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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 February 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. . Social empowerment.

1. With making laws on prostitution still a solicitous debate, Discuss the factors driving the sex workers to their industry and suggest measures to address it. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

As much as 68 per cent of women sex workers in India entered the profession ‘voluntarily’, due to factors such as lack of education and poverty, according to a recent survey.  Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the causes that lead to choosing over this profession for the sex workers and what needs to be done to overcome the challenges associated with this profession that is often involuntarily chosen.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First highlight why prostitution in India has still remained a solicitous debate.

Body:

Discuss the highlights of the survey briefly. Explain the factors pointed out by it that lead workers to enter this profession – poverty, uneducatedness, lack of access to health care, Flexibility of time  and higher earnings than other professions etc. Discuss then the issues associated with the sector and how ultimately the government and the societies should aim to treat the sex industry as any other industry and empower it with legal safeguards, which would rid this workplace of exploitative and unhealthy practices. Suggest measures to overcome – bringing legitimacy to the sex-worker, strengthening effective dialogue and positive programmes in collaboration with private and government healthcare providers, government policies etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Do you agree with the view that “Collegium system requires reconsideration”. Give reasons in support of your arguments. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is premised upon the recent citing made by former Supreme Court judge Justice AK Sikri upon the lacunae of the collegium system in the Indian judiciary.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the factors that have made collegium a flawed system.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what collegium system is.

Body:

Collegium system is the system by which the judges are appointed and transferred only by the judges. The system has evolved by means of the judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a Constitutional provision. State the factors that make the collegium system flawed; autocratic nature of the system, accountableness, lack of transparency, promotes nepotism, inefficient in many dimensions etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the subjectivity and the inconsistency of the collegium system highlight the need to relook at the process of appointment of judges. The NJAC should be amended to make sure that the judiciary retains independence in its decisions and re-introduced in some form or the other.

 

Topic:   Issues relating to poverty and hunger. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability.

3. “Corruption deepens inequalities and increases poverty and obstructs the growth prospects of the nation. “Comment. (250 words)

Reference: PIB

Why this question:

In a speech, Sri M Venkaiah Naidu said that corruption is biggest hurdle to inclusive growth and called upon the youth to support those who are fighting to eradicate the malice of corruption from the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the effects of corruption on the society in terms of deepening inequality, increasing poverty and ill effects on growth prospects.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining corruption in general.

Body:

Explain briefly the root causes of corruption in the country, the different forms in which it manifests. Explain how corruption acts as a biggest hurdle to inclusive growth, leads to inequalities and increases poverty. Discuss efforts being made by the government in this direction. Suggest solutions to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  economics of animal-rearing.

4. Discuss the reasons leading to depletion of Native breeds of cattle in the country, recommend measures to preserve them. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The government has unveiled SUTRA PIC or Scientific Utilisation Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows – a programme to research on ‘indigenous’ cows. Thus the background of the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the reasons leading to depletion of Native breeds of cattle in the country, recommend measures to preserve them.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts related to the native breeds of the cattle; Cattle’s rearing has been a traditional livelihood in India and is closely linked to agricultural economy. India, with its 199 million cattle heads, has 14.5 per cent of the world cattle population. Of this, 83 per cent (166 million) are indigenous.

Body:

Discuss the factors responsible for depleting breeds of cattle in the country such as – inadequate nutrition, poor reproductive management and animal diseases which is exacerbated by lack of effective support services such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. Explain the efforts being made by the government in this direction; explain the Rashtriya Gokul mission, Scientific Utilization Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows etc. Explain what more needs to be done to preserve the native breeds and highlight the benefits of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of preserving the native breeds.

 

Topic:   Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Discuss the effect of global price movements on food inflation in India. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

The article brings out the fact that Retail and wholesale food inflation rates for December 2019 were the highest since November 2013 and December 2013 respectively, and then provide a detailed analysis of factors affecting the food inflation in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the effect of global price movements on food inflation in India with suitable justifications.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the prevailing conditions of food inflation in the country.

Body:

Quote statistics/facts suggesting food inflation in the country. Discuss the major factors responsible for it – local and global factors with greater emphasis on the latter. Quote and discuss the global factors such as – Coronavirus, global crude prices etc. Discuss the possible uncertainty in the trend and measures to address and mitigate it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions for both long term and short term to overcome the persistent food inflation.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. State the defining characteristics of Empathy, sympathy and compassion. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV and aims to define the chief characteristics of the virtues of Empathy, sympathy and compassion.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must define, compare and contrast the three elements of Empathy, sympathy and compassion in detail.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define first – Empathy, sympathy and compassion in general.

Body:

Compare and contrast the three terms – Empathy is often confused with sympathy, pity and compassion, which are merely recognition of another person’s distress. Sympathy typically implies that the suffering person does not “deserve” what has happened to him or her and is powerless to do anything about it. Empathy is a skilled response, while sympathy is reactive responses, which is why developing the skill of empathy is a more realistic goal for public services. Empathy does include elements of sympathy and compassion, but it also carries pertinent connotations that both sympathy and compassion lack. Empathy seems to suggest a response to situations whose features are more subtle, imperceptible and complex which require cognitive skills to perceive, share, understand and put into action. Define the key characteristics of each and substantiate the same with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of each one in practicing ethics.

 

Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. “”The methods of Ethics are continuous with those of empirical science”, elaborate by emphasizing the essence of objectivity in Ethics. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the principle of objectivity applied to ethics and its significance.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of objectivity and in what way the methods of Ethics are continuous with those of empirical science.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

State what objectivity in ethics refers to.

Body:

Objectivity means the state or quality of being true and keeping aside one’s emotions, biases, prejudices. Objectivity is mind independent and object specific. Explain why it is often acclaimed as use of rational, logical or scientific means of arriving at a decision, rather than relying on ad-hoc or a partisan approach. Define its relations with ethical decision making; explain in what way one can draw parallels with empirical science.

Conclusion:

Conclude with essence of objectivity to ethics and its application.