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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 February 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Communalism was only a facade to hide the real economic and political conflicts between different groups. Critically examine the statement in the context of communal divisions during freedom struggle. (250 words)

Reference: INSIGHTS ON INDIA

Indian freedom struggle by Bipin Chandra

Why this question:

The question is based on the aspects of communalism that prevailed and fostered itself during the freedom struggle of the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the aspects of communalism that prevailed during freedom struggle and in what way the real face of it was the economic and political conflict between different groups.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what you understand by Communalism.

Body:

Communalism refers to an ideology on which, communal politics rests. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries communalism grew rampant and that led at last to the partition of India in 1947.

Explain in what way Communalism as a political philosophy has its roots in the religious and cultural diversity of India. It has been used as a political propaganda tool to create divide, differences and tensions between the communities on the basis of religious and ethnic identity leading to communal hatred and violence.

Discuss the factors of economic conflicts that led to communalism such as stagnation of economy, Nepotism, lack of modernity, economic competition etc. Then discuss political factors that fuelled communalism.

Conclusion:

Communalism was a channel for providing service to colonialism and the jagirdari class (land officials). British authorities supported communal feelings and divided Indian society for their authoritative ruling .This feeling of communalism has deepened since then, fragmenting the Indian society and being a cause of unrest.

Introduction:

Communalism is basically an ideology which consists of three elements:

  • A belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests i.e. they have same political, economic and social interests. So, here socio- political communalities arise.
  • A notion that, in a multi-religious society like India, these common secular interests of one religion is dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the follower of another religion.
  • The interests of the follower of the different religion or of different ‘communities’ are seen to be completely incompatible, antagonist and hostile.

Body:

Economic factors that led to communalism:

  • As a result of underdevelopment due to colonial policies, there was lack of industrial development.
  • Thus unemployment had become a major problems and there was intense competition for existing jobs.
  • Because of the economic backwardness of India and rampant unemployment, there was ample scope for the colonial government to use concessions, favours and reservations to fuel communal tendencies.
  • It was easy for those desperately searching for jobs to fall prey to this colonial policy.
  • The British officials and the loyalist Muslim leaders incited the educated Muslims against the educated Hindus.

Political factors that led to communalism:

  • Communalism in India is result of the emergence of modern politics, which has its roots in partition of Bengal in 1905 and feature of separate electorate under Government of India Act, 1909.
  • Later, British government also appeased various communities through Communal award in 1932, which faced strong resistance from Gandhiji and others.
  • To fuel communalism and appease various communities, the British provided separate representation for Muslims, Sikhs, the Anglo- Indians, the Indian Christians, the Europeans, the Landlords, the depressed classes and the commerce and industry.
  • This feeling of communalism has deepened since then, fragmenting the Indian society and being a cause of unrest.
  • Communal consciousness arose as a result of the transformation of Indian society under the impact of colonialism and the need to struggle against it.
  • Hindu and Muslim revivalist movements
  • A communal and distorted view of Indian history, taught in school and colleges played a major role in rise and growth of communal feelings among the masses.
  • Separatism and isolation among Muslims.
  • Rise of communal and fundamentalist parties.

However, Communalism has its roots in religious and cultural diversity of India:

  • India is a land of diversity. And it is known for lingual, ethnic, cultural and racial diversity.
  • The idea that is popularly propagated to contend the diversity is “Unity in Diversity”.
  • There have been instances in the history of the nation that have threatened to break this fabric of unity.
  • First stage was rise of nationalist Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, etc. with only first element of communalism as discussed above. Roots of this were laid in later part of 19th century with Hindu revivalist movement like Shuddhi movement of Arya Samaj and cow protection riots of 1892.
  • Similarly, Muslim movement like Faraizi movement started by Haji Shariatullah in Bengal to bring the Bengali Muslims back on the true path of Islam, was another religious reform movement which had bearing on communalism in 19th century. Later people like Syed Ahmed Khan, who despite of having scientific and rational approach, projected Indian Muslims as a separate community (qaum).
  • Second stage was of Liberal communalism which believed in communal politics but liberal in democratic, humanist and nationalist values. It was basically before 1937. For example, organisations like Hindu Mahasabha, Muslim League and personalities like M.A. Jinnah, M Malviya, Lala Lajpat Rai after 1920s.
  • Third was the stage of Extreme Communalism, this had a fascist syndrome. It demanded for separate nation, based on fear and hatred. There was tendency to use violence of language, deed and behaviour.
  • For example, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha after 1937. It spread as a by-product of colonialism, economic stagnations and absence of modern institutions of education and health.
  • These factors caused competition and people started using nepotism (patronage bestowed or favouritism shown on the basis of family relationship, as in business and politics), paying bribes to get job, etc. Short term benefits from communalism started giving validity to communal politics.

Conclusion:

Communalism cannot be accepted as the necessary evil in the society. It is detrimental to the development, social change, democracy and the federal feature of the State. Jawaharlal Nehru had pointed out the issue and termed it as the greatest danger. And so he said that anyone who loves India would hate communalism and anyone who hates India would love communalism.

 

Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times. Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present

2. Compare and contrast the tenets of Buddhism and Jainism. How far are these religious ideas relevant to present day Modern India? (250 words)

Reference: History Discussion 

Why this question:

The question is straightforward from the static portions of GS paper I and aims to compare and contrast the two schools of religion/philosophies.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must compare and contrast the tenets of Buddhism and Jainism and explain the relevance of the same to present day Modern India.

Directive:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight a fact such as – Numerous religious sects arouse in the middle of Gangetic plains in the second half of the sixth century B.C. Of these sects, Buddhism and Jainism were the most important and they emerged as the most potent religious reform movement.

Body:

Directly start discussing similarities in the two religious philosophies such as – both were inspired by Upanishads, ideas of misery, caste, rituals etc. Discuss then the differences such as in the aspects of – Moksha and means of its attainment, ahimsa, concept of soul etc. Then move on to explain relevance of it to today’s Modern India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of the two, Throughout history, the practice, adherence and belief in religion has been a virtually universal aspect of human society. Jainism and Buddhism can, in fact, play a pivotal role for the protection of the environment, for nurturing morality, ethics and universal brotherhood

Introduction:

Mahavira and Buddha were contemporaries and there was much in common between Buddhism and Jainism. Because of striking resemblances between the two, certain scholars have opined that Jainism owes its origin to Buddhism or Jainism is only a branch of Buddhism.

Body:

Similarities:

  • Both possessed the background of the Aryan culture and were inspired by the ascetic ideals and the philosophy of the Upanishads, particularly that of Sankhya-Yoga.
  • Both were the products of intellectual, spiritual and social forces of their age and therefore, both stood up as revolts against the prevalent Brahmanical religion.
  • Both emerged in eastern India which by that time had successfully retained some features of the pre-Aryan culture.
  • Both were started by the members of the Kshatriya caste and both appealed to the socially down-trodden, the Vaishvas who were not granted social status corresponding to their growing economic power, and the Sudras who were definitely oppressed.
  • Both, Mahavira and Buddha, the founders of Jainism and Buddhism respectively were Kshatriya princes and were able to get support for their cause from the contemporary ruling class, different Kshatriya rulers and economically prosperous Vaishvas.
  • Though both did not attack the caste system, they were opposed to it and therefore, drew large converts from the lower strata of the society.
  • Both opposed the ritualism and the sacrifices of Brahmanism and also challenged the supremacy of the Brahmanas.
  • Both believed that Nirvana or salvation of an individual meant his or her deliverance from the eternal chain of birth and death.
  • Both denied the authenticity of the Vedas as an infallible authority.
  • Both laid great stress upon a pure and moral life rather than practice of ritualism or even devotion to and worship of God as a means to attain salvation.

Distinctions:

  • Jainism is a much more ancient religion as compared to Buddhism. According to Jaina traditions it had twenty-four Tirthankaras and Mahavira was the last of them.
  • The Jaina concept of soul is different from that of Buddhism. Jainism believes that everything in nature, even stone and water, has a soul of its own. Buddhism does not believe so.
  • The concept of Ahimsa (non-violence) is different in Buddhism as compared to Jainism. While Jainism emphasized it very much, Buddhism remained liberal in its interpretation in foreign countries, and even permitted eating of animal flesh where it was a necessity or traditional diet of the people.
  • Buddhism emphasized elimination of caste distinctions more as compared to Jainism.
  • Jainism advised practice of strict asceticism to attain salvation while Buddhism advised its Upasakas to follow the middle path or Tathagata marg.
  • According to Jainism, women and men householders cannot attain salvation while, according to Buddhism, it is possible for both.
  • In Digambara sect of Jainism, it is necessary for the monks to go naked while Buddhism denounced it.
  • Buddhism emphasized the organisation of Sanghas more as compared to Jainism.
  • According to Jainism, salvation is possible only after death while according to Buddhism it is possible during one’s own life if one is able to detach oneself completely from the worldly existence. Thus, while Jainism describes Nirvana as freedom from body. Buddhism describes it as destruction of the self or detachment from worldly existence.
  • Buddhism proved more adaptable to circumstances as compared to Jainism. That is why while Buddhism spread all over Asia and accommodated the traditions of the local populace, Jainism remained confined to India alone.

Conclusion:

Thus, there is no doubt that Jainism and Buddhism were and still are two distinct and independent religious sects. Monier Williams is right in his conclusion when he writes, “Buddhism and Jainism were not related to each other as parent and child rather as children of common parents, born at different intervals though at about the same period of time and marked by distinct characteristics, though possessing strong family resemblances.”

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. “The evolution of the widely practiced Unani system of medicine has been as a syncretic science”, under such pretext explain in what way practicing such systems of medicines can lead to sustainable and effective healthcare in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The article highlights the significance of reviving and practicing the Unani system of medicine for sustainable and effective healthcare in the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the evolution of Unani healthcare system in the country and its significance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what Unani system of medicine is.

Body:

First highlight the fact that the traditional Indian system of medicine, which comprises of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH), is a perennially neglected alternative medicine sector. It played an important role against the imperialistic British reign by the cultural nationalistic reassertion but is losing its significance in modern times. This article focuses on the challenges it faces and suggests measures for its revival.

Discuss the evolution of Unani system of medicine as a syncretic science. Suggest how the medicinal system can aid in creating a sustainable and effective healthcare industry.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of the medicinal system and suggest policy measures that need to be taken in this direction.

Introduction:

The Unani Medicinal system originated in Greece. Later the Arabs saved much of the Greek Unani Literature and rendered it into Arabic. A large body of preventive, promotive, therapeutic and palliative (lifestyle, medicinal and surgical) knowledge emerged. It reached India in the 11th century, receiving patronage since the 13th century from the Delhi sultanate to later Mughal rulers and nawabs.

Body:

Unani and sustainable healthcare in India:

  • Unani remains alive in practice on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Besides treatment of common ailments, Indianised Unani medicine is especially known for its contributions to the knowledge of toxicology, for effective cures in urological and skin diseases, among others.
  • As reported in 2017, there are in India 264 hospitals, over 1,500 dispensaries, 201 colleges and almost 50,000 registered Unani practitioners.
  • The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library set up by Centre in 2001 includes 98,700 Unani formulations.
  • Important to recognise is the value of the scientific approach of Unani that is diagnostic, prognostic and holistic, with a stated syncretic developmental approach.
  • Unani demonstrated a scientific humility by retaining the name that acknowledges its roots

Way forward:

  • Admitting undergraduate students immediately after school for a Pre-Tibb curriculum of two-years and then a four-and-a-half-year curriculum of Unani medicine and surgery.
  • Research including “research on the fundamental principles and basic theories of Unani system of medicine, such as temperament, the humoral theory and Tabiat Mudabra-Badan (natural healing powers).
  • Providing rights, status and privileges for Unani practitioners equal to their Allopathic counterparts

Conclusion:

Decolonising healthcare with confidence in fundamental principles of AYUSH systems and openness to syncretic adaptations based on sound logic and research has lessons for sustainable and effective healthcare.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. India is often labeled as the ‘pharmacy of the world’, But with reliance on API imports from China running to well over 60% for most drugs, India’s claim to be a world leader in pharmaceuticals is heavily compromised. Analyse what should India do to overcome such dependencies and maintain its position in the pharma industry.(250 words)

Reference: Economic Times

Why this question:

The article brings out a detailed analysis of how the novel coronavirus pandemic in China, with its epicenter in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, threatens to starve India’s pharma industry of key inputs.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the probable dependency that India has on China for its Pharma industry and in what way India needs to strengthen its capabilities and reduce dependencies to maintain its position in the world Pharma market.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

Highlight how far India is doing well in the pharma markets of the world. Explain why India is called – ‘pharmacy of the world’. Discuss the dependency of India for APIs from China.

Suggest what needs to be done?- The way ahead is to set up an enabling environment for mega bulk drugs parks in the cluster approach, so as to reap economies of scale and scope in the public private partnership mode. The Draft Pharmaceutical Policy 2017 needs to be operationalized without further delay and dither, with focused policy attention for stepped-up output of cost-competitive API. The Indian pharma industry was quite self-reliant in most APIs well into the 1990s. But rigidities in the Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) of circa 1995 did lead many producers to opt out of the API segment.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally. Indian pharmaceutical sector industry supplies over 50 per cent of global demand for various vaccines. The novel coronavirus pandemic in China, with its epicentre in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, threatens to starve India’s pharma industry of key inputs. India is massively dependent on imports of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), the bulk drugs that give medicines their therapeutic value, largely from 30-40 units in Hubei.

Body:

The Department of pharmaceuticals has charted out a plan to boost domestic local manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical ingredients(API) in order to reduce its import dependence on China. The plan includes:

  • Development of clusters.
  • Incentives to promote indigenous manufacturing.
  • Strengthen regulatory mechanism.
  • Higher fee structure to reduce import.
  • Single window clearance for setting up manufacturing plant.

Other measures needed:

  • India’s strong innovation capabilities aided partnerships would help in overcoming these problems.
  • Developing our R&D sector to reduce dependency on foreign countries for raw materials
  • The introduction of pharmaceutical product patents and the mandatory implementation of good manufacturing practices is the need of the hour.
  • It is necessary for the Indian pharmaceutical industry to become globally competitive through world-class manufacturing capabilities, with improved quality and a higher efficiency of production, and there is a need to stress on the up-gradation of R&D capabilities.
  • Training and development of human resources for the pharmaceutical industry and drug research and development should be done accordingly;
  • There is also a need to promote public-private partnership for the development of the pharmaceuticals industry; promote environmentally sustainable development of the pharmaceutical industry; and enable the availability, accessibility, and affordability of drugs.
  • Improvement in industrial practices to provide better training and support services for employees to perform their job functions.
  • A drugs price index would surely make sense.
  • Using multilateral organization like WTO against the illegal trade practices.
  • Funding for the pharma companies might be a way to move forward.
  • IPR Think Tank formed by the Government to draft stronger national IP policies.

Way forward:

  • In 2015, the ‘Katoch committee’ put out a set of recommendations on reviving API production, which include reviving PSUs for manufacturing critical drugs such as penicillin and paracetamol.
  • The setting up of mega parks with common effluent treatment plants, testing facilities and captive power plants has been mooted.
  • On the financial side, the panel has suggested setting up a professionally managed equity fund for producing APIs and duty exemptions for capital goods imports.
  • These facilities can have developed to world class standards, restoring the recent damage to India’s reputation on the quality front.

 

Topic:  Land reforms in India.

5. Discuss the concept of Agricultural Protection Zoning (APZ). Explain in what way such methods can help control the extent of urban sprawls. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of Agricultural Protection Zoning (APZ) and its significant contributions in curtailing the extent of urban sprawls.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of Agricultural Protection Zoning (APZ) and its applications.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what you understand by Agricultural Protection Zoning (APZ).

Body:

APZ refers to local zoning codes, which include provisions such as large lot size requirements and use limitations, to separate farming and related activities from other land uses.

It helps preserve the availability of agricultural lands for farming and thus the agricultural base of the community, by constraining non-agricultural development and land uses in designated areas.

Discuss the case study relevant to the question – Tamil Nadu Chief Minister has announced that the Cauvery delta region comprising of eight districts would be declared as a Protected Special Agriculture Zone.

The eight districts include Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Pudukottai, Cuddalore, Ariyalur, Karur and Tiruchirapalli.

The move is aimed towards preventing the implementation of oil exploration projects and other hydrocarbon projects in the Cauvery delta region and will help not only ensure food security of the State but also livelihood opportunities of the farmers and other agriculture-based laborers.

Explain how such step would address the issue of urban sprawls.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Agricultural Protected Zone (APZ) is a designated zone where farming is the primary land use and discourages other land uses in those areas. It includes separation of farming and related activities from other land uses. It is used to preserve agricultural lands and protect working farms from conversion to non-farm uses by prohibiting or restricting development on agricultural lands. The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu recently announced that the Cauvery delta region would be declared as Protected Special Agriculture Zone.

Body:

Significance of APZ in Cauvery Delta:

  • PSAZ is aimed at protecting the Cauvery delta region for the future, fulfilling TN’s food requirements and ensuring the welfare of delta farmers.
  • It has recognised farmer concerns about hydrocarbon exploration and accorded primacy to food security.
  • Since the delta region is close to the sea, there is a need to safeguard the region.
  • Zoning protects agricultural land by minimizing land use conflicts.
  • Effective agricultural zoning ordinances protect agricultural soils.
  • Agricultural Preservation Zoning prevents land uses that are incompatible with farming.

APZ can control extent of urban sprawl:

  • APZ helps reduce the conversion of agricultural lands into peri-urban areas.
  • It helps curb land uses that are incompatible with farming like landfills, airports, golf courses etc. APZ can help preservation of farmland and discourage development of land uses that are incompatible with agricultural uses.
  • It promotes and protects dependent rural communities through the enhancement, protection, and perpetuation of the agricultural land to produce food and provide livelihood to them by protecting property rights.
  • It helps curb the distress migration and the after-effects which includes Urban sprawl.

Conclusion:

APZ has the prospect of benefiting the farming community. It will help to ensure food security of the State and livelihood opportunities of the farmers and other agriculture-based labourers.

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6.  Worsening ecological ethics is one of the principal reasons for Environmental degradation. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is themed around the topic of ecological ethics and its significance.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance and relevance of understanding ecological ethics and its correlation with environmental degradation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what ecological ethics is.

Body:

Discuss that ecological Ethics are moral principles that guide human attitude towards the environment, rules of conduct for environment care and preservation. Deteriorating ecological ethics is being reflected in changing man-nature relationship due to technological advancements, especially after the Industrial Revolution which resulted in wide scale deforestation and land degradation thus leading to environmental degradation.

Highlight some relevant examples to justify the question and suggest solutions to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there is need for a balanced developmental model like that of Sustainable development where role of ethics, duty, responsibility-based decisions are taken at an individual level as well as societal level.

Introduction:

Environmental ethics or ecological ethics is a branch of ethics that studies the relation of human beings and the environment and how ethics play a role in this. Environmental ethics believe that humans are a part of society as well as other living creatures, which includes plants and animals. These items are a very important part of the world and are considered to be a functional part of human life. Thus, it is essential that every human being respect and honour this and use morals and ethics when dealing with these creatures.

Body:

Ecological ethics is degrading due to:

  • Increasing levels of Pollution.
  • Degrading Standard of Life.
  • Increasing dangers related to global warming and climate change.
  • New dynamic issues like Environmental Refugees.
  • Cutting forests indiscriminately on large scale
  • Increasing exhaust of greenhouse gases in atmosphere for industrial products
  • Excessive use of fossil fuels like coal, petrol
  • Economic developmental pressure in the form of infrastructure projects leading to overshadowing ecological concerns
  • Poor implementation of Rules, Laws meant for conservation of environment

Way forward:

Human actions and decision making choice depend on human values. Strong values always help reduce the confusion. If these are coherent with the surrounding environment nature and wildlife, then it will certainly be helpful for sustainable development.

  • Empathy: without empathy for all lives, there will always be selectiveness and selfishness among humans towards different lives. Value of Nurturing and protecting biodiversity. Making way for flora and fauna to co-exist with us.
  • Love: love transcends only human-human interaction. It’s also between other lives and nature’s beauty.
  • Sustainable development: Saving resources for future generation. That is to stop over exploitation of resources especially exhaustible and non-renewable resources.
  • Control over mining, deforestation in the name of “development”
  • Minimalistic living: Sacrificing certain comforts for protecting environment. Example- reduction in use of polluting vehicles for good of all, carpooling, using public transport.

Conclusion:

We must realize the biggest value that Earth belongs not only to humans but to other biodiversity too. Further, protecting this environment for future generation becomes our responsibility as part of environmental ethics

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss the role of family in inculcating values in a person. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is very much straight forward from the static portions of the GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the role of family in inculcating values in a person.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by explaining what values are.

Body:

Discuss the role of the family in inculcating values, giving examples of both good and bad.

Values are an individual/group’s own principles or qualities guiding their judgment and behaviour. They can be intrinsic like truth, courage, goodness, etc or they can be extrinsic like wealth, fame, physical strength, etc., and their sum-total forms the value system.

Role of Family:

  • The first institution of socialization for a person is his/her family. Since values have an affective component, family plays a major role in an individual subscribing to certain values. For example, a child can acquire courage as a value after watching his family being honest and courageous.
  • However, family can impart values with negative outcomes also. A child growing up in an environment of power and corruption may look down on the value of honesty and value power more.
  • The sustained relationships and the existing value system of the family members shape the values of a child and accordingly the child’s attitude towards the family, society and oneself is formed. A family, where good values are encouraged and bad values are discouraged, supports in forming a strong and desirable value system in an individual, which in turn helps in maintaining the stability of the society.

Conclusion:

Conclude that though there are other factors like peer groups, educational institutions, and society at large, which later influence the value system of a person, it is the family which lays down a strong foundation of the value system of an individual.

Introduction:

Values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.” Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual. These human values have the effect of bonding, comforting, reassuring and procuring serenity.

Body:

Role of family in developing values:

  • Family is the first social organization that provides the immediate proximity from which the kid can learn his behavior.
  • The family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.
  • Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.
  • The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically.
  • The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity.
  • A child learns his behavior by modelling what he sees around him.
  • Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the progress of the child. Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children.
  • It will also help young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
  • Children identify themselves with their parents, other family elders and adopt them as their personal models for emulation and imitation. The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents.

Conclusion:

Family is the foundation on which values are built. Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.