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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 February 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. In 2050, India’s population is projected to be 1.69 billion, higher than that of China. In this context, discuss the relevance of population control Bill recently tabled in the Parliament.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

Rajya Sabha member Anil Desai has introduced a Private Member’s Constitution Amendment Bill in the Upper House proposing incentives in taxation, education and employment for people who limit their family-size to two children. The Bill, has sought the incorporation of a new provision — Article 47A — in Part IV of the Constitution to withdraw all concessions from people who fail to adhere to the ‘small-family-norm’.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance and relevance of population control Bill and detail upon its provisions and ambitions.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by stating key facts about the population and highlight the ill effects and urgency to arrest and control it.

Body:

Explain the provisions already in existence with respect to population. Briefly Reason for the Population Explosion in the country. In short comment upon the past experiences with population control policies in the country. Then move onto discuss the aspects of the Bill – the incorporation of a new provision — Article 47A — in Part IV of the Constitution to withdraw all concessions from people who fail to adhere to the ‘small-family-norm’. Give your opinion as to how far the ambitions of the Bill are rightly placed.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the government is focusing on benefits of demographic dividend to support growth by providing range of services, and apt measures that are more of voluntary than coercive to ensure good control on the population.

Introduction:

A Private Member’s Constitution Amendment Bill in the Upper House was tabled recently proposing incentives in taxation, education and employment for people who limit their family-size to two children. The Bill has sought the incorporation of a new provision — Article 47A — in Part IV of the Constitution to withdraw all concessions from people who fail to adhere to the ‘small-family-norm’.

Body:

In 2050, India’s population is projected to be 1.69 billion, which will be higher than that of China. The population of China is estimated to be 1.31 billion in the same year. But there is hope. According to Sample Registration System data, the country’s total fertility rate—roughly, the average number of children born to a woman—has fallen to an estimated 2.2. This figure is only marginally higher than 2.1, the replacement rate of the existing population. However, the widening gender gap in India poses a big problem.

Highlights of the Bill:

  • The Bill proposes for the incorporation of a new provision — Article 47A (Duty of the State to promote small family norm) — in Part IV of the Constitution.
  • Part IV of the Indian Constitution deals with the Directive Principles of the State Policy.
  • The proposed insertion of Article 47A intends to withdraw all concessions from people who fail to adhere to the ‘small-family-norm’.
  • The Bill also intends to offer incentives in taxes, employment, education and priority in social benefit schemes and school admissions etc. to its people who keep their family limited to two children.

Need for the bill:

  • It is indeed a fact that population of India is growing and will continue to grow for the next couple of decades. This is because, as compared to the past, there are a higher proportion of people in the marriageable age group who will produce children, and people are now living longer.
  • In India, the global demand for water in 2050 is projected to be more than 50 per cent of what it was in 2000.
  • The demand for food will double in the year 2050 and even if India manages to feed its expanding population, its growth may not be ecologically sustainable.
  • Women empowerment as people will not favour for sons because of cap of 2 child policy
  • Though China’s one-child policy has been criticized as against human dignity and rights, it has improved and controlled the nation’s population by a possible 400 million people as per the report of East India Forum.
  • If Population control won’t happen, there will be no resources left, and the growing population’s demand will increase to the next level, resulting in increasing death rates increasing in the country.

The shortcomings or limitations of the bill:

  • India is a country with a booming technology industry, one that relies on young people. There is fear that, by restricting the number of children that can be born, there will not be enough educated young people in the next generation to carry on India’s technological revolution.
  • Critics also argue that the population growth of India will slow down naturally as the country grows richer and becomes more educated.
  • There are already well-documented problems with China’s one-child policy, namely the gender imbalance resulting from a strong preference for boys and millions of undocumented children who were born to parents that already had their one child. These problems risk being replicated in India with the implementation of their two-child policy.
  • By interfering with the birth rate, India faces a future with severe negative population growth, a serious problem that most developed countries are trying to reverse. With negative population growth, the number of old people receiving social services is larger than the young tax base that is paying for the social services. In this case, taxes must be increased and young people risk contributing way more than they will receive in the future.
  • The law related may also be anti-women. Human rights activists argue that, not only does the law discriminate against women right from birth (through abortion or infanticide of female foetuses and babies), but divorce and familial abandonment are at risk of increasing if a man with a large family wants to run for political office. In addition, women in India are, by and large, uneducated and illiterate and, as such, are often unaware of the two-child policy.
  • A legal restriction to two children could force couples to go for sex-selective abortions as there are only two ‘attempts’. A significant proportion of such women, especially those from lower socio-economic strata, would be forced to go for unsafe abortions because of issues of access and affordability. Besides being inhumane, this is bound to create gender imbalances.

Conclusion:

As per National Family Health Survey data, the country-level TFR in India is 2.23, which is not hugely above the desired level of 2.1. Twenty states/UTs have achieved the replacement-level TFR, another five have got it below 2.2, with the remaining 11 states (including Bihar, UP, MP, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh) having a higher rate. Thus, the need of the hour is better education and awareness rather than an iron hand policy to control the population. Government should improve the implementation of poverty alleviation measures which can also help control population.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Swachh Bharat Mission apart from sanitation aspects aids to generate employment and provide impetus to the rural economy. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  PIB

Why this question:

The Union Cabinet recently has approved the Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) [SBM (G)] till 2024-25, which will focus on Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus). Thus the context of the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the possible positives that the SBM brings to the Rural India apart from its main goal of ODF India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what the mission is about.

Body:

The question is relatively very much straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate. One must discuss how and in what way the SBM impacts the rural economy. The mission aims at the creation of infrastructure; infrastructure for SLWM such as compost pits, soak pits, waste stabilization ponds, material recovery facilities etc. leading to mass employment at the MGNREGA levels. The outcomes that it generates through sanitation directly benefit the health aspects of the rural India thus leading to a positive effect on the workforce. Complete the answer by giving more insights.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of such missions to Rural India.

Introduction:

The Union Cabinet in February 2020 has approved the Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) [SBM (G)] till 2024-25, which will focus on Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus), which includes ODF sustainability and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM). The program will also work towards ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet.

Body:

Objectives of SBM:

  • To bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
  • To accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  • To motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • To encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • To develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
  • To create significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in marginalized communities.

The programme will be implemented by the States/UTs as per the operational guidelines which will be issued to the States shortly. The fund sharing pattern between Centre and States will be 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100:0 for other Union Territories, for all the components.

Importance of SBM for rural areas:

  • The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • SBM (Rural) aims to bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
  • It promotes cleanliness, hygiene and set a target of eliminating open defecation free by October 2, 2019.
  • The SBM-G Phase II will continue to generate employment and provide impetus to the rural economy through construction of household toilets and community toilets, as well as infrastructure for SLWM such as compost pits, soak pits, waste stabilisation ponds, material recovery facilities etc
  • The SLWM component of ODF Plus will be monitored on the basis of output-outcome indicators for four key areas: plastic waste management, bio-degradable solid waste management (including animal waste management), greywater management and fecal sludge management.
  • New thrust of this rural sanitation mission is removing obstacles and addressing critical issues that affect results which aims to provide all rural households with individual latrines and build cluster and community toilets on public-private partnership mode.
  • Construction of Anganwadi toilets and management of solid and liquid waste in all Village Panchayats is main object of the mission.

Conclusion:

The thinking and philosophy of Gandhiji would be achieved if the Swachh Bharat programme realizes the desired targets but the challenge would be to generate awareness, in a big way.  There has been spectacular progress since the last 5 years, thereby fulfilling the target of reaching sanitation to the remotest village and realizing a significant facet of Gandhian vision.

 

Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security

3. One in every three adolescents in the country is exposed to the Internet are victims of one or the other forms of online abuse, why is the issue? Explain and list out strategies on prevention, reporting and redressal of the same. (250 words)

 Reference:  The Hindu

Why this question:

In an attempt to assess the pattern of Internet use and online safety, an NGO — Child Rights and You (CRY) — conducted a survey in collaboration with Forum for Learning and Action with Innovation and Rigour (FLAIR). Hence the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the reasons for rising online abuse with special focus on adolescents and list down strategies on prevention, reporting and redressal of it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what constitutes online abuse.

Body:

Start with the facts and findings of the report –

  • One in every three adolescents exposed to the Internet are victims of cyber bullying and other forms of online abuse and nearly half of the users display some level of addiction.
  • Adolescents had easy access to the Internet with 93% of them using it in their homes. There was a clear gender disparity in access to personal devices with 60% boys and 40% girls owning a device.
  • Thirty percent of adolescents had a negative experience online.
  • Lack of awareness among the students on the Internet safety guidelines developed by the NCERT with only 30% respondents being familiar with them etc.

Discuss the causative factors underlying the issue. Suggest recommendations as to what needs to be done? –build  familiarity with Internet safety rules and the skill to use them for reporting to be built into the school curriculum as well as the need to modify the Central government’s child protection scheme to build infrastructure to deal with cybercrimes against children. Press for schools to recognise an increase in online crimes against children and develop strategies on prevention, reporting and redressal etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A recent report to assess the pattern of Internet use and online safety, an NGO — Child Rights and You (CRY) — conducted a survey in collaboration with Forum for Learning and Action with Innovation and Rigour (FLAIR) was released. It reported that one in every three adolescents exposed to the Internet are victims of cyberbullying and other forms of online abuse and nearly half of the users display some level of addiction

Body:

Cyber Bullying:

  • Cyberbullying or cyber harassment is a form of harassment that takes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets.
  • Cyber bullying can occur through SMS, Text, and apps, or online in social media, forums, or gaming where people can view, participate in, or share content.
  • It includes sending, posting, or sharing negative, harmful, false, or mean content about someone else.
  • It can include sharing personal or private information about someone else causing embarrassment or humiliation.
  • Some cyber bullying crosses the line into unlawful or criminal behaviour.

Reasons for increasing Cyber bullying:

  • The increasing access to affordable data service has given rise to these faceless evil worldwide – young children, in particular teenagers, being the most vulnerable victims.
  • The language and content of Web series: The certain shows running on amazon prime or Netflix are not appropriate for teenagers. Teenagers try to adapt that language used in the TV series or shows.
  • Nuclear families and isolation of children: Most of the families in India are nuclear families and parents are going to their job regularly so the children’s get neglected and isolated. Therefore, many are not able to identify what the child is going through.
  • Cyber bullying, under the Information Technology Act, is not an offence. The Act was last amended in 2008. Since then, social media has exploded in the country. The ground reality of 2017 is vastly different
  • Cyber bullying does not qualify in the category of cognizable criminal offences. Only if it is in aggregated form for example, someone created fake profile of others and used that account for detrimental things that only qualifies as offence of impersonation.
  • Most of the time the victim is a juvenile but at the same time the person who is committing this crime is also a juvenile and therefore this is covered under juvenile justice act. So the role of police authority in the conventional manner is limited hence registering an FIR and arresting the juvenile, these scenarios are not possible
  • Under-reporting of cases. The reasons are People don’t want unnecessary media publicity; the current process is very slow; and there is low confidence in the ability of the system
  • The US has often failed to share information vital to dealing with cybercrime. It denies access to data held by companies such as Google and Facebook
  • Because Cyberbullying is difficult to track, many victims feel helpless and unable to cope with it, especially if the bullying is personal and long-drawn

Government Initiatives against Cyberbullying:

  • Guidelines by NCERT: Because of lack of awareness about cyber bullying among the children’s, teachers as well as the parents, NCERT came up with three guideline booklets one for teachers one for school and one for students. For students it’s in the form of DO’s & DON’Ts.
  • Government of India is come up with ministry of home affairs Cybercrime reporting portal gov.in.
  • For generating awareness in state of Delhi, Delhi police has come up with an initiative in which Police visits school administration to get aware of cyber bullying and also engage workshops for computer teachers.

Other measures needed:

  • Parents can make a vast and positive difference by talking with their children. Like sexuality education in general, the topic of pornography is not one big talk but rather a series of discussions that easily can arise from the content of songs, music videos, video games, movies and unintended or intended exposure to sexually explicit images.
  • Parents can help their children develop a critical eye when viewing media, so they see the lies, and differentiate that fiction from the joy in loving equitable and respectful relationships.
  • National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal shall be designated as the national portal under-reporting requirements in the POCSO Act in case of electronic material
  • Union Government shall be empowered through its designated authority to block and/or prohibit all websites/intermediaries that carry child sexual abuse material
  • Law enforcement agencies should be permitted to brake end to end encryption to trace distributors of child pornography.
  • Use of Artificial intelligence:
    • Tools can be developed which can analyse the behaviour of every internet user. So it can help prevent the user from falling into cyber bullying.
    • Developing some mobile applications that can alert parents if the child is under threat of cyber bullying.
    • Prevent malware attacks by tying up with antivirus agencies.
  • Academic measures:
    • The subjects related to cyber bullying and cyber security should be made mandatory instead of only guidelines.
    • In school there should be cyber cell where one could report their grievances whether by its name or anonymously.
  • Multipronged approach to handle cases: Need to handle the cases of cyber bullying through multipronged approach such as counselling through Psychiatrist, approaching police, etc.
  • Schools shall undertake training programmes for parents at least twice a year, making them aware of hazards for children of free access to smartphones, internet at an early age.

 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints

4. Discuss the current status of food grain production in India and associated challenges. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The Agriculture Ministry’s second advance estimates were released recently, consequently forcing us to probe the current status of food grain production in India and associated challenges.

Key demand of the question:

The question is pretty much direct and aims to assess the current status of food grain production in India and challenges associated with it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the key highlights of the estimate.

Body:

Note the following facts and use them to provide for a brief analysis of the current scenario –

  • Total food grain production is projected to scale an all-time high of almost 292 million tonnes in 2019-20, propelled by record production of both rice and wheat.
  • Production of several crops, including rice and major pulses, was lower than targeted in the kharif or the monsoon season. However, the abundance of late monsoon rains resulted in cumulative rainfall that was 10% higher than the long-period average for the season. This helped farmers rake in rabi or winter harvests that were larger-than expected in almost all crops.
  • Thus, the estimate for total food grain output of 291.95 million tonnes is more than six million tonnes higher than the 285.21 million tonnes produced in 2018-19.
  • The Agriculture Ministry expects rice production to reach 117.47 million tonnes, slightly higher than the 116.48 million tonnes produced in 2019. Wheat, which is only grown in the rabi season, will see a major surge in production at 106.2 million tonnes in the current year, from the 103.6 million tonnes in 2018-19.

Discuss the challenges involved – Despite the government’s drive to encourage millets and nutri-cereals, production failed to match targets this year.

Explain the story with Pulses, oil seeds, the sudden peak in sugarcane production etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done for effective and efficient management of food grains in the country.

Introduction:

As per Second Advance Estimates for 2019-20, total foodgrain production in the country is estimated at record 291.95 million tonnes which is higher by 6.74 million tonnes than the production of foodgrain of 285.21 million tonnes achieved during 2018-19. However, the production during 2019-20 is higher by 26.20 million tonnes than the previous five years’ (2013-14 to 2017-18) average production of foodgrain, a release issued by the government said.

Body:

Reasons for increased food grain production in India:

  • Production of several crops, including rice and major pulses, was lower than targeted in the kharif or the monsoon season.
  • However, the abundance of late monsoon rains resulted in cumulative rainfall that was 10% higher than the long-period average for the season.
  • This helped farmers rake in rabi or winter harvests that were larger-than-expected in almost all crops.
  • The Agriculture Ministry expects rice production to reach 117.47 million tonnes, slightly higher than the 116.48 million tonnes produced in the previous year.
  • Wheat, which is only grown in the rabi season, will see a major surge in production at 106.2 million tonnes in the current year, from the 103.6 million tonnes in 2018-19.
  • Thus, the estimate for total foodgrain output of 291.95 million tonnes is more than six million tonnes higher than the 285.21 million tonnes produced in 2018-19.

Associates challenges:

  • Despite the government’s drive to encourage millets and nutri-cereals, production failed to match targets this year, with the estimate pegged at 45.24 million tonnes.
  • Pulses production was also estimated to come in lower-than targeted 23 million tonnes, although it was still higher than the previous year’s harvest.
  • Most pulses are dry land crops, grown on land without irrigation and the delay in monsoons in many areas hit kharif harvests although rabi production improved.
  • Oil seeds production was estimated at almost 342 million tonnes, higher than last year but still lower than the target for this year.
  • Sugarcane is the only major crop where this year’s estimated production of 3,538 million tonnes was significantly lower than last year’s output of 4,054 million tonnes.
  • A glut in sugar production over the last few years had resulted in a crash in prices and an increase in payment arrears from sugar mills to cane farmers.

Measures needed to diversify the food grain production:

  • Revisit the MSP policy: Currently, MSPs are announced for 23 commodities, but effectively price support operates primarily in wheat and rice and that too in selected states. This creates highly skewed incentive structures in favour of wheat and rice. While country is short of pulses and oilseeds (edible oils), their prices often go below MSP without any effective price support.
  • HLC recommends that pulses and oilseeds deserve priority and Government must provide better price support operations for them, and dovetail their MSP policy with trade policy so that their landed costs are not below their MSP.
  • Negotiable warehouse receipt system should be taken up on priority and scaled up quickly. Under this system, farmers can deposit their produce to the registered warehouses, and get say 80 percent advance from banks against their produce valued at MSP.
  • They can sell later when they feel prices are good for them. This will bring back the private sector, reduce massively the costs of storage to the government, and be more compatible with a market economy.
  • Buffer Stocking Operations and Liquidation Policy: One of the key challenges for FCI has been to carry buffer stocks way in excess of buffer stocking norms. FCI have to work in tandem to liquidate stocks in Open Market Sale Scheme or in export markets, whenever stocks go beyond the buffer stock norms.

 

Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

5.Discuss the ideals of ‘Sanatana dharma’ practiced and believed by Mahatma Gandhi. Explain their significance as applied today. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The question is based on the Gandhian idea of ‘Sanatana Dharma’.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept, significance and relevance of the Gandhian idea of ‘Sanatana Dharma’ in detail.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the Gandhian idea of ‘Sanatana Dharma’.

Body:

Discuss the key features – In general sanatana dharma consists of virtues such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, purity, goodwill, mercy, patience, forbearance, self-restraint, generosity, and asceticism. Gandhi identifies dharma as duty. Performance of the duties of an individual in a society helps the society to become self-sufficient and stable. Duties of an individual contribute not only to the growth and prosperity of the society but also assist in maintaining social order. It brings justice and peace to society. Explain the relevance of the idea as applied to today’s context.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of the Philosophy.

Introduction:

Sanatana dharma, in Hinduism, term used to denote the “eternal” or absolute set of duties or religiously ordained practices incumbent upon all Hindus, regardless of class, caste, or sect. Different texts give different lists of the duties, but in general sanatana dharma consists of virtues such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, purity, goodwill, mercy, patience, forbearance, self-restraint, generosity, and asceticism.

Body:

Ideals of Sanatana Dharma practiced and believed by Mahatma Gandhi:

  • Gandhiji declared himself as Sanatan Hindu and it is conspicuous from his words “I am a Hindu because it is Hinduism which makes the world worth living. I am a Hindu hence I Love not only human beings, but all living beings.”
  • Sanatana Dharma encompasses ideals such as justice, honesty, altruism, chivalry and non-violence since the dawn of its civilization.
  • Non-violence is a character ingrained in Sanatanis.
  • Compassion Unlimited
  • Altruism of high order
  • Display of Magnanimity against arch rivals
  • Respect for women
  • Keeping one’s word

Significance today:

  • Equality:
    • Many traditions and customs which hurt the equality, dignity, fraternity of the human being are present in India like caste discrimination, honour killings, banning women from entering sacred places, manual scavenging etc.
    • Non-cooperation and resistance to such indiscriminate ideas is necessary and it is already visible.
    • The use of non-violent means to achieve morally endowed ends like demand for justice against irresponsible, unacceptable government e.g. Arab spring, Anna Hazare’s movement etc.
  • Culture of peace:
    • Today, the world is suffering from immense crisis from many sides. Crimes, conflict, hatred and distrust between one community and another, insecure environment among minorities, hunger, unemployment, poverty and literacy, refugee crisis, ethnic violence, terrorism, etc., all these altogether make a grave danger to peace.
    • Resistance through non-violence and appeal to the conscience of perpetrators can bring change.
    • Compassion is necessary for victims, minorities, fellow humans and other earth creatures.
  • Self-determination and Courage:
    • In the fast-paced world today, many farmers, students are bogged down by desperation of failures, fall in to depression and even commit suicides.
    • There is a need of self-determination, courage and resilience to face the failures and bounce back.
  • Civic nationalism:
    • A striking feature of Gandhi’s civic nationalism was his insistence that India is not an exclusively Hindu civilization.
    • Gandhi did not make the religious element an integral part of his civic nationalism.
    • He abstained from any reference to Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism or Jainism in his definition of swaraj.
    • He continually defined and defended Indian nationalism through his belief in the truth of all religions.
    • Gandhi’s action was shaped by his conviction that all religious boundaries are arbitrary and false. He was convinced that a mere doctrinaire approach to religion will not help consolidate the foundations of Indian civic nationalism.

Conclusion:

Gandhiji had always taken Religion to solve practical Affairs which was shrewdly used by some political opportunists to denounce Gandhiji’s ideologies, activities and philosophies and portrayed him as ‘Working Against Hinduism’. But Gandhiji had always endeavoured to purify Hinduism and promote Humanity for which he can be considered as true ‘Sanatan Hindu’.

 

Topic:  Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6.Discuss the power of Emotional Intelligence on Good Governance. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

Based on Emotional Intelligence (EI), the concept that has come to be regarded as the new science of success, the question aims to ascertain the value of it to Good governance.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of EI to Good Governance.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define both EI and Good Governance.

Body:

The answer must bring out the relevance of novel concept of Emotional intelligence as brought out by Daniel Goleman to the aspects of Good governance. Explain what the constituents of Good Governance are. Explain the statement of the question – In many places and countries, corruption is characterized by conflicts of interest, nepotism, and cronyism, favoritism, stealing and blackmail, among other major factors militating against good governance. When an individual public officer is influenced or capable of being influenced by personal considerations against the wider interest of the state it will negatively affect performance in the public interest, Thus comes the role of emotional intelligence. Explain the benefits of emotional intelligence; one can use a case study/example to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the power of Emotional Intelligence on Good Governance.

Introduction:

Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy making, i.e. transparent processes, a bureaucracy imbued with professional ethos, an executive arm of government accountable for its actions, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs and behaving under the rule of law.

Emotional intelligence is the index of competencies such as transparency, integrity, accountability, empathy, collaboration, humility, among other variables necessary for introducing and sustaining good governance.

Body:

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to sense, gauge and utilise emotion in our day to day function. Together with IQ, EI is a vital determinant of individual success. In governance function, where human interface is maximum, EI play a deciding factor in determining the individual success.

  • Intrapersonal level:
    • EI leads to self-awareness i.e. recognition of own emotions; and Self-management i.e. handling of our emotions so that they don’t interfere in discharge of duty.
    • This intrapersonal realisation and control is utmost to maintain neutrality, anonymity and fairness of public services.
    • Simultaneously it inculcates flexibility, adaptability and high self-regard.
  • Interpersonal level:
    • EI helps us to understand the emotional state of beneficiaries of governance.
    • Knowing their emotional state is necessary to mould their emotions into desired state that is necessary to get job done.
    • This way, an administrator is able to inspire the shared vision and maximize public involvement.
  • Decision making process:
    • A compassionate administrator will develop schemes that have far greater chance of succeeding.
    • The judgement will have high moral values.
    • Administrator’s ability to manage interpersonal relations will be higher.

Conclusion:

Hence, in a social system where people matters, EI is utmost important for a good governance.