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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 February 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  population and associated issues.

1. India will gain from its upcoming demographic opportunity only if policies and programmes are aligned to the demographic shift. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The article highlights in what way youth can be a big advantage for India in the coming near future.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should discuss the importance of right policies and programmes to be in place to harness the upcoming demographic opportunity.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define the demographic opportunity that India is about to incur. India’s working-age population has numerically outstripped its non-working age population.

Body:

First quote relevant data to substantiate the question statement; Demographic dividend refers to the growth in an economy that is the result of a change in the age structure of a country’s population.  and then move onto discuss the following aspects – Explain first what are the challenges involved in harnessing this potential. India’s population heterogeneity ensures that this window of demographic dividend becomes available at different times in different States. Highlight that harnessing the demographic dividend will depend upon the employability of the working age population, their health, education, vocational training and skills, besides appropriate land and labour policies, as well as good governance. Discuss the need for skill development. Measures to improve quality education, health, focus on women development etc.

Conclusion:

The policies that we adopt and their effective implementation will ensure that our demographic dividend, a time-limited opportunity, becomes a boon for India.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Should the Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes community have reservations in promotions? Critically examine. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The Supreme Court has recently ruled that quotas and reservations for promotions for government jobs are not a fundamental right.

Key demand of the question:

The student has to critically examine the need for reservations to the Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes community.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by explaining what the constitution has to say about the reservations.

Body:

Highlight the context of the question; comment on the recent ruling of the apex court. Discuss – Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality before law and equal protection of laws to everyone. Article 15(1) generally prohibits any discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of religion, caste, sex or place of birth. Similarly, Article 16(1) and 16(2) assure citizens equality of opportunity in employment or appointment to any government office. Explain the concerns posed by the apex court’s verdict. Present your arguments – for and against and conclude with a balanced opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Unaccountability and caste slavery have completely crippled Dalits. They remain asset-less, illiterate and socially isolated with overt residential segregation in rural areas, and subtly in urban areas. Therefore, the reservation policy is necessary as a safeguard against discrimination and to secure their fair share.

 

Topic:  Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

3. Discuss the impact of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) on loan recovery and also suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.(250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why this question:

After the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) became law in May 2016, the ecosystem of corporate insolvency resolution process (CIRP) was put in place by the year-end. As of December 2019, the system had been in existence for three years.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss about the performance of IBC since its inception and Suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain about the loan recoveries in the past and those of the present.

Body:

Quote facts and highlight how good have been the loan recoveries. Before the passing of IBC it took an average of 4.3 years to resolve insolvency and recovery rate was 25.9% as compared to developed countries where recovery rate was 72%. Discuss the salient features of the IBC. Highlight the positive impact of the code. The challenges involved; The Section 29A of the Code has debarred certain entities thus brought down competition in bidding thereby resulting into reduced recovery, Most of the cases before the NCLT have failed to adhere to strict timeline of 180 days resulting in losses for the creditors etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that need for quality resolution professionals, capacity building of NCLT in terms of creation of more benches and manpower. Moreover, once a resolution plan has been approved no objection should be entertained. The principal stakeholders in insolvencies such as NCLT, Resolution Professionals, and Committee of Creditors need to expedite resolution process.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Discuss the Economic effects of the coronavirus on the Indian economy. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

From mobile phones, toys, pharmaceuticals to kitchen goods, traders in several sectors here say that the slowdown in trade activity with China, as a consequence of COVID-19, will soon start to effect business.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the dependence of China on India and thus the implacable possibilities of the corona outbreak.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly highlight the dependence of Indian economy on China.

Body:

Highlight the majority dependence of China; import of finished goods for re-distribution, raw material for production purposes and the import of spare parts used in assembling goods. Discuss what can be the possible effect of Corona outbreak? Explain what India should do in such a situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it’s a lesson for India to reduce heavy dependencies on a single country and diversify its imports and as well focus on domestic markets.

 

Topic:  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. What are the challenges for inclusive growth in India? Suggest measures to be taken to address these challenges. (250 words)

Reference: EPW

Why this question:

At the question is straightforward and aims to ascertain the challenges facing the inclusive growth in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of inclusive growth and the need to address the challenges facing it. And suggest measures to overcome such concerns.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what you understand by Inclusive growth.

Body:

Inclusive growth has remained elusive despite government’s best efforts. Post-1991 India has witnessed a rise not only in prosperity but also disparities. Inequalities have got widened and accelerated. Well developed and prosperous regions have attracted most of foreign investment and have grown further rapidly. Explain what the major challenges for inclusive growth are:

  1. Poverty, lack of adequate employment opportunities.
  2. Lack of adequate education and skill development.
  3. Lack of infrastructure – Social and physical.
  4. Governance deficit, especially in backward regions. Etc.

Suggest measures and solutions to address these issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude that targeted policy measures addressing the above, with the efforts of government policies and programmes aiming at achieving targets in above key sectors can lead to inclusive growth.

 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. Socrates is regarded as the founder of Moral Philosophy, Discuss the contributions of his moral heroism. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the topic of Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the contributions of Socrates as a moral hero, his efforts and influences to moral philosophy.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the philosophy propounded by Socrates.

Body:

Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.

Explain what did Socrates believe about morality?

Socrates equated knowledge with virtue, which ultimately leads to ethical conduct. He believed that the only life worth living was one that was rigorously examined. He looked for principles and actions that were worth living by, creating an ethical base upon which decisions should be made.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of his philosophy.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. Discuss the Aquinas’s doctrine of double effect and elucidate upon some of the major criticisms of natural law ethics. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications  

Why this question:

The question is based on the topic of Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the contributions of Aquinas’s doctrine of double effect and elucidate upon some of the major criticisms of natural law ethics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the theory propounded by St. Thomas Aquinas.

Body:

St. Thomas Aquinas propounded the ethical theory of natural law – what is good is what fulfills the natural (divine) purpose, and what hinders it is bad. Discuss the practical ethical positions, Aquinas’s doctrine of double effect; Doctrine of double effect. This doctrine says that if doing something morally good has a morally bad side-effect; it’s ethically ok to do it providing the bad side-effect wasn’t intended. End with criticisms of natural law ethics.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance of the theory though it is accompanied with flaws.