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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 January 2020

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 January 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. “The case of Dholivira from the Indus valley civilisation presents a perfect analogy as to how climate change can increase future drought risk”, Comment.(250 words)

Economic Times

Why this question:

The Harappan Civilization which is also known as Indus Valley civilization is believed to be the oldest civilization in the world. Over the years, many archaeologists tried to understand the cause of its decline and collapse in 2nd century BC. The question aims to ascertain the learning from the civilisation in the aspects of climate change.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the case of Dholivira and in what way we the future generations can learn about the effects of climate change.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight the significance of the civilisation in short.

Body:

A recent study conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur reveals that the decline of Harappan city Dholavira was caused by drying up of river like Saraswati river and Meghalayan drought.

Discuss in what way the drought could be related to climate change aspects of that time.

Draw an analogy of how the past experiences can prove to be lessons to our future generations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to mitigate and arrest climate change.

 

Topic:  Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Time and again conflicting liaison between the right to freedom of religion and the rights of individuals to dignity and equality has become an endless source of litigation off late. Critically comment and discuss the apex court’s viewpoints on it. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

A nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court will begin hearing arguments on questions concerning the relationship between the right to freedom of religion and the rights of individuals to dignity and equality.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the present case and explain why there is a continuous conflict between the right to freedom of religion and rights of individuals to dignity and equality, what the causes are and what needs to be done to address the issue.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the background of the issue.

Body:

Such questions are best answered with relevant and recent examples such as the madesnana ritual at the Kukke Subramanya Temple in Karnataka. Female genital mutilation (FGM) practised in India by the Dawoodi Bohras. Entry of Parsi women to the Sun Temples etc.

Discuss what role does the apex court has to play.

Analyse the constitutional provisions and the breach of the same that arises due to such conflicts.

Discuss what can be done and how can the issue be addressed.

Conclusion:

Conclude that one way to strike a balance between the two rights would be to check whether the effect of the disputed religious practice causes harm to individual rights or not. If it does not the religious practice can be allowed, if not it should be banned.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:   Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3.“The conflict between agreement and disagreement is the first and foremost sign of a healthy democracy”, Analyse the statement with recent examples demonstrating the above case.(250 words)

Live mint

Why this question:

The author presents a case as to how the youth have to establish harmony between their struggle and their aim.

Key demand of the question:

One needs to justify the fact that a concussion of agreement and disagreement is the first and foremost sign of a healthy democracy.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what constitutes a Democracy and explain briefly the importance of agreement and disagreement in a democracy.

Body:

  • Take hints from the article, and explain with suitable examples the cases wherein disagreement has been meted by sections of people in our society.
  • Explain the case of angrezi hatao movement of 1967 led by Ram Manohar Lohia.
  • Discuss then the pros and cons of youth participating in politics and relate it to the context of the question and explain its significance to Democracy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. As outrage continues over the deaths of Newborns in parts of states like Rajasthan and Gujarat, the fact remains that India has the most child deaths in the world. Explain what happened in these regions and why does India have such a high child death rate. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

Every day, India witnesses the death of an estimated 2,350 babies aged less than one year. Among them, an average 172 are from Rajasthan and 98 from Gujarat. As outrage continues over the deaths of babies in J K Lon Hospital in Kota, Rajasthan, and in the civil hospital in Rajkot, Gujarat, the fact remains that India has the most child deaths in the world. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the causative factors responsible for such a scenario. Explain what needs to be done to arrest the problem while suggesting way forward.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Quote facts that suggest the context of the question; India has an annual birth cohort of approximately 26 million. The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country currently stands at 33 per 1,000 live births

Body:

First briefly provide a detailed spatial aspect of the IMR in the country across the states.

Then discuss the reasons responsible; Among the factors that have been proved detrimental to child survival are lack of education in the mother, malnutrition (more than half of Indian women are anemic), age of the mother at the time of birth, spacing, and whether the child is born at home or in a facility.

The rates are lowest among children born to mothers between the ages of 20-24, remain low up to 25-34, and increase again after that age.

According to the Health Ministry, the vaccination cover in India after several rounds of Intensified Mission Indradhanush (MI) and the original MI, now stands at 87%. This means over 33 lakh children continue to miss out on some or all vaccinations every year.

Discuss measures that are in place for sick newborns, explain the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. Land reforms in India.

5. A comprehensive reform process in agriculture would start with a constitutional amendment that makes agriculture and water (use) a concurrent subject in the Constitution. Do you agree? Examine. (250 words)

Times of India

Why this question:

The question examines the importance of making agriculture and water use a concurrent subject from the current status of being in the State list.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the significance of agricultural reforms in the country and explain what steps need to be taken in this direction. Examine what changes and prospects do transferring the subject of agriculture from State to concurrent will have.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly highlight agri scenario in the country – Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian Economy. Indian agriculture sector accounts for 18 per cent of India’s gross domestic product (GDP) and provides employment of around 50% of the countries workforce.

Body:

Discuss that India is the world’s largest producer of pulses, rice, wheat, spices and spice products. India has many areas to choose for business such as dairy, meat, poultry, fisheries and food grains etc.

Explain that a comprehensive reform process in agriculture would start with a constitutional amendment that makes agriculture and water (use) a concurrent subject in the Constitution—there has been precedent for this in the 42nd Amendment of 1976.

The purpose of this amendment would be to provide a federal fillip to states, with a primary emphasis on water effectiveness.

This water effectiveness project will not only focus on bringing more areas under irrigation in a sustainable manner (not with capital but with a thoughtful district by district approach) but also focus on sprinkler and drip irrigation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. Land reforms in India.

6. Briefly discuss the prospects of Food processing industries in India. Elaborate on the challenges it is facing and suggest way forward to encash its true potential. (250 words)

Invest India

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and doesn’t require much deliberation.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the objectives, scope and significant prospects of Food processing Industry in the country.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first what Food Processing is.

Body:

Food Processing includes process under which any raw product of agriculture, dairy, animal husbandry, meat, poultry or fishing is transformed through a process (involving employees, power, machines or money) in such a way that its original physical properties undergo a change and the transformed product has commercial value and is suitable for human and animal consumption.

Present the status of FPI in India and then List down the significance.

Explain the possible potential that can be harnessed in tis sector.

Discuss the govt. initiatives in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Food processing has numerous advantages which are specific to Indian context. It has capacity to lift millions out of poverty and malnutrition. Government should develop industry in a way keeping in mind the interests of small scale industry along with attracting big ticket domestic and foreign investments.

 

Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

7. What do you understand by Juice jacking? How big is it a threat? Discuss means and ways to prevent the same.(250 words)

Times of India

Why this question:

Public USB power charging stations are now ubiquitous in the spaces business travelers frequent, including airports, hotels and other points of transit or accommodation. That’s why every business traveler and organization needs to understand that these resources could be hijacked by cybercriminals as a conduit for delivering malware or stealing sensitive data.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the underlying concept of juice jacking, explain in what way it poses threats on citizens and suggest means to overcome and prevent the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First define what is meant by Juice Jacking.

Body:

Juice jacking is a type of cyber-attack involving a charging port that doubles as a data connection, typically over USB. This often involves either installing malware or surreptitiously copying sensitive data from a smart phone, tablet, or other computer device.

Discuss in short then the history of Juice Jacking.

Discuss how to prevent juice jacking; Don’t use public charging stations that offer USB ports. Use your own AC charging adaptor and your own cables to plug into electrical outlets. Carry a high-quality, certified mobile battery so you don’t have to rely on power sources of opportunity.

Don’t use somebody else’s PC for charging your mobile device.

Use a USB data blocker dongle, which is a product that disables data transfer for USB cables etc.

Conclusion:

The bottom line is that juice jacking is either a rare or currently unpracticed attack that’s brimming with potential for cybercriminals and spies. Because the remedies are so easy and inexpensive and tend to offer other benefits as well, it makes sense to integrate anti-juice jacking measures into the organization’s overall cybersecurity plans.