are involved in forming and communicating moral judgments and decisions, and in motivating behavioral responses to one’s own and others’ moral behavior. Moral emotions help to make important moral judgments by directing people’s moral choices. Discuss the relevance of these emotions. Differentiate between moral emotions and basic emotions with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of inculcating such moral emotions to one’s life.

Introduction:

Moral emotions are a variety of social emotion that are involved in forming and communicating moral judgments and decisions, and in motivating behavioral responses to one’s own and others’ moral behavior.

Body:

Types:

  • Inner-directed negative emotions like guilt, embarrassment, and shame often motivate people to act ethically.
  • Outer-directed negative emotions, on the other hand, aim to discipline or punish. For example, people often direct anger, disgust, or contempt at those who have acted unethically. This discourages others from behaving the same way.
  • Positive emotions like gratitude and admiration, which people may feel when they see another acting with compassion or kindness, can prompt people to help others.
  • Emotions evoked by suffering, such as sympathy and empathy, often lead people to act ethically toward others. Indeed, empathy is the central moral emotion that most commonly motivates prosocial activity such as altruism, cooperation, and generosity.

Difference between Moral and basic emotions:

Basic emotions Moral emotions
These are animalistic emotions which are common across all cultures, and they’re thought to be biologically determined. They are ‘self-conscious’ emotions referred to as moral, social or “higher-order” emotions. These are emotions that an organism can only feel if it has a highly developed sense of self-reflection.
Six basic emotions: Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise. Four moral emotions: guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride.
Basic emotions are limited to personal grievances. Emotions in which we imagine our conformity or nonconformity to society’s norms.

 

Conclusion:

So, while we may believe that our moral decisions are influenced most by our philosophy or religious values, in truth our emotions play a significant role in our ethical decision-making.