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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 6 February 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Disaster and disaster management.

1. Discuss whether the recurrent viral outbreaks can be termed as man-made disasters. Illustrate with the case of corona outbreak. (250 words)

Reference: NCBI

The Hindu

Why this question:

Recently, a new virus belonging to the Coronavirus family (now named novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV) has claimed over 200 lives in China and the numbers infected have touched 10,000 confirmed cases. As the outbreak continues to spread outside China, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (global emergency).

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss whether the recurrent viral outbreaks can be termed as man-made disasters and illustrate it with the recent onset of the Corona epidemic.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly state key facts such as the nation-wide disease surveillance programme and its assessment about such diseases in India.

Body:

Discuss what Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) is. With the case of novel coronavirus, explain the need to jack up the preparedness of the country for such disasters. Discuss the case of India with such viral outbreaks. Explain if such viral outbreaks can be owed to manmade reasons and can be categorized into man-made disasters.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions to address such concerns.

Introduction:

A new virus belonging to the Coronavirus family, COVID-19 has been spreading rampantly across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared it a pandemic, which has spread to more than 100 countries across the globe.

Body:

A Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) is a formal declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) of “an extraordinary event which is determined to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response”, formulated when a situation arises that is “serious, sudden, unusual or unexpected”, which “carries implications for public health beyond the affected state’s national border” and “may require immediate international action”

Recurrent viral outbreaks can be termed as man-made disasters:

  • Diseases that pass from animals to humans are called zoonotic diseases. They are rare. The chief concern with them is that since they are new to humans, the human body does not have any immunity to them.
  • Of the over 30 new human pathogens detected over the last three decades, 75% originated in animals.
  • Coronavirus is one of them. It is believed to have originated in a seafood market in Wuhan that was involved in the illegal sale of wildlife.
  • According to WHO, wherever there is close mixing of humans and animals, especially the unregulated handling of blood and other body products, as happens for example in China’s animal markets, there are greater chances of transmission of a virus from animals to humans, and its mutation to adapt to the human body.

COVID-19 has turned into a man-made disaster:

  • There is an acute shortage of epidemiologists, microbiologists and entomologists which translates into wasteful delays in diagnostics.
  • For China, the timing of the outbreak could not be worse. The Chinese Lunar New Year began on January 24 and normally, it marks a week-long holiday, marked by feasting and travel by large numbers to join their families for the celebrations.
  • Undoubtedly, this movement contributed to the rapid transmission of the disease across China and to many countries before the Chinese authorities cracked down.

Way forward for India:

  • Given the growth potential of India’s biotech sector, it is time to put in place a robust public-private partnership model that can transform the health services sector in the country, covering disease surveillance, diagnostic kit availability and accelerated vaccine development.
  • Infectious diseases including those of the zoonotic variety are on the rise in India. In addition, regions in India suffer from seasonal outbreaks of dengue, malaria and influenza strains.
  • In this context, the nation-wide disease surveillance programme needs to be strengthened in the country.
  • Given the growth potential of India’s biotech sector, it is time to put in place a robust public-private partnership model that can transform the health services sector in the country, covering disease surveillance, diagnostic kit availability and accelerated vaccine development.

 

  • Developing the rural infrastructure has a direct effect on the economic growth and wellness of the country; in such a context discuss the need to have a budget inclusive of tech infrastructure to cater these areas. (250 words)

Introduction:

Information and Communication technologies (ICT) have a potential for economic growth and social empowerment. Direct or indirect application of ICT, in rural development sector has also been referred to as “Rural Informatics”. ICT tools are one of the most important requirement for the rural development in terms of delivery of service, delivery of information, governance, improving connectivity, market, health and education.

Body:

Significance of Rural Tech infrastructure:

  • Use of modern scientific tools and techniques increased agricultural productivity manifold.
  • Today, we are among the top producers of milk, wheat, rice and sugarcane.
  • Latest remote sensing technologies have made the resource mapping and planning very effective in agriculture and forestry.
  • With increased teledensity, ICT (Information, Communication & Technology) is making rapid inroads in rural India, revolutionalising the connectivity and information flow.
  • This has opened a plethora of opportunities.
  • Now ICT is being leveraged to plug leakages in the public distribution system and for better targeting of subsidies by way of Aadhar linked direct benefit transfers. It is used in tele-medicine, online study courses, e-Payments and what not.
  • e–Technology can be effectively leveraged to fulfil the information needs of the rural populace such as providing weather and market related information.
  • It can also be a good platform for online marketing of the artefacts produced by village artisans.

Spending on Rural Tech infrastructure of Government:

  • The Government in the recent budget proposed an outlay of ₹8,000 crore over the next five years for setting up a National Mission on Quantum Technology and Applications.
  • The government has already allocated ₹6,000 crore for Bharat Net, the Centre’s work-in-progress rural broadband connectivity programme.
  • However, the government’s focus evidently lies on disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, Internet-of-Things (IoT), data analytics and quantum computing.

Need for an inclusive budget to have rural IT infrastructure:

  • The government has been pushing every other service into the digital domain, forcing citizens to fill out forms electronically, access information online and communicate about grievances in real time via the Web.
  • Telecom businesses are least interested in catering to the bottom of the pyramid when it comes to data business.
  • Hence, it becomes the duty of the government to ensure villages have access to high-speed broadband.

Challenges in providing rural IT infrastructure:

  • Government telcos have been a failure at providing fast Internet to the people.
  • Anecdotal evidence shows that Bharat Net continues to proceed at a snail’s-pace.
  • Lack of continuous Supply of Electricity.
  • Low level of Digital Literacy: Rural India faces a severe technology deficit. The role of technology in solving problems is barely acknowledged, and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is, at best, marginal.
  • Shortage of ICTs Personnel
  • Unavailability of Web Content in Local Language

Conclusion:

Substantial investment is needed in physical infrastructure, power, broadband, transportation and education, particularly in rural regions and among the poorest populations in order to truly reap the benefits of the 4th Industrial Revolution.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3. Along with value-added administration, the education system needs a revamp to address India’s human capital crisis effectively. Deliberate.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu Business Line

Why this question:

The article highlights the fact that Along with improved administration, the system needs an overhaul to address India’s human capital crisis effectively. Thus the context of the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the reasons that are necessitating an overhaul in the current education system of the country to address the human capital crisis.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the importance of a robust education system.

Body:

Explain in detail the causes of concerns in the Indian system of education. Highlight the key issues ranging from quality of education, lack of qualified teachers, reach of schools, penetration etc. Discuss the role of administration and explain why it is important to focus on both the aspects – system and the administration.

Conclusion:

Suggest the means which are available that need to be adopted to overcome the challenges prevalent currently in the system and discuss solutions to address the same.

Introduction:

Our Indian Education system needs serious reforms and changes. India’s learning outcomes remain stubbornly low. Quality concerns around education in light of India’s human capital crisis, reflected in unemployment statistics. By 2020, the median age in India will be just 28, compared to 37 in China and the US, 45 in Western Europe, and 49 in Japan. But for us to reap the benefit of this demographic dividend we need to ensure that we see an overhaul in our education system.

Body:

Challenges in current education system:

  • Rote learning: The ideal choice of learning is memorizing facts. Here to judge the student’s talent has only one factor i.e. percentage in board examination. So, students just mug up and undeniably Indian education is spoon feeding.
  • Lack of hands on knowledge: There is no hands-on knowledge in our Education system. Our Education system mainly emphasizes on theoretical knowledge. Some basic theoretical knowledge is required however our Education system focuses more on the theoretical knowledge.
  • India’s education system continues to be centred on standardised and ambitious curricula, students grouped by age instead of learning levels, and high-stakes board examinations.
  • government schools have emerged organically without a coherent strategy, sometimes serving just a handful of students, causing a large, unwieldy school network.
  • The state’s capacity to manage such a system, however, is limited with inadequate frontline administration, information gaps, and large vacancies among faculty.
  • Apart from an elite few, the bulk of private schools are under-resourced and have little regulation of quality, safety, or outcomes.
  • Another major problem with the education sector lies with the higher education sector as we see the higher education structure in the country today, we are producing degree holders after degree holders.
  • Lack of skilling: The crisis in India is that a lot of graduates are getting produced, who are then either unable or are not skilled enough to enter the workforce. Thus, the primary challenge for India’s higher education sector is the skilling issue.
  • For instance, the 2030 Skills Scorecard by the Global Business Coalition for Education reinforces these concerns — in 2030, India will have the highest number of secondary school graduates in South Asia, but nearly half of them will lack the skills to enter the job-market.

Measures needed:

  • Optimising for the number of schools is complemented with interventions directed at infrastructure improvements, adequate staffing of teachers, school leaders, and frontline officials, and developing the capacity of these staff.
  • A strong focus on ‘remediation’ to enable all students to achieve grade-level competency.
  • In terms of administration, programmes must share some common elements: management information systems to improve review and monitoring; communications across all levels of government, leveraging technology such as video conferences and WhatsApp; and project management protocols at the State, district, and block levels.
  • Developing “model” secondary schools — one in every gram panchayat — with quality infrastructure and prioritised staffing as seen under the Rajasthan’s Adarsh programme.
  • A new policy which must capitalise on energised administrative apparatus to redefine the broader objectives of the education system.
  • This will require a fundamental reengineering of assessments mechanisms, a mass behavioural change to facilitate a shift in focus from high-stakes examinations, and new partnerships between stakeholders — parents, students, teachers, frontline administrators, and NGOs.
  • An “outcomes-focus” is undoubtedly critical, but should be underpinned by an overarching human capital strategy.
  • Technology has to be a primary part of the process. Technology allows us to adapt to teaching and assessment of entirely new skills that are very significant for the present century and that you cannot progress in a kind of traditional setting.

Conclusion:

Moving forward, India must extricate itself from this unstable equilibrium and view education within a larger human capital framework. In the upcoming decade, India’s education sector must focus on both scale and substance, addressing the learning problem at a system-wide level, while also recalibrating the raison d’etre of the education system itself.

 

Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. At the moment, India is one of the few countries which have major interest in international seaborne trade. In the backdrop of such a situation critically examine the role played by India in the International Maritime Organization (IMO). (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The article presents a detailed analysis of case of a maritime presence adrift.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the role India has to play in International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a key player that is seeking to enhance its interest in international seaborne trade.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the importance of IMO.

Body:

Discuss in detail the India’s negligible presence and interventions in the International Maritime Organization, which is affecting its interests. Argue that it’s high time that India should regain its status as a major maritime power. Highlight the inadequate presence and interventions of India in the organization. Discuss the recent decisions in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the prospects of key role that India needs to take in the organization.

Introduction:

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Nations agency tasked with regulating shipping, had mandated that merchant ships should not burn fuel with sulphur content greater than 0.5% beginning January 1. India’s negligible presence and interventions in the International Maritime Organization is affecting its interests.

Body:

International Maritime Organization(IMO):

  • The International Maritime Organization(IMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
  • It is a global standard-setting authority with responsibility to improve the safety and security of international shipping and prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships.
  • The IMO currently has 174 member states and three associate members; there are also scores of non-governmental and inter-governmental organisations.
  • The IMO, like any other UN agency, is primarily a secretariat, which facilitates decision-making processes on all maritime matters through meetings of member states. The binding instruments are brought in through the conventions — to which member states sign on to for compliance — as well as amendments to the same and related codes.
  • Structurally, maritime matters are dealt by the committees of the IMO — the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), Technical Cooperation Committee, Legal Committee and the Facilitation Committee.
  • Each committee is designated a separate aspect of shipping and supported by sub-committees. Working groups and correspondence groups support the subcommittees.
  • The subcommittees are the main working organs, where the proposals from a member state are parsed before they are forwarded to one of the main committees.
  • The main committees, thereafter, with the nod of the Assembly, put the approved proposal for enactment through the Convention, amendments, and codes or circulars.
  • Prominent maritime nations have their permanent representatives at London and are supported by a large contingent during the meetings. They ensure that they have representation in every subcommittee, working group and even correspondence groups so that they are clued in.
  • Shipping, which accounts for over 90% by volume and about 80% by value of global trade, is a highly regulated industry with a range of legislation promulgated by the IMO.

Role played by India in the International Maritime Organization:

  • India joined the IMO in 1959. The IMO currently lists India as among the 10 states with the ‘largest interest in international seaborne trade’.
  • India’s presence and participation in the IMO has been at the individual level. India should now make its presence felt so that its national interests are served.
  • India’s permanent representative post in the IMO has remained vacant for the last 25 years.
  • Representation at meetings is often through a skeletal delegation.
  • A review of IMO documents shows that the number of submissions made by India in the recent past has been few and not in proportion to India’s stakes in global shipping.
  • The sulphur cap, for instance, will reduce emissions and reduce the health impact on coastal populations but ship operational costs are going up since the new fuel product is more expensive.
  • As refineries including those in India struggle to meet the demand, freight costs have started moving up, with a cascading effect on retail prices.
  • The promulgation of “High-Risk Areas” when piracy was at its peak and dominated media headlines.
  • The IMO’s demarcation resulted in half the Arabian Sea and virtually the entire south-west coast of India being seen as piracy-infested, despite the presence of the Indian Navy and Coast Guard.
  • The “Enrica Lexie” shooting incident of 2012, off the coast of Kerala, was a direct fallout of the demarcation.

Conclusion:

So far, India’s presence and participation in the IMO has been at the individual level. India should now make its presence felt so that its national interests are served. It is time India regained its status as a major maritime power.

 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5. Why does the European Commission want a temporary ban on facial recognition technologies in public spaces? What are its implications on the use of artificial intelligence? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why this question:

Recently, European media network EURACTIV and Politico published a story that said the European Commission is mulling a temporary ban (of up to five years) on the use of facial recognition technologies in public spaces. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the implications of such decisions and its effect on the use of AI as a technology.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what facial recognition is.

Body:

Explain the current case – Two big tech companies — Alphabet and Microsoft — have taken completely different positions on the idea. Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai is backing it while Microsoft President Brad Smith is not. This comes even as facial recognition technologies are being increasingly adopted by individuals, organizations, and governments. Then move onto explain why does the European Commission want a temporary ban on facial recognition technologies? Discuss – how is facial recognition used in today’s world? When is it problematic?

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way ahead; point out to a middle path to address such concerns at the same time ensuring that the benefits of the technology are not forgone.

Introduction:

Automated Facial Recognition System (AFRS) works by maintaining a large database with photos and videos of peoples’ faces. Then, a new image of an unidentified person — often taken from CCTV footage — is compared to the existing database to find a match and identify the person. The artificial intelligence technology used for pattern-finding and matching is called “neural networks”.

Body:

AFRS in India:

  • Facial recognition systems have been active at several major Indian airports, including the Delhi airport.
  • These systems at airports have been installed under the DigiYatra initiative.
  • Telangana’s election commission piloted a facial recognition app in its civic elections on January 22, and claimed that it could address the issue of voter impersonation.

Concerns posed by AFRS:

  • The European Commission is considering imposing a five-year moratorium on the use of facial recognition technologies in the European Union (EU).
  • The European Commission believes that indiscriminate use of facial recognition technologies is a privacy threat, and some regulations are needed so that this does not easily give way to surveillance.
  • It is increasingly being used for everything: from unlocking your phone to validating your identity, from auto-tagging digital photos to finding missing persons, and from targeted advertising to law enforcement.
  • Cyber experts across the world have cautioned against government abuse of facial recognition technology, as it can be used as tool of control and risks inaccurate results.
  • In the absence of data protection law, Indian citizens are more vulnerable to privacy abuses.
  • Use of surveillance cameras and facial recognition constrict the rights of particular class of people.
  • In the US, the FBI and Department of State operate one of the largest facial recognition systems.
  • International organizations have also condemned the Chinese government on its use of surveillance cameras and facial recognition to constrict the rights of Uighurs, a mostly Muslim minority.

Implications on the use of artificial intelligence:

  • The armed forces of US and China have already invested billions of dollars to develop LAWS, intending to gain strategic and tactical advantage over each other. This runs the risks of an arms race.
  • There is no clearly stated policy document or vision statement for AI development.
  • AI has to meet the first and foremost challenge of acceptability with the users from the government, public sector and the armed forces, or even the private sector.
  • As users of AI, their interest in the technology augmenting their own ability, and not posing a threat, is quite pertinent.
  • Technical competence in this fast-paced sector, primarily in the case of government, could be a road block.
  • AI can better adapt to the goals and expectations of the Indian decision makers, if the technology development is indigenous. Foreign dependence in this case would be detrimental and unproductive.
  • AI has set off an economic and technological competition, which will further intensify.
  • LAWs operate without human intervention, and there is formidable challenge in distinguishing between combatants and non-combatants, which is a subject of human judgment.
  • Al powered bots have also been used to influence humans perceptions, views and opinions. Such activities are rampantly being promoted through social media platforms for various ulterior purposes using fake news, unethical advertisements, etc. which then have huge negative consequences.
  • AI based weapons are fast gaining currency. Since humans can be replaced by such machines, declaring war would become more convenient. These machines can wreak havoc if uncontrolled endangering the human race itself.
  • AI is being used for extensive surveillance as in China which violates right to privacy. Such intelligence can be even used to selectively target and eliminate opponents which instill deep fear among people who would like to raise voice against injustice.
  • Humans can pass on their limitations to robots. E.g.: biases, prejudices, discrimination, etc. A recent report in USA revealed that robot can be racist.

Conclusion:

The transformative capability of AI is huge, and must be rooted in an egalitarian ethical basis. Any institutional framework for AI should have a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach, and have an explicit focus on the ethical basis.

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Discuss Schooling as an important agent of systematic learning and inculcator of moral values for a child.(250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the role of School in inculcating values and systematic learning in a child.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significant role played by school as an agent that ensures inculcation of values in a child.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain importance of school in child rearing in general.

Body:

The question is straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate upon, straightly discuss first the importance of school in nurturing children. Discuss in what way schools are centres of learning and how they inculcate moral values. Quote examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Education is the architecture of the soul. Nelson Mandela said “Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world” However it is important how it is spread and in what manner. Every Human takes birth as pure heart and pristine spirit/soul. But with time, desire, outside environment, cultural influences, insane practices make human Mephistophelian and eccentric.

Body:

In the recent days, educational institutions have ceased to be temple of values due to:

  • Due to commercialization of education teaching has become a pure profession rather than a passion.
  • Success of a student is being measured only in terms of ranks and grades which is resulting loss of values such as integrity and discipline. Students are forced to adopt any means-moral or immoral to achieve good grades. For example, Bihar board examinations where mass copying was done.
  • It has also caused increased stress in the minds of students which has resulted in unfortunate events like ending the life of another student just to avoid an exam i.e. Gurugram school incident.
  • In order to reduce the expenditure, several schools have outsourced transport and house-keeping to third party which lead to unauthenticated staff entering the premises. This has resulted in sexual assaults and rape of innocent children, especially in national capital and other major cities.
  • Moral vacuum created in the schools and colleges have led to incidents such as drug abuse and intolerance towards fellow classmates.
  • Increasing influence of social media and internet has distanced the hearts of human beings. Team work and compassion have been lost. Students have become insensitive to the problems of self and society at large thus falling prey to games like Blue-Whale challenge.

Implications:

  • On Self: Loss of self-worth and confidence. Bad attributes like greed, jealousy, revenge, violence are cultivated as a result. Though one can be a successful lawyer, engineer or a doctor but one will remain as ethical dwarf without values.
  • On Society: School is a building with four walls with a brighter tomorrow inside. If schools fail to inculcate values, then future generation may be influenced by societal evils. Increase in intolerance, radicalization, gender discrimination and crime may be seen.
  • Trust in the educational institutions is lost.

Role of educational institutions in value education:

  • Education in its aims, curriculum and methods is linked with values. It is through education that society seeks to preserve and promote its cherished values.
  • Whatever is learnt and imbibed will determine to how students will live out their lives in future.
  • Educational institutions provide a structured environment where children learn values of cooperation, hard work etc.
  • Punctuality, Commitment, Sincerity, Sharing, Caring, Fairness, Helping, Independence, Responsibility, Humility, Pride need to be inculcated in a child.
  • Lessons of Honesty, Social Justice, Sensitizing children with empathy towards vulnerable sections of the society.
  • Teaching Gender Equality, Respect for elders, Truthfulness, Tolerance, Peace, Love for nature & mankind, Positive Attitude, Spirituality, Nationalist feelings, Patriotism, Discipline etc.

Conclusion:

“The aim of education is the knowledge, not facts but of values.” –William Ralph. Schools and colleges must ensure that strong value system is in place right from the childhood through timely ethical education. Value education is the first step for a peaceful and happy society.

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. “Hate the sin,Love the Sinner”- Discuss the relevance of quote in today context (250 words)

“Hate the sin,Love the Sinner”- Discuss the relevance of quote in today context

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is quotation based; the quote was given by Mahatma Gandhi.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of the quote and its relevance even today.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give brief introduction of Gandhi’s ideology of Ahimsa (non-Violence) and Satyagraha as his unique method of protest.

Body:

Mahatma Gandhi was central figure in Indian national movement. Through his core beliefs he evolved unique methods of protest which were rooted in of Ahimsa (non-Violence) and Satyagraha. Gandhi believed that nonviolence constitutes a positive procedure for promoting worthwhile social change. Mahatma Gandhi rejected the weapons of hate and set about to discover the instrument of love for the battle of the weak against the strong. Discuss the ethical connotations of Gandhi’s pronouncement of “Hate the sin, Love the sinner”. Describe various burning conflict which can be resolved through Gandhian Methods.

Conclusion:

Gandhi’s message of ‘Hate the sin, Love the sinner’ is extremely relevant in present situation for number of global as well as domestic conflict persist and escalate because of inability to forgive and aim for permanent resolution.

Introduction:

Mahatma Gandhi evolved unique methods of protest which were rooted in values of non-Violence and Satyagraha. Gandhi believed that nonviolence constitutes a positive procedure for promoting worthwhile social change. Mahatma Gandhi rejected the weapons of hate and set about to discover the instrument of love for the battle of the weak against the strong.

Body:

Relevance of quote in today’s context:

  • Distinction between deed and doer: Gandhi believed that only through love any opponent could be permanently won. When Gandhi says, hate the sin, love the sinner he is drawing distinction between deed and the doer. According to him the doer of the deed, whether good or wicked, always deserves respect or pity as the case may be.
  • Permanent conflict resolution: According to Gandhi, those who seek to destroy men rather than manners adopt the latter and become worse than those whom they destroy under the mistaken belief that the manners will die with the men. Gandhi highlighted how the cycle of violence repeats itself without resolving the conflict.
  • Forgiveness: Gandhi’s approach also highlights his belief in forgiveness. He regarded forgiveness as high virtue. According to him, the weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. It is the acid test of non-violence that, in a non-violent conflict, there is no rancour left behind, and in the end the enemies are converted into friends
  • Spirit of Tolerance: Gandhi also highlighted the value of tolerance. According to Gandhi the main cause of worry today is intolerance and hatred leading to violence. Understanding difference between doer and deed and forgiving the doer inculcates spirit of tolerance. It leads to achievement of a peaceful, tolerant society where diverse section of society lives in mutually society peace. This spirit of tolerance is important in diverse country like India.

Conclusion:

Gandhi’s message of ‘Hate the sin, Love the sinner’ is extremely relevant in present situation for number of global as well as domestic conflict persist and escalate because of inability to forgive and aim for permanent resolution.