Topics Covered: Population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues.
Swachh Bharat Mission
What to study?
For Prelims: Overview and key features.
For Mains: Significance and relevance of the mission.
Context: The Centre has approved the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) with an estimated central and state budget of Rs 52,497 crore.
- The second phase will be implemented on a mission mode between 2020-21 and 2024-25.
- The second phase will focus on Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus), which includes ODF sustainability and solid and liquid waste management (SLWM).
- The ODF Plus programme will converge with MGNREGA, especially for grey water management, and will complement the newly launched Jal Jeevan Mission.
- The programme will also work towards ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet.
- The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and States will be 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100:0 for other Union Territories, for all the components.
About SBM- Rural:
Launched on 2nd October, 2014 to accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to focus on sanitation.
- The aim is to achieve a clean and open defecation free (ODF) India.
- Implemented by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.
Eligibility: Incentive as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL) shall be available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homestead, physically handicapped and women headed households.
- The Incentive amount provided under SBM(G) to Below Poverty Line (BPL) /identified APLs households shall be up to Rs.12,000 for construction of one unit of IHHL and provide for water availability, including for storing for hand-washing and cleaning of the toilet.
- Central Share of this Incentive for IHHLs shall be Rs.9,000/- (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share will be Rs.3,000/-(25%).
- For North Eastern State, and Special category States, the Central share will be Rs. 10,800/- and the State share Rs.1,200/- (90% : 10%).
Performance and significance of the mission:
The rural sanitation programme was started on October 2, 2014, when the sanitation coverage in the country was reported at 38.7 per cent.
More than 10 crore individual toilets have been constructed since the launch of the mission and as a result rural area in all the States have declared themselves ODF as on 2nd October, 2019.