[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 January 2020

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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 January 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. “Moved and dogged out of their original habitats, Bru community are now largely internally-displaced refugees”, Critically examine the internal displacement crisis of the community and comment on the efforts made by government of India so far to protect them. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The centre has signed a historic pact for permanent solution of Bru refugees’ issue. Thus the question aims to examine the internal displacement crisis of the community and the efforts made by the government so far.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the historical background of the displacement crisis, causes and the consequences of the issue. One has to detail upon the efforts taken by the government in this direction from past to present and in what way the recent agreement is a different one.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the historical background of the issue.

Body:

In detail explain who are they – The Brus, also referred to as the Reangs, and are spread across the northeastern states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur, and Mizoram.

In Tripura, they are recognized as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state.

Discuss what the issue is.

Trace the efforts made by the government from past to present, explain in what way the recent agreement is different from the approaches taken in the past.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note highlighting India’s approach for refugees.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. The Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)  of India has witnessed major breakthrough in the recent times, Elaborate on the progress made so far and discuss the way ahead.(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The government’s comprehensive Multi-Year Plan for 2018-22 details a comprehensive financial plan to fully immunize 26 million children and 30 million pregnant women with life-saving vaccines. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the progress made on the immunization front by the country and in what way it has taken a major leap forward.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what UIP is.

Body:

  • Comment on the aspects that prove – Universal Immunization Program has contributed a lot in preventing so many diseases and deaths related to them India.
  • Explain that it is one of the largest in the world in terms of the number of beneficiaries, quantities of vaccine used, the geographical spread, the number of Immunization session organized, and diversity of areas covered.
  • Discuss what the vaccines under it are.
  • Explain the impact of it – how it can collectively prevent at least one lakh deaths of adults in the working age group, one lakh infant deaths, and up to 10 lakh cases of hospitalization each year.
  • Till now, Immunization has immensely helped bring down the annual mortality of children under five, from 3.3 million a generation ago, to 1.3 million deaths in present which is 17,000 deaths each day.
  • Suggest way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the improvements in immunization coverage and the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine will significantly alleviate disease and financial burden in Indian households. Population and regions with low existing immunization coverage benefit the most from the universal immunization program.

 

 Topic:  Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Discuss the significance of Article 131 of the Indian constitution, Can States challenge the validity of central laws under it? Justify your stand with suitable examples.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in depth the features and scope provided by article 131 and whether States can challenge the validity of central laws in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the provisions of Article 131 and how far it has been used in the past and what benefits and disadvantages it has to offer to the States in challenging the Central laws.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Article 131 in short.

Body:

  • Article 131 confers exclusive jurisdiction on the Supreme Court in disputes involving States, or the Centre on the one hand and one or more States on the other. This means no other court can entertain such a dispute. It is well-known that both High Courts and the Supreme Court have the power to adjudicate cases against the State and Central governments.
  • Explain what happens when a State feels its legal rights have been violated by another State or by the Centre?
  • Discuss the recent case of the State of Kerala; take hints from the article and present your case.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such a provision in the constitution of the country.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Economics of animal-rearing.

4. Discuss the economics of poultry industry in India .(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to discuss the economics of Poultry in India.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the economics of poultry industry in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe key facts of present poultry industry in India.

Body:

Discuss the importance of poultry farming.

Explain in what way it can augment the income of farmer.

Comment on the aspects of allied agriculture and the importance of poultry

Discuss the challenges associated and how to overcome it.

Explain what the policies of the govt. in this direction are.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, And Railways etc.

5. Will natural gas play the game-changer in India’s energy future? Discuss. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

A study to facilitate the development of a national gas grid is to be undertaken soon by a U.S. entity for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB). Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the prospects of Natural gas and in what way it can be a game changer in India’s energy future.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly provide facts for Natural gas scenario in the country.

Body:

Globally, natural gas constitutes 24 per cent of the primary energy consumption. In India, Gujarat, which has relatively better access to natural gas, is having a share of 25 per cent in its energy basket. The government proposes to increase the share of natural gas in the whole of its energy consumption to 15 per cent by 2020.

Discuss the prospects in detail. Use a map to pictorially represent the resource availability in the country.

Explain the challenges posed by the industry.

Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, And Railways etc.

6. Briefly discuss the pros and cons of the idea of privatizing the Indian Railways (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The question seeks to examine the aspects of privatizing the Indian Railways services.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the opportunities and obstacles that the idea of privatizing Railways pose.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight the idea of Privatization in general and the perks in carries with it.

Body:

Start with – The Bibek Debroy Committee, which was set up to suggest ways to mobilize resources for the Indian Railways and restructure the Railway Board, has favored privatization of rolling stock: wagons and coaches.

Discuss the positives of such a move – Improved Infrastructure, Balancing Quality of Service with High Fares, better accountability etc.

Explain the challenges associated.

Discuss why India right now cannot afford privatization of Indian Railways.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

7. “The inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment is often seen as a confirmation of the hypothesis that inflation helps the economy function at its full potential”, comment in the light of stagflation that Indian economy is facing off late .(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article highlights the fact that the retail price inflation has increased to a nearly six-year high of 7.35% in December 2019, raising worries that the Indian economy may be headed towards stagflation.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the current conditions of Indian economy, explain the relationship between inflation, unemployment; discuss the concept of Stagflation; reasons causing it in the Indian economy. Suggest what needs to be done to overcome it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First discuss what stagflation is.

Body:

Discuss that stagflation is an economic scenario where an economy faces both high inflation and low growth (and high unemployment) at the same time.

Stagflation challenges the conventional view that inflation helps an economy operate at full capacity.

Move on to provide for a brief background of current situation of India.

Express the current concerns, policy dilemmas; The major reason attributed to the current slowdown in India is the lack of sufficient consumer demand. In such a scenario the general measures suggested to revive the Indian economy involves measures like greater spending by the government and the central bank. However, stagflation essentially prohibits the government and the central bank from taking such countercyclical policy steps.

Explain what needs to be done to handle the situation and bring it to control.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the need to get reforms to bring about genuine economic growth.