Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
5. Water is a crucial concern of public health and the ecosystem of a country, more so for a country like India. Examine. (250 words)
Reference: The Hindu
Why this question:
The controversy surrounding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) report of November 2019 on drinking water status has politically prioritized the issue of water quality in India, thus the question.
Key demand of the question:
Discuss in the answer why water should be treated as an urgent concern for public health and the ecosystem of the country in detail. Explain with relevant data and justifications.
Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.
Structure of the answer:
Initiate the discussion by highlighting the importance of water as a public good, its importance for life in general.
Discuss that India is on the verge of a severe water crisis. India has witnessed a gradual reduction in per capita availability of water due to the rising population on the one hand and also the reducing availability of potable water, on the other hand, owing to rising and unchecked pollution in the country’s rivers and water bodies. Quote data to substantiate such as – A 2018 Report of the NITI Aayog has observed that currently, 600 million Indians face high to extreme water stress. By 2030, the country’s water demand is projected to be twice the available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people. Discuss the problems associated with water, explain why it can be a cause of public health concern? Suggest what needs to be done? Highlight the efforts of the government in this direction such as the Jal Jeevan mission etc.
Conclude that Water should be treated as an urgent concern for public health and the ecosystem of the country. Notably, the Jal Jeevan Mission has begun the important work of gathering information on the scale and scope of the problem and making it available in an open and transparent manner and there is the need to further enhance technical knowledge on measurement and regulation of water quality in India.