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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 February 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. “The Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill is a much-needed complement to Surrogacy Bill”. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

The Union Cabinet has approved the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Regulation Bill, 2020 to monitor medical procedures used to assist people to achieve pregnancy. Hence the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of the ART Bill, its key features in hand with the surrogacy bill.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with few introductory lines of the coming of Bill.

Body:

The Bill, called the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Regulation Bill, 2020, intends to regulate ART clinics with the objective of providing “safe and ethical” reproductive procedures to infertile couples. The Bill provides for a national Board which will lay down a code of conduct to be observed by those operating clinics. It will also formulate minimum standards for laboratory and diagnostic equipment and practices to be followed by human resources employed by clinics and banks. Under the proposed law, a national registry and registration authority will maintain a database to assist the National Board to perform its functions, according to a statement issued by the Health and Family Welfare Ministry. The States and Union Territories will also have to form State Boards and State authorities within three months of the notification of the proposed legislation. The Bill also proposes stringent punishment for those who practise sex selection; indulge in sale of human embryos or gametes and those who operate rackets Etc. Discuss the concerns involved if any, highlight in what way it complements the surrogacy bill.

Conclusion:

Conclude by asserting upon the positive impact that the two together bring upon the reproductive rights and choices of women in India.

Introduction:

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), as commonly understood, comprises procedures such as in-vitro fertilisation (IVF), intra-uterine insemination (IUI), oocyte and sperm donation, cryopreservation and includes surrogacy as well. The Cabinet recently cleared the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020. The Bill aims to regulate assisted reproductive technology services in the country. It will monitor medical procedures used to assist people to achieve pregnancy. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs.

Body:

According to a registry maintained by the Indian Council of Medical Research, there are 1,269 ART clinics in India (as on November, 2019). The number swells up to 1,846 when ART clinics and ART banks are taken together. Maharashtra has the maximum number of ART clinics (266) followed by Tamil Nadu (164), Delhi (113), Karnataka (102), Uttar Pradesh (92) and Gujarat (80).

Key features of the Bill:

  • It would lead to the creation of a national board to lay down and implement a code of conduct for people working at IVF clinics.
  • Determines the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory, diagnostic equipment and expert manpower to be employed by ART clinics and banks.
  • The bill intends to make genetic testing of the embryo mandatory before implantation for the benefit of the child born through ART.
  • It also seeks to streamline the cryo-preservation processes for sperm, oocytes and embryo.
  • It also proposes to constitute a national registry and registration authority to maintain a central database and assist the national board in its functioning.
  • The bill proposes stringent punishment for those “practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes and running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices.

Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill is a much-needed complement to Surrogacy Bill:

  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India is among countries that have seen the highest growth in the number of ART centres and ART cycles performed every year.
  • Clinics in India offer nearly all the ART services—gamete donation, IntraUterine Insemination (IUI), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) and gestational surrogacy.
  • India has become one of the major centres of the global fertility industry (ART), with reproductive medical tourism becoming a significant activity.
  • This has also introduced a plethora of legal, ethical and social issues; yet, there is no standardisation of protocols and reporting is still very inadequate.
  • The select committee of the Parliament that examined the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2019 has said that it would be prudent to bring the ART Bill before the Surrogacy Bill, 2019, to establish a regulatory mechanism for ART clinics.
  • The ART Regulation Bill is supposed to be more overarching and the first step to regulate the sector. Without registration and a proper database of medical institutions and clinics providing such services, it is impossible to regulate services like surrogacy and abortion (Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill, 2020).
  • It needs to be noted that all the three Bills are designed around protecting and recognizing women’s reproductive rights.

Conclusion:

Social stigma of being childless and lengthy adoption processes have increased the demand for ART in India. It is thus not surprising that the ART industry is expected to grow by a compounded annual growth rate of 10%. The major benefit of the act would be regulation of the assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured and confident of the ethical practices in ART clinics.

 

Topic:  Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2.  The Election Commission of India’s (ECI) new instrument to allow digitally-mediated voting may prove to be a revolution in electoral reforms. Do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Financial  Express

Why this question:

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is collaborating with the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (IIT-M), to work on technology that would allow voters to exercise their democratic right through a digital device.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the significance of such a revolutionary step to be taken in the electoral reforms of the country. Also explain the challenges involved and suggest through a way ahead.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

  • One can start the analysis by highlighting the need for such a reform in terms of technology, explain with facts such as In 2019, around 300 Mn voters didn’t cast their vote, close to about one-third of the total number of registered voters in the country, which is roughly around 900 Mn.
  • Discuss why we need the technology and what are its benefits? – Digital voting will help overcome the problems of distance for NRI voters and hesitations over proxy on part of the Indian legislature. It could even allow migrant workers within the country to cast their votes in polls in their native constituencies. 
  • Discuss what is the new technology like (Take cues from the article and detail upon).
  • Discuss challenges or concerns involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward.

Introduction:

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is collaborating with the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (IIT-M), to work on technology that would allow voters to exercise their democratic right through a digital device. The technology will allow migrants to vote.

Body:

Digitally mediated voting can be a revolution in electoral reforms:

  • Currently, NRIs eligible to vote in Indian elections to register their electoral opinion can only cast their vote at the Indian embassy in the country of their residence
  • A legislation to allow proxy voting for NRIs also didn’t get much traction in Parliament.
  • Digital voting will help overcome the problems of distance for NRI voters, and hesitations over proxy on part of the Indian legislature.
  • It could even allow migrant workers within the country to cast their votes in polls in their native constituencies.
  • The level of representation such digitally-mediated voting can facilitate, and the cost savings this could mean—from the drastically reduced need for security and other personnel deployment, booths, voting machines, power back-up, etc., especially in remote areas—make this an attractive proposition.

Technology behind:

  • Blockchain technology, now being put to use for a raft of services from land-record verification and digitisation to banking, will be used to set up a two-way electronic voting system.
  • There will be biometric verification, and the EC and the candidates will get details of the voter on a common, open ledger, while the vote—encrypted at the time of voting itself—will be read by a programme.
  • This will ensure that voter identity is established while the vote is anonymised. This is the first time India will be experimenting with such technology.
  • Other jurisdictions—some US states and Estonia, to name a few—have used digital voting.
  • Indeed, Estonia has been using this for more than a decade now; voters’ national ID cards that come embedded with chips are read by a card reader, and the voter then casts her vote via a digital platform.
  • West Virginia, the US, tied up with a voting platform called Voatz that allows voters to cast their votes via the app.
  • India can tap into the Aadhaar database, which has biometric information if voter ID cards are linked to the unique ID.

Conclusion:

The ECI must ensure that the system inspires the voters’ faith; there will be doubts about whether the system is hack-proof and doesn’t allow interference by enemy interests, whether it will preserve anonymity of the vote, and perhaps even whether the system will function as envisioned.

 

Topic:   Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Balanced use of fertilizers based on soil testing on a mission mode is creating a quiet revolution. Analyse in the context of Soil health card programme. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The author discusses in detail how application of fertilizers based on soil testing taken up on a mission mode is creating a quiet revolution in the country’s agri sector.

Key demand of the question:

Students must discuss the significance of Integrated Nutrient Management and the newer revolutionary methods it has been evolving with in recent times. One must appreciate the role of soil health programme in the background.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the essence of Fertilizers to agriculture systems in the country and need to recognize their timely delivery based on multiple factors that decide the timing of application.

Body:

Discuss the SHC programme; implemented over the last five years, assesses soil fertility in terms of the availability of key nutrients — primary (nitrogen, phosphorous and potash) as well as secondary (sulphur) and micro (iron, zinc, copper, manganese and boron) — and physical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH and organic carbon). Explain how SHC programme has successfully acted as a prescription for farmers to – allow the right dosage of nutrients based on both deficiency and crops grown in the soils of their particular area. Detail on the benefits such a changed method has been bringing to the farmers in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of such innovative solutions.

Introduction:

Soil Health Card (SHC) is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil nutrient status of his/her holding and advice him/her on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments, that s/he should apply to maintain soil health in the long run.

Body:

SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary- nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.

SHC and the revolution:

  • In Phase I of the programme (2015-17), 10.74 crore cards were distributed, with another 11.45 crore being issued in Phase II (2017-19).
  • The programme basically advocates judicious use of chemical fertilisers, together with organic manure and bio-fertilisers, in order to improve the health of the soil and its productivity.
  • The crucial infrastructure requirement for the programme has been provided through the setting up of 429 new static soil testing labs (STL) and strengthening of 800 existing ones, apart from 102 mobile STLs, 8,752 mini-STLs and 1,562 village-level STLs.
  • As a result, the total soil testing capacity has increased from 1.73 crore to 3.01 crore samples per year.
  • As a follow-up to the two phases, model villages are now being developed, one in each of the country’s 6,954 blocks.
  • Further, testing at individual holding level is being done, as against grid-based analyses so far, along with SHC-based demonstration of application of fertilisers and farmers’ fairs for raising awareness.
  • The receptivity of farmers to the programme has led to the emergence of ‘Mitti ke Doctor’ (soil health specialists) and even women’s self-help groups that undertake soil testing at village level.
  • Andhra Pradesh currently has ‘Raithu Bharosa Kendras (farmers’ trust centres)’ that offer integrated testing facilities, including of soil.
  • The SHC programme has also attracted global attention. India is assisting Nepal in setting up soil-testing facilities and capacity building for integrated nutrient management and certified organic farming.
  • These also figure in India’s initiatives in South-South Cooperation focusing on African countries.
  • The Fertiliser (Control) Order 1985 has been amended from time to time to register new nutrient products and formulations.
  • With growing demand for organic produce, the FCO is now also incorporating bio-fertilisers, organic fertilisers and non-edible de-oiled cakes, in addition to chemical fertilisers.
  • The main sources of bio-fertilisers are microorganisms such nitrogen-fixing azotobacter, phosphate-solubilising bacteria and mycorrhizae fungi that promote uptake of nutrients by plants.

Conclusion:

In a nutshell, the judicious application of fertilisers based on SHC prescription has multifold benefits in terms of improved soil health, safe food and mitigating climate change. Balanced use will also reflect in reduced water consumption, while at the same time protecting water bodies from run-off pollution. Farmer awareness about balanced fertilisation is being stepped up through the coordinated efforts of the departments of agriculture, cooperation & farmers’ welfare and fertilisers, besides the network of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research’s Krishi Vigyan Kendras. Farmer can, thus, be enabled to fulfill the mantra of ‘Swasth Dhara, Khet Hara’.

 

Topic:  Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.

4. Discuss the concept of what Share pledging; explain why it is an important tool in gauging a company’s financial health. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has amended the SEBI (Depositories and Participants) Regulations by including an additional explanation that states that ‘pledge’ would also refer to ‘re-pledge of securities for margin or settlement obligations.’

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss about the move; benefits and significance; about share pledging.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is meant by Pledging of shares.

Body:

  • What is a pledged share? – Simply put, it is taking loan against the shares one holds. It can be done by both investors and promoters.
  • Why do promoters pledge shares? – One of the methods promoters use to raise finance is to take loans against their holding in their company from banks or non-banking financial companies. For these financial institutions, these shares are collateral. Promoters can raise funds for various reasons-for meeting requirements of the business or personal needs.
  • What are the risks involved for the retail investors? – explain.
  • Highlight the changes made recently; Onus of bonafide pledge created from margin account of a stock broker will now lie with the depository following the SEBI amendment.
  • Discuss how all this helps gauge the financial health of any company.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the likely benefits of the move.

Introduction:

Pledging of shares is one of the options that the promoters of companies use to secure loans to meet working capital requirement, personal needs and fund other ventures or acquisitions. A promoter shareholding in a company is used as collateral to avail a loan. While pledging shares, promoters retain their ownership.

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has amended the SEBI (Depositories and Participants) Regulations by including an additional explanation that states that ‘pledge’ would also refer to ‘re-pledge of securities for margin or settlement obligations.’

Body:

Share pledging – an important tool in gauging a Company’s financial health:

  • Promoters pledging their personal holdings with lenders should not affect the operations of a company which has good cash flows or sound fundamentals.
  • But companies with a high proportion of promoter pledging are viewed as risky by the market because it raises questions about promoters being cash-strapped in their personal capacity or facing debt problems in other group ventures.
  • In a bull market, promoter pledging may not create too many issues as higher stock prices boost the value of the collateral against the loans advanced by lenders.
  • But in bear markets, steep stock price declines can trigger margin calls that set off a downward spiral in a stock.
  • Investors therefore need to keep a close eye on promoter pledging, as companies with high pledging can witness high volatility in their stock prices.
  • As an investor, you can find the information on pledged shares on the websites of the stock exchanges. SEBI has mandated that publicly listed companies need disclose information on their pledged shares along with the shareholding pattern every quarter to NSE and BSE.
  • In case promoters fail to make up for the difference, lenders can sell the shares in the open market to recover the money.
  • However, as the share price keeps fluctuating, the value of the collateral also changes.

Challenges:

  • Share pledging is a standard way of accessing funds for companies, but bitter experiences in the past have created a negative impression about the instrument, as it signals poor cash flow patterns, credit crunch in a company and promoters’ inability to meet short-term working capital requirements.
  • Share pledge can be troublesome for companies at times, as promoters are required to maintain the value of the collateral all the time by providing additional shares to lenders when their value erodes.
  • This can lead to a reduction in the promoters’ shareholding in the company, further value erosion in the stock due to infusion of additional paper in the market, and even sudden change of guard in the company because of alteration in shareholding pattern.
  • Promoters often make such share pledges for personal needs as well.

Conclusion:

Given that a large proportion of a promoter’s wealth is likely to be held in the form of shares, share pledging agreements help entrepreneurs raise quick money when they need it.

 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6. Discuss the role of emotional intelligence in conflict handling with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Emotional Intelligence; from the static portions of the GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the role of emotional intelligence in conflict handling with suitable examples.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what emotional intelligence is.

Body:

Emotional Intelligence is the ability to “Recognize, understand and manage our own emotions Recognize, understand and influence the emotions of others In practical terms, this means being aware that emotions can drive our behavior and impact people (positively and negatively), and learning how to manage those emotions — both our own and others — especially when we are under pressure.” Explain then that whenever individuals interact, such as employees within a project team or managers during a negotiation, interpersonal conflicts are possible. State that while emotional intelligence is related to the recognition and controlling of own and others’ emotions it may play a significant role in lowering Interpersonal conflict, as emotional intelligent employees are able to regulate their emotions and use their ability to reduce conflict and maybe even solve conflict. Now relate and reason in what way EI can aid in handling conflicts. Use case study/any day to day example to substantiate the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Emotional intelligence plays an important role in conflict Handling as constructive solutions for conflict may require compromises that are based on the ability to recognize and regulate emotions.

Introduction:

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

Consider a case where there is mob protest and violence.

Importance of EI during mob protests and violence:

  • Social responsibility: When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance: To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress. Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Impulse control: Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Optimism: Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.
  • Negotiation: For being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off to all the stakeholders involved.

Conclusion:

Governance in modern times is becoming increasing complex with affective components of behaviour having a major role to play. Intelligence quotient alone can’t solve majority of problems an administrator faces, use of emotional intelligence is a must for better public service delivery as well as redressal.

 

Topic:  Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7. Discuss the concepts of emotional intelligence. How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices? (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Emotional Intelligence; from the static portions of the GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

The answer is pretty much straight forward and should discuss the concepts of EI and its applications in administrative practices.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should mention the essence of EI in one’s own word. Furnish example to bring clarity. Discuss the concept.

Body:

Discuss about practical aspects of applying Emotional Intelligence in administration and the reasons for it rather than defining what an Emotional Intelligence is (here)? We need practical aspect i.e. application part. Move onto bring the modern concept on the ways of applying Emotional Intelligence in order to bring effectiveness and efficiency in administration. Then explain various ways and methods in applying EI in administrative practices like self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that by applying Emotional Intelligence, effectiveness and efficiency in administration and relationship can be brought. 

Introduction:

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are five key elements to it:

Self-awareness:

  • The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others.
  • Hallmarks of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour.
  • Emotional awareness: This deals with knowledge of one’s emotions and their effects. People having this competency are more aware of their feelings and performance.
  • Accurate self-assessment: This involves being aware of one’s strengths and weaknesses. One is open to feedbacks, new viewpoints, etc.
  • Self-confidence: This relates to complete affirmation of one’s worth and abilities. They are usually more confident and are able to make sound decisions despite any uncertainties or pressures

Self-management:

  • Ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
  • Adaptability: This involves flexible attitude towards change. People with this competency find it easy to handle changing routines, multiple roles and even shifting priorities.
  • Innovativeness: This involves getting easy with and open to new information and ideas. People who possess this are able to gather new ideas from multiple sources, set challenging roles and are able to take calculated risks. They evolve original solutions to various problems.

Social Awareness:

  • The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions.
  • Empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be ‘used’ for compassionate or cruel behaviour. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills.
  • A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, – such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity

Relationship management:

  • Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport.
  • Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams.

Application of emotional intelligence in administrative practices:

Emotional intelligence in administration can be used for the following ways:

  • Appraising emotions arising from situations:
    • Using emotions for reason based decisions and policy making.
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities.
  • Recruitment:
    • EQ measurement is invaluable in selecting and recruiting high performance workers.
  • Predicting performance:
    • Some companies are blending IQ testing with scientific measurement of EQ to predict job performance and direct workers to jobs where they are most likely to succeed.
  • Negotiation:
    • Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off
  • Performance management:
    • 360-degree feedback is a common tool for assessing EQ. Knowing how your self-perception compares with others’ views about your performance provides focus for career development and positive behavioural changes
  • Peer relationships:
    • Good networking skills are a staple of job effectiveness for the average worker. Networking has too often been associated with “using” other people, but a heightened EQ ensures a mutually beneficial approach to others.
  • Social responsibility:
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance:
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control:
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Optimism:
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.