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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 January 2020

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 January 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. “Moved and dogged out of their original habitats, Bru community are now largely internally-displaced refugees”, Critically examine the internal displacement crisis of the community and comment on the efforts made by government of India so far to protect them. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The centre has signed a historic pact for permanent solution of Bru refugees’ issue. Thus the question aims to examine the internal displacement crisis of the community and the efforts made by the government so far.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the historical background of the displacement crisis, causes and the consequences of the issue. One has to detail upon the efforts taken by the government in this direction from past to present and in what way the recent agreement is a different one.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the historical background of the issue.

Body:

In detail explain who are they – The Brus, also referred to as the Reangs, and are spread across the northeastern states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur, and Mizoram.

In Tripura, they are recognized as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state.

Discuss what the issue is.

Trace the efforts made by the government from past to present, explain in what way the recent agreement is different from the approaches taken in the past.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note highlighting India’s approach for refugees.

 

Introduction:

A quadripartite agreement in New Delhi, allowed some 35,000 Bru tribal people, who were displaced from Mizoram and are living in Tripura as refugees since 1997, to settle permanently in Tripura. The Centre, State governments of Tripura and Mizoram, and representatives of Bru organisations signed the agreement in the presence of Union Home Minister that promises to end their 23-year-old internal displacement crisis

Body:

The internal displacement crisis:

  • A bout of ethnic violence forced thousands of people from the Bru tribe to leave their homes in Mizoram.
  • The displaced Bru people from Mizoram have been living in various camps in Tripura since 1997.
  • In 1997, the murder of a Mizo forest guard at the Dampa Tiger Reserve in Mizoram’s Mamit district allegedly by Bru militants led to a violent backlash against the community, forcing several thousand people to flee to neighbouring Tripura.
  • The Bru militancy was a reactionary movement against Mizo nationalist groups who had demanded in the mid-1990s that the Brus be left out of the state’s electoral rolls, contending that the tribe was not indigenous to Mizoram.

Efforts made by the government from past to present:

  • Successive state and central governments had thus far stressed b, even though the enduring fear of ethnic violence remained a fundamental roadblock.
  • The two other “durable solutions” for refugees and displaced persons suggested by the UN Refugee Agency — local integration or assimilation, and resettlement — were never explored.
  • Apart from their own Kaubru tongue, the Bru speak both Kokborok and Bangla, the two most widely spoken languages of the tribal and non-tribal communities of Tripura, and have an easy connection with the state.
  • Their long stay in Tripura, albeit in exile and in terrible conditions, has also acquainted them very well with the state’s socio-political ecology.

Highlights of the agreement:

  • Under the agreement , the centre has announced a package of Rs. 600 crore under this agreement.
  • As per the agreement the Bru tribes would be given land to reside in Tripura.
  • A fixed deposit of Rs. 4 lakh will be given to each family as an amount of government aid. They will be able to withdraw this amount after two years.
  • Each of the displaced families will be given 40×30 sq ft residential plots.
  • Apart from them, each family will be given Rs. 5,000 cash per month for two years.
  • The agreement highlights that each displaced family will also be given free ration for two years and aid of Rs. 1.5 lakh to build their houses.

Conclusion:

The Bru-Reang refugees will benefit from numerous development schemes in the state. Seeking to put an end to the 23-year-old Bru-Reang refugee crisis, a quadripartite agreement was signed among the Centre, state governments of Tripura and Mizoram and Bru-Reang representatives to facilitate permanent settlement of Bru refugees in Tripura. The displaced Brus, who returned to Mizoram have already begun demanding a package equivalent to one, those who stayed behind in the Tripura relief camps would be getting.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. The Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)  of India has witnessed major breakthrough in the recent times, Elaborate on the progress made so far and discuss the way ahead.(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The government’s comprehensive Multi-Year Plan for 2018-22 details a comprehensive financial plan to fully immunize 26 million children and 30 million pregnant women with life-saving vaccines. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the progress made on the immunization front by the country and in what way it has taken a major leap forward.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what UIP is.

Body:

  • Comment on the aspects that prove – Universal Immunization Program has contributed a lot in preventing so many diseases and deaths related to them India.
  • Explain that it is one of the largest in the world in terms of the number of beneficiaries, quantities of vaccine used, the geographical spread, the number of Immunization session organized, and diversity of areas covered.
  • Discuss what the vaccines under it are.
  • Explain the impact of it – how it can collectively prevent at least one lakh deaths of adults in the working age group, one lakh infant deaths, and up to 10 lakh cases of hospitalization each year.
  • Till now, Immunization has immensely helped bring down the annual mortality of children under five, from 3.3 million a generation ago, to 1.3 million deaths in present which is 17,000 deaths each day.
  • Suggest way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the improvements in immunization coverage and the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine will significantly alleviate disease and financial burden in Indian households. Population and regions with low existing immunization coverage benefit the most from the universal immunization program.

Introduction:

Mission Indradhanush was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on December 25, 2014. Between 2009-2013 immunization coverage has increased from 61% to 65%, indicating only 1% increase in coverage every year. To accelerate the process of immunization by covering 5% and more children every year, Indradhanush mission has been adopted to achieve target of full coverage by 2020. The government’s comprehensive Multi-Year Plan for 2018-22 details a comprehensive financial plan to fully immunise 26 million children and 30 million pregnant women with life-saving vaccines.

Body:

Progress of the scheme so far:

  • India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is working both to increase immunization coverage and to introduce new vaccines.
  • In the early 90s, India saw over two lakh cases of polio annually, but, after the polio eradication programme was launched in 1994, India attained polio-free status over the course of the next two decade due to concentrated efforts and collaboration of the Government, international partners, civil society, health workers and millions of volunteers.
  • The best practices and the systems established by the Pulse Polio programme have benefitted other health programs, viz. the community mobilization, logistics management, reaching the last mile or setting up a surveillance system.
  • Since 2014, five new vaccines, including against two of the leading causes of deaths in children under five in India — pneumonia and diarrhoea – were introduced under the UIP, one of the largest such programmes in the world.
  • Rotavirus vaccine (RVV), which protects against a severe form of diarrhoea, was scaled up in all states last year.
  • According to internal data collected by the Health Ministry, as of September 2019, almost 1.3 million children has received all three doses of PCV across 159 districts in the six states, with approximately 8.1 million children targeted for 2019-20.

Challenges:

  • In 2010, 0.56 million severe pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and 105 thousand pneumococcal pneumonia deaths had occurred in children younger than 5 years of age in India.
  • The annual incidence of severe pneumococcal pneumonia in India was estimated to be 4.8 episodes per 1,000 children younger than 5 years.
  • Pneomococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), the costliest vaccine in the UIP basket, currently covers only about 50 per cent of the 26 million birth cohort in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
  • At present, the vaccine being used in the UIP costs approximately $2.95/dose, which makes PCV costlier than other UIP vaccines such as rotavirus vaccine ($1/dose), pentavalent vaccine ($0.69/dose), and measles vaccine ($0.308-$0.318/dose).

Conclusion:

Improving immunization coverage and the introduction of a newer vaccines significantly alleviates disease and financial burden in Indian households. Population subgroups or regions with low existing immunization coverage benefit the most from the intervention. Increasing coverage by targeting those subgroups alleviates the burden more than simply increasing coverage in the population at large.

 

 Topic:  Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Discuss the significance of Article 131 of the Indian constitution, Can States challenge the validity of central laws under it? Justify your stand with suitable examples.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in depth the features and scope provided by article 131 and whether States can challenge the validity of central laws in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the provisions of Article 131 and how far it has been used in the past and what benefits and disadvantages it has to offer to the States in challenging the Central laws.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Article 131 in short.

Body:

  • Article 131 confers exclusive jurisdiction on the Supreme Court in disputes involving States, or the Centre on the one hand and one or more States on the other. This means no other court can entertain such a dispute. It is well-known that both High Courts and the Supreme Court have the power to adjudicate cases against the State and Central governments.
  • Explain what happens when a State feels its legal rights have been violated by another State or by the Centre?
  • Discuss the recent case of the State of Kerala; take hints from the article and present your case.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such a provision in the constitution of the country.

Introduction:

Article 131 of the Constitution states that the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction to deal with any dispute between the Centre and a state; the Centre and a state on the one side and another state on the other side; and two or more states. Kerala has become the first state to challenge the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) before the Supreme Court under Article 131 of the Constitution. Kerala claims that the Act is violative of the Doctrine of Basic Structure- as it is against the principle of equality, freedom, and secularism which forms part of the basic structure of the Constitution.

Body:

Besides, Chhattisgarh government has also filed a suit in the Supreme Court under Article 131, challenging the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act on the ground that it encroaches upon the state’s powers to maintain law and order.

Significance of article 131:

  • The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in any dispute:
    • between the Government of India and one or more States; or
    • between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or
    • between two or more States.
  • The dispute must involve a question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends.
  • Any suit brought before the Supreme Court by a private citizen against the Centre or a state cannot be entertained under this.
  • The original jurisdiction of a court means the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, in which the court reviews the decision of a lower court.

Supreme court’s stance on article 131:

  • There have been two conflicting judgments from the Supreme Court on whether a State can file an original suit under Article 131 to challenge the constitutionality of a central law.
  • The first judgment reported in 2012 – State of Madhya Pradesh vs Union of India – held that States cannot challenge a central law under Article 131.
  • The second judgment – State of Jharkhand Vs State of Bihar – took the opposite view in 2015 and referred the question of law to a larger Bench of the Supreme Court for final determination. Kerala’s plaint relies on the 2015 verdict.
  • However, in the West Bengal government’s case in 2017, the SC proclaimed that the State government cannot ask for any remedy related to Fundamental rights. The case was filed under Article 32 of the Constitution challenging the validity of the ‘Aadhaar Act’. The Court also held that, “Fundamental rights are available to individuals: citizens or non-citizens against the State (under Article 32 or Article 226) and not to the State entities.”

Conclusion:

Politically motivated pleas must be abandoned and must not be entertained by the SC. Instead, determined efforts must be made to resolve them within the political arena. Representatives of states must speak up in the Parliament when the laws are being framed & passed rather than making hue and cry later. Federalism is a two-way street. Both the parties to it must respect the boundaries of one another that has been drawn by the Constitution.

 

Topic:  Economics of animal-rearing.

4. Discuss the economics of poultry industry in India .(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to discuss the economics of Poultry in India.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the economics of poultry industry in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe key facts of present poultry industry in India.

Body:

Discuss the importance of poultry farming.

Explain in what way it can augment the income of farmer.

Comment on the aspects of allied agriculture and the importance of poultry

Discuss the challenges associated and how to overcome it.

Explain what the policies of the govt. in this direction are.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

India has the world’s largest population of livestock. The country produces approximately 5.3 million MT of meat and 75 billion eggs annually. India is also the largest producer of buffalo meat and second largest producer of goat meat.  In essence, poultry and meat are vertically integrated industries in India and have witnessed colossal growth over the past few years.

Body:

The poultry industry in India, in particular, represents a massive success story. It has undergone a paradigm shift in structure and operation and what was largely a backyard venture before the 1960s has been transformed into a vibrant agribusiness with an annual turnover of INR 30 000 crores. Presently, India is the third largest egg producer in the world following China and the USA.

Potential of the poultry sector:

  • The development goes beyond size – extending to efficiency, superiority and quality.
  • Labour: Poultry sector, besides providing direct or indirect employment to nearly 3 million people is a potent tool for subsidiary income generation for many landless and marginal farmers.
  • Nutritional security: For a distressed farmer’s family, food provided by livestock is the only source of nutrition required for survival and also provides nutritional security.
  • Reliable source of income: Further, landless labourers derive more than 50 per cent of their income from livestock especially from poultry.
  • Asset: Livestock are important asset for a distress farmer which can be encashed at any moment and may help him to come out of debt trap.

Undoubtedly, this remarkable growth is an outcome of several factors, such as active developmental support from the state and central government, research and development support from research institutes, application of new technologies, international collaboration and private sector participation.

Way forward:

  • Measures should be taken to increase the meat production efficiency of different species of animals using the improved management practices.
  • Adoption of improved shelter management practices can reduce the environmental stress.
  • New breeds should be developed for meat production with higher feed conversion efficiency, faster growth and disease resistant.
  • Health management practices should be followed for prevention of diseases and economic loss to the farmers.
  • Regular prophetic health measures should be carried out against infectious diseases. Regular screening of animals should be carried out against disease such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis etc.
  • The livestock market yard should have basic facilities for feeding, watering and holding animals for days.
  • By vertical integration with meat processing industries the middle men can be eliminated, which will ultimately increase the profit of farmers.
  • There is need for modernizing the quality control laboratories of the State Government, apart from need for strict laboratory inspection of meat and meat products, training programs for meat workers regarding hygiene and sanitation need to be organized regularly.
  • Modernization of abattoirs, setting up of rural abattoirs and registration of all slaughter houses in cities/towns are essential for quality meat production.
  • The setting up of large commercial meat farms have been recommended to address the traceability issues necessary for stringent quality standards of CODEX.

Conclusion:

Poultry rearing has always been an integral component of livestock production system in India. The concept of composite farming production system with crop, livestock, fish and poultry production has been practiced for centuries in India. However, poultry production in India has taken a quantum leap in the last four decades, emerging from an entirely unorganized and unscientific farming practice to commercial production system with state-of-the-art technological interventions

Case study:

Records show that meat production was 4.69 lakh metric ton in 2017-18. Kerala is the 8th largest meat-producing state in the country, contributing 6.1 per cent of the meat produced in India. Out of the total, 38.8 per cent is poultry meat, 33.95 per cent from cattle and 20.99 per cent from buffalo.

Despite having a robust non-vegetarian food market, the processed meat market is negligible in Kerala. BDS, started in 1999 for implementing a dairy project in Wayanad, ventured into meat processing in 2013 and poultry in December 2018, thus opening new avenues for farmers.

Private agencies give only Rs 4 to Rs 6 as rearing charge for per kg of a live bird, which becomes ripe for the market in 45 days. But, BDS, which owns breeder farm and hatchery in Tamil Nadu, gives Rs 8 to Rs 11 as rearing charge as there is no middleman.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, And Railways etc.

5. Will natural gas play the game-changer in India’s energy future? Discuss. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

A study to facilitate the development of a national gas grid is to be undertaken soon by a U.S. entity for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB). Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the prospects of Natural gas and in what way it can be a game changer in India’s energy future.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly provide facts for Natural gas scenario in the country.

Body:

Globally, natural gas constitutes 24 per cent of the primary energy consumption. In India, Gujarat, which has relatively better access to natural gas, is having a share of 25 per cent in its energy basket. The government proposes to increase the share of natural gas in the whole of its energy consumption to 15 per cent by 2020.

Discuss the prospects in detail. Use a map to pictorially represent the resource availability in the country.

Explain the challenges posed by the industry.

Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Natural gas is a superior fuel as compared with coal and other liquid fuels, as it is environment friendly, safer and cheaper fuel. It can be supplied through pipelines and hence, there is no need to store cylinders in kitchen and thus saves space. It is environment friendly fuel and its usage as domestic kitchen fuel, as fuel for transport sector as well as fuel for industries and commercial units can play a significant role in reducing carbon emission. It is 60% cheaper compared with petrol and around 45% cheaper when compared with Diesel. A study to facilitate the development of a national gas grid is to be undertaken soon by a U.S. entity for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB).

Body:

Globally, natural gas constitutes 24 per cent of the primary energy consumption. In India, Gujarat, which has relatively better access to natural gas, is having a share of 25 per cent in its energy basket. The government proposes to increase the share of natural gas in the whole of its energy consumption to 15 per cent by 2020.

Current scenario:

  • Currently, share of natural gas in India’s energy mix is just over 6% and aim is to reach 15% figure for moving towards gas based economy, while world average is 24%.
  • The natural gas pipeline network in India totalled 16,324 km as on April 2019, according to official figures.
  • Nearly 7,000 km of pipeline is under construction.
  • In addition, the CGD projects, to supply the environment-friendly and cost-effective fuel to commercial, industrial and residential users, will see several thousand more kms of steel pipeline getting added.
  • Share of natural gas in India’s energy basket is 6.2% as against 23.4% globally and is expected to increase.

Potential of natural gas as a game changer:

  • India aims to bring down its carbon emission level and number of initiatives have been taken in this direction such as BS VI fuel, bio-energy, LED bulbs, International Solar Alliance (ISA), Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana and providing clean piped gas supply to more cities.
  • India is also enhancing LNG terminal capacity, renegotiating Indo-Qatar Gas deal and encouraging positive Indo-US engagement in this direction.
  • It is not only focussing on increasing use and supply of gas, but also on producing gas through agro-wastes and other products and including same into City Gas Distribution (CGD) network.
  • It has also increased its focus on promoting the usage of environment-friendly clean fuel, natural gas as fuel and feedstock across country to move towards gas based economy.
  • The National Gas Grid together with providing gas connections to households will provide better infrastructure for automobiles using gas.
  • The National Gas Grid will also aid in renewing of the fertilizer sector and also give a boost to the Power and Automotive sector

Conclusion:

It is good that the gas network is being laid but it also depends on the consumers to pay for the pipeline connection. The government is doing well by fixing the City Gas Distribution network and simultaneously extending the pipeline infrastructure. But the limits of this outreach will depend on India’s limits to be able to import those quantities of gas in terms of availability of exchange in times to come. To some consumers, gas could be a bridge fuel before they move on to electricity for clean cooking.

 

Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, And Railways etc.

6. Briefly discuss the pros and cons of the idea of privatizing the Indian Railways (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The question seeks to examine the aspects of privatizing the Indian Railways services.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the opportunities and obstacles that the idea of privatizing Railways pose.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight the idea of Privatization in general and the perks in carries with it.

Body:

Start with – The Bibek Debroy Committee, which was set up to suggest ways to mobilize resources for the Indian Railways and restructure the Railway Board, has favored privatization of rolling stock: wagons and coaches.

Discuss the positives of such a move – Improved Infrastructure, Balancing Quality of Service with High Fares, better accountability etc.

Explain the challenges associated.

Discuss why India right now cannot afford privatization of Indian Railways.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Post privatisation of the Tejas Express (to be run by the IRCTC), the government is currently in the process of forming a task force to draw a blueprint for handing over operations of as many as 150 trains and a total of 50 railway stations to private operators. The Bibek Debroy committee recommended that the rail industry needs to be liberalized by allowing the entry of private operators to provide services.

Body:

Pros of privatization of Indian railways:

  • Improved Infrastructure: Privatisation will lead to better infrastructure which in turn would result in improved amenities for travellers.
  • Currently, Indian Railways is marred by mismanagement in the form of stinking washrooms, lack of water supply and dirty platforms, it is expected that a private company will ensure better amenities.
  • Normalization of prices due to the competition: Improvement in quality of services has to be matched up by a rise in charges paid by the travellers.
  • However, the issue of price rise will be solved when private players are allowed to enter the sector since the move would foster competition and hence lead to overall betterment in the quality of services.
  • Improved Security: Private participation can lead to better accountability and monitoring, which can keep a check on rising accidents in railways.
  • Better Technological Innovation: Private participation can lead to the infusion of modern technology and capacity building of Indian railways.

Cons of Privatisation of Indian Railways:

  • Limited Coverage: An advantage of Indian Railways being government-owned is that it provides nation-wide connectivity irrespective of profit.
  • Privatisation of railways would mean the railways will become a profit-making enterprise, this would lead to the elimination of railways routes that are less popular.
  • Thus, the privatisation of railways can have a negative impact on connectivity and further increase the rural-urban divide.
  • Lesser Inclusive: Hike in fares can render the railways out of reach for lower-income groups.
  • Issue of Accountability: The privatisation of Indian Railways is not easy, as it covers every part of India and runs for 24×7 hours.
  • The whole railway system cannot be handled by a single party or coordination will be very difficult if area wise given to private parties.
  • Impact on the Economy: Indian Railways is the backbone of India, it provides low fare transportation to agricultural and industrial trade.
  • Therefore, privatisation of Indian railways shall definitely affect the Indian economy at large.
  • It is difficult to privatize a portion of the railways’ operations as it is strongly vertically integrated.
  • Vertical integration of railways means ownership and maintenance of the rail and associated infrastructure; all is vested under the Ministry of Railways.
  • The strong worker unions of Indian Railways need to be convinced. This could be a herculean task.
  • Any untoward incidents like accidents can cause greater government scrutiny and create regulations which may affect performance or efficiency.
  • Regulations must ensure level playing field for all players and relevant stakeholders.
  • Competition from other modes of transport can affect private railway revenues. This could give rise to crony capitalism.

Way forward:

  • Privatisation of railways operations will require a new institutional framework where infrastructure will remain as a government’s monopoly while there would be a market of service providers.
  • It is important to modernize the railways, so measures must be taken to reimburse the social costs speedily so that resources of the railways is better allocated and facilities are upgraded from time to time.
  • Core Railways functions can be Corporatized rather than privatized.
  • Corporatization refers to the restructuring or transformation of a state-owned asset or organization into a corporation. These organizations typically have a board of directors, management, and shareholders.
  • However, unlike publicly traded companies, the government is the company’s only shareholder, and the shares in the company are not publicly traded.
  • The peripheral function of railways (cleanliness, ticket disposal, traveller’s amenities), must be privatized.