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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 January 2020

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 January 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Deliberate upon the need and significance of preserving India’s linguistic diversity. Also comment upon the measures required for the same.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article provides for a detailed commentary of the case for including Tulu in the Eighth Schedule. Thus the context of the question.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of preserving India’s linguistic diversity and elaborate upon the steps required to be taken in this direction.

Directive:

Deliberate – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what linguistic diversity is. Discuss the constitutional provisions available in this aspect.

Body:

In detail comment upon the Need and importance of preserving linguistic diversity – Cultural Identity, Cultural Diversity, glimpse of our past etc.

Discuss the Government efforts in this direction in terms of statutes, provisions in the constitution, technological measures etc.

Explain the measures needed.

Conclusion:

In recent years the language diversity is under threat as speakers of diverse languages are becoming rare and major languages are adopted after abandoning the mother tongues. The problem needs to be addressed at societal level, in which the communities have to take part in conservation of language diversity that is part of cultural wealth.

Introduction:

India is one of unique countries in the world that has the legacy of diversity of languages. The Constitution of India has recognised 22 official languages. Multilingualism is the way of life in India as people in different parts of the country speak more than one language from their birth and learns additional languages during their life time.

Though officially there are 122 languages, Peoples Linguistic Survey of India has identified 780 languages, of which 50 are extinct in past five decades

Body:

Need and Significance to preserve India’s linguistic diversity:

  • Ecological diversity.
  • Cultural diversity through oral traditions, stories, songs, poetry, and rituals passed down from generation to generation.
  • Languages express identity
  • Languages are repositories of history
  • Language contribute to the sum of human knowledge
  • Languages are interesting in themselves
  • improved cognitive abilities in children when they are taught in their mother tongue in primary school

Provisions that safeguard the wealth of Indian languages:

  • In addition to these scheduled and classical languages, The Constitution of India has included the clause to protect minority languages as a fundamental right. It states” Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part of thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.”
  • The language policy of India provides guarantee to protect the linguistic minorities. Under the Constitution, provision is made for appointment of Special Officer for linguistic minority with the sole responsibilities of safeguarding the interest of language spoken by the minority groups.
  • In the post-independence era, Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), based in Mysore was assigned to carry out an in-depth survey of languages.
  • In 1991 the Census of India listed 1576 mother tongues’ with separate grammatical structures and 1796 speech varieties that is classified as other mother tongues’.
  • Another unique feature of India is the concept of protecting the interest of children to get basic education in their mother tongue. The Constitution provides” it shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the state to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups”. Thus, even before the United Nations declared the International Mother Language Day (February 21) the founders of the Indian Constitution gave top priority to teaching in mother tongues’, enabling the child to develop its full potential.
  • In 1956 reorganisation of states in India was carried out with linguistic boundaries that had its own script. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the then home minister played key role in formation and amalgamation of states based on linguistic attributes.
  • The language policy of India has been pluralistic, giving priority to the use of mother tongue in administration, education and other fields of mass communication. The Language Bureau of Ministry of Human Resource Development is set up to implement and monitor the language policy.
  • According to UNESCO, Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) can help to foster the growth of local languages online by allowing Internet users to use non-Latin scripts to access domain names.
  • The internet can be used to raise awareness about the issues of language extinction and language preservation.

Conclusion:

Linguistic diversity has been a critical aspect of the multiculturalism that has been the defining characteristic of India through the ages. Diversity is undoubtedly strength of our democracy. The cultural bonds need to be strengthened through enhanced and continuous mutual interaction between people of varied regions. This encourages reciprocity and secures an enriched value system of unity amongst people of different States.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present.

2. Discuss the contributions of Ashfaqullah Khan in the Indian freedom struggle with special focus on his contributions to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the contributions of Ashfaqullah Khan as Recently, Uttar Pradesh government has announced that it will build a 121-acre zoo named after Ashfaqullah Khan.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the contributions of Ashfaqullah Khan in the Indian freedom struggle.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with dew key facts related to Ashfaqullah Khan.

Body:

Comment on the aspects such as –

  • Ashfaqulla Khan (1900 – 1927) was a freedom fighter in the Indian independence movement.He was born in Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
  • In 1920,Mahatma Gandhi had launched his Non-cooperation movement against the British rule in India.
  • But after the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922,Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the call for this movement.
  • At that point, many young people including Ashfaqulla Khan became revolutionaries and turned to organisations like Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
  • Discuss his contributions to Kakori case.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such a heroic personality.

Introduction:

Khan was born on October 22, 1900, in Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh. He grew up at a time when Mahatma Gandhi had launched the non-cooperation movement and urged Indians not to pay taxes to the government or co-operate with the British. He was a freedom fighter who, along with Ram Prasad Bismil, was sentenced to death for the Kakori train robbery, commonly referred to as the Kakori conspiracy of 1925.

Body:

Ashfaqullah Khan and the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association:

  • In the mid-1920s, Khan and Bismil went on to found the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), with the aim of winning freedom for the country through an armed revolution.
  • HSRA published its manifesto titled “The Revolutionary” in 1925.
  • According to the manifesto, the immediate object of the revolutionary party in the domain of politics is to establish a federal Republic of United State of India by an organized and armed revolution.
  • The final constitution of this Republic shall be framed and declared at a time when the representatives of India shall have the power to carry out their decision.
  • The basic principles of this Republic will be universal suffrage and abolition of all system which make the exploitation of man by man possible.
  • For example, the railways and other means of transportation and communication, the mines and other kinds of very great industries such as the manufacture of steel and ships all these shall be nationalised.
  • According to the manifesto, The Indian revolutionaries are neither terrorists nor anarchists.
  • They never aim at spreading anarchy in the land and therefore they can never properly be called anarchists.
  • Terrorism is never their object and they cannot be called terrorists.
  • They do not believe that terrorism alone can bring independence and they do not want terrorism for terrorism’s sake although they may at times resort to this method as a very effective means of retaliation

Contributions of Ashfaqullah Khan in the Indian freedom struggle:

  • In August 1925, an armed robbery took place on board the Kakori Express which was going from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow.
  • It was carrying money that had been collected at various railway stations and was to be deposited in Lucknow.
  • In this planned robbery, carried out to fund the activities of the HSRA, Bismil, Khan and over 10 other revolutionaries stopped the train and fled with the cash they found in it.
  • Within a month of the robbery, many members of the HSRA were arrested.
  • While some people were arrested and then detained, Swaran Singh, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh were awarded death sentences.

Conclusion:

Ashfaq was a devout Muslim and together with ‘Bismil’ had the common objective of a free and united India. Their common objective united them even more than before. They both sacrificed their lives for India on December 17, 1927 but in different jails.

 

Topic:   Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3.  What do you understand by war crimes?  What steps can a country take in case its cultural property is threatened? Discuss in detail the safeguards available to a country under various conventions.(250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

Following the assassination of Maj. Gen. Qassem Soleimani, President Donald Trump tweeted on Saturday that if “Iran strikes any Americans, or American assets” in retaliation, the US would target 52 sites in Iran, “some at a very high level & important to Iran & the Iranian culture”. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the theory of war crimes; explain the importance of Cultural heritage and its preservation highlight the various conventions that are in force to ensure cultural heritage of each and every country is preserved.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what war crimes are.

Body:

Discuss the aspects such as Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations dating back to 10,000 BC. Its rich heritage and culture is an amalgam of Arab, Persian, Turkish and South Asian cultures.

Twenty-four Iranian sites are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, two of which are natural sites and the rest cultural sites.

Discuss then What the problem with targeting cultural heritage is.

Take hints from the article and highlight in what way they can be preserved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

According to the United Nations, a war crime is a serious breach of international law committed against civilians or “enemy combatants” during an international or domestic armed conflict. A war crime occurs when superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering is inflicted upon an enemy. In contrast with genocide and crimes against humanity, war crimes have to occur in the context of armed conflict.

The US President tweeted on that if “Iran strikes any Americans, or American assets” in retaliation, the US would target 52 sites in Iran, “some at a very high level & important to Iran & the Iranian culture”.

Body:

Previous incidents of threats to cultural heritage:

  • During the Siege of Dubrovnik in 1991-92 by the Yugoslav People’s Army, the old town of Dubrovnik in Croatia was targeted in an attempt to wipe out Croatian history and cultural heritage. Subsequently, during the Croat-Bosniak war, Croat paramilitary forces destroyed the 16th century Stari Most bridge in Mostar in today’s Bosnia-Herzegovina, in 1993.
  • In 2001, the Taliban destroyed statutes of the Buddha that had been carved into sandstone cliffs in Bamiyan, Afghanistan, between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD.
  • In 2006, the UN and the Cambodian government established the Khmer Rouge Tribunal to prosecute the destruction of Cambodia’s cultural assets that included mosques, churches and temples along with other sites of cultural significance.
  • Between 2014 and 2017, the Islamic State destroyed several places of religious and cultural significance. In 2015, the IS captured and destroyed the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Steps can a country take in case its cultural property is threatened:

  • Following the unparalleled destruction of cultural heritage in World War II, the nations of the world adopted at The Hague in 1954, The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, the first international treaty focussed exclusively on the protection of cultural heritage during war and armed conflict.
  • There are currently 133 signatories to Convention, including countries that have acceded to and ratified the treaty.
  • Both the United States and Iran (as well as India) signed the Convention on May 14, 1954, and it entered into force on August 7, 1956.

Safeguards available:

  • The Geneva Convention Protocol I, signed in 1949 and amended in 1977, renders unlawful “any acts of hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples.”
  • The Rome Statute of 1998, the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court, describes as a “war crime” any intentional attack against a historical monument, or a building dedicated to religion, education, art, or science.
  • Article 8 of the Rome Statute deals with war crimes.
  • Article 8(2)(b)(ii) says war crimes include “intentionally directing attacks against civilian objects, that is, objects which are not military objectives”, and 8(2)(b)(ix) mentions “intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives”.
  • 122 countries are States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The United States is a signatory that has not ratified the Statute. India has neither signed nor ratified the Statute.

Conclusion:

Trump’s threatened actions would be morally reprehensible even outside the law, because they would destroy centuries-old places of profound importance not just to Iranians, but to all of human civilization.

A nation that willfully destroys another country’s heritage would be no better than the criminals who have destroyed irreplaceable sites in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere in recent years. Protecting civilian lives is paramount, but saving cultural sites is consistent with that mission, too. Destroying mosques, museums and libraries will certainly result in civilian casualties.

 

Topic:  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

4. The concept of federalism has unrelentingly changed its contours in Indian Polity. Discuss, and examine the significant gaps in the Indian Federalism.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) and the National Register of Citizens (NRC) has revealed some of the most significant gaps of Indian federalism. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the idea of Federalism enshrined in the Indian constitution and explain how the concept has been changing over time and bring out the possible threats it faces as of today.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe what federalism means; A federal government is one in which powers are divided between the national government and the regional governments by the Constitution itself.

Body:

Explain The specific features of the federal system – dual government, written constitution, division of powers between two levels of government, supremacy of constitution, independent judiciary.

Trace first the changing nature of federalism and highlight the current trends in centre- state relations.

Discuss the recent challenges faced in this direction.

Bring out the gaps that have been witnessed and suggest what needs to be done to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the Centre and state should work in tandem in the spirit of cooperative federalism by working within their allotted sphere determined constitutionally.

Introduction:

Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. The Constitution of India establishes a federal structure to the Indian government, declaring it to be a “Union of States”. Indian model of federalism is called quasi-federal system as it contains major features of both a federation and union.

Body:

Significant gaps in Indian federalism:

  • The recent political developments around the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) and the National Register of Citizens (NRC) have revealed some of the most significant crevices of Indian federalism.
  • The question — whether State governments are empowered to use public funds to campaign against a law made by Parliament — is open for final determination.
  • The impact of a single-party dominance on the functioning of our constitutional structure, however, receives little attention.
  • For instance, Parliament, the avowed “temple of democracy”, has been reduced to a site for procedural formalities. At least the Lok Sabha appears to be an extension of the executive, rather than a mechanism for its accountability.
  • Article 256 of the Constitution obligates the State government to ensure implementation of the laws made by Parliament. If the State government fails to do so, the Government of India is empowered to give “such directions to a State as may appear… to be necessary”.
  • The refusal to enforce the law even after the Centre issues directions would empower the President to impose President’s Rule in those States under Articles 356 and 365.
  • The Supreme Court of India has also confirmed this reading of the law in R. Bommai v. Union of India — arguably the most significant case on Indian federalism.
  • The brute dominance of the ruling persuasion has dwarfed any semblance of Opposition politics at the Centre. This is manifested through the absence of the Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha for six years in a row.

Other issues in federalism:

  • For a country like India which is divided on the linguistic and communal basis, a pure federal structure could lead to disruption and division of states.
  • India’s federal character has undergone, over the past sixty years, many trials and tribulations.
  • Formation of Telangana under Article 3 of the constitution raised a lot of questions against the federal nature of the polity.
  • 100th amendment of the constitution where land was transferred to Bangladesh posed as a threat to federalism in India.
  • On the introduction of GST, critics argue on the autonomy of states.
  • With too much power given to a state, it may want to shift away from the union. Jammu & Kashmir’s special powers are in question in the public time and again.
  • The continued existence of provisions such as Article 356 (President’s rule) goes against the grain of federalism.
  • States such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu have asserted their linguistic and cultural rights in the wake of the Centre’s interventions such as a promotion of Hindi.
  • States perceive that their progress is being penalised: While the southern States contribute to the nation economically, they don’t occupy a central space politically and are further marginalised culturally.
  • Disputes between states over sharing of river water, for example between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over Cauvery water.

Way forward:

  • We need to strike a balance between both unitary and federal features of the country.
  • States should be autonomous in their own sphere but they can’t be wholly independent to avoid a state of tyranny in the nation.
  • Long-term solution is to foster genuine fiscal federalism where states largely raise their own revenue.
  • Creating a fiscal structure where the states have greater revenue-raising authority, as well as greater decision making power on spending.
  • India needs to move away from centralization-decentralization thinking, and embrace genuine fiscal federalism by permanently creating a fiscal power centre in the states.

Conclusion:

The Indian Constitution is a constitution sui generis. On one hand, the constitution contains features which are of high importance for a federal arrangement, at the same time it contains provisions which fight for a strong Centre, thus making it quasi-federal in nature. The fact to be appreciated here is that these dual federalism provisions were deliberately incorporated to best fit a polyglot country like India.

 

Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5. What do you understand by Integrated Farming System? How far is the Integrated Farming System helpful in sustaining agricultural production? Elucidate in the Indian context. (250 words)

Agritech

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of Integrated Farming System and its relevance to India agriculture system.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of IFS, discuss its relevance and significance to the Indian Setup.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what Integrated Farming System is.

Body:

Discuss Role of Integrated Farming System and in what way it is helpful in sustaining agricultural production.

The Integrated Farming System (IFS) is a combined approach aimed at efficient sustainable resource management for increased productivity in the cropping system. The IFS approach has multiple objectives of sustainability, food security, farmer’s security and poverty reduction by involving livestock, vermicomposting, organic farming etc.

Discuss the possible challenges involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward such as Integrating subsistence agriculture, Encouraging livestock enterprises, Building farmer capacities etc.

Introduction:

Integrated farming system (IFS) refers to agricultural system that integrates livestock and crop production to deliver more sustainable agriculture. IFS utilizes the crop- livestock interaction as shown below in the cyclic diagram, according to Economic Survey 2018-19.

Body:

10_Jan_Chart

IFS and sustaining agricultural production:

  • Higher food production to equate the demand of the exploding population of our nation
  • Increased farm income through proper residue recycling and allied components
  • Sustainable soil fertility and productivity through organic waste recycling
  • Integration of allied activities will result in the availability of nutritious food enriched with protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and vitamins
  • Integrated farming will help in environmental protection through effective recycling of waste from animal activities like piggery, poultry and pigeon rearing
  • Reduced production cost of components through input recycling from the byproducts of allied enterprises
  • IFS components are known to control the weed and regarded as an important element of integrated pest management and thus minimise the use of weed killers as well as pesticides and thereby protect the environment.
  • Regular stable income through the products like egg, milk, mushroom, vegetables, honey and silkworm cocoons from the linked activities in integrated farming
  • Inclusion of biogas & agro forestry in integrated farming system will solve the prognosticated energy crisis
  • Cultivation of fodder crops as intercropping and as border cropping will result in the availability of adequate nutritious fodder for animal components like milch cow, goat / sheep, pig and rabbit
  • Firewood and construction wood requirements could be met from the agroforestry system without affecting the natural forest
  • Avoidance of soil loss through erosion by agro-forestry and proper cultivation of each part of land by integrated farming
  • Generation of regular employment for the farm family members of small and marginal farmers.
  • IFS promote the efficient management of resources. This enhances the productivity of the farming.
  • The IFS promotes for rejuvenation of systems productivity and to achieve agroecological equilibrium.

IFS in Indian perspective:

  • Some IFS features like Organic farming, and developing a judicious mix of income-generating activities such as dairy, poultry, fishery, goat-rearing, vermicomposting and others, and community-led local systems for water conservation etc help in reducing farmers’ distress.
  • Integrated Farming Systems suitable particularly for hilly regions of the North Eastern Region can be adopted.
  • Some are as – Integrated Fish cum Pig farming, Integrated Fish cum Duck Farming, Integrated Fish Farming-Chicken, Integrated Fish farming-cum-Cattle farming, Integrated Fish farming-cum-Rabbit farming, Integrated Fish farming-cum-Agriculture.
  • Sikkim being an organic state is a good example.

Case studies:

  • Integrated Fish Cum Pig farming in North east- Pig sites are constructed on pond embankment. Pig manure (feaces and urine) are directly drained into the pond which acts as pond fertilizer and increases the biological productivity of [pond water, thus increasing the fish production. Also, fish feed directly on pig excreta, which cuts down the cost of feed as well. This system has helped to improve the status of weaker rural communities, especially tribals in North eastern states.
  • Integrated fish farming cum Horticulture – Embankments of fish ponds provide area for planting fruits and vegetable. When Banana and Coconut is cultivated in rows in wetlands, the ditches made between such rows act as supply canal. These canals serve as fish culture system due to regular supply of water rand rich insect populations. In turn it naturally boosts the productivity of soil and yield of fruits and vegetables.

Conclusion:

Keeping in mind the benefits of crop- livestock interaction, Economic Survey (2018-19) has suggested to improve Resource Efficiency for Small holder agriculture (as 85 % of agriculture is dominated by small and marginal farmers), where organic farming (ZBNF, Cow Farming, Vedic Farming, Homa farming) and increasing water productivity should be given a thrust. Economic survey (2018-19) has also suggested to capitalise Small ruminants (Sheep and Goats), especially in water stressed regions for additional source income for farmers.

 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6. Briefly discuss the objectives of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).Discuss in detail the functions performed by it and analyse its contributions to the Indian agriculture.(250 words)

Apeda

Why this question:

The question is based on the roles and responsibilities delivered by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the objectives, functions, roles played by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act, 1985. It functions under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The Authority has its headquarters in New Delhi.

Body:

Discuss the key functions performed by APEDA.

APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the scheduled products viz. fruits, vegetables and their products; meat and meat products; poultry and poultry products; dairy products; confectionery, biscuits and bakery products etc.

Explain the composition of APEDA, how it works.

Discuss the work done so far by the authority.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act passed by the Parliament in December, 1985. It is established under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the following scheduled products.

Body:

Exports of India:

  • India witnessed a jump of nearly 50 per cent in organic product exports touching the Rs 5151 crore-mark ($757 million) in 2018-19.
  • India exported organic products worth Rs 5151 Crore (over US $ 757 million) in 2018-19, from Rs 3453 Crore in 2017-18 (US$ 515 million) registering an increase of about 49 %.
  • According to estimates by APEDA, flax seeds, sesame, soybean, tea, medicinal plants, rice and pulses such as arhar and chana are the key organic food products that drove this growth.
  • The total volume of export during 2018-19 was 6.14 lakh tonnes

Objectives of APEDA:

  • The objective of APEDA is to promote schedule products export and to achieve this various functions has been undertaken by this body under the regulation of central government.
  • Central government lays down the rules and regulation and implements through this body for the efficient administration of APEDA Act.

Functions of APEDA:

  • Development of industries relating to the scheduled products for export by way of providing financial assistance or otherwise for undertaking surveys and feasibility studies, participation in enquiry capital through joint ventures and other reliefs and subsidy schemes;
  • Registration of persons as exporters of the scheduled products on payment of such fees as may be prescribed;
  • Fixing of standards and specifications for the scheduled products for the purpose of exports;
  • Carrying out inspection of meat and meat products in slaughter houses, processing plants, storage premises, conveyances or other places where such products are kept or handled for the purpose of ensuring the quality of such products;
  • Improving of packaging of the Scheduled products;
  • Improving of marketing of the Scheduled products outside India;
  • Promotion of export oriented production and development of the Scheduled products;
  • Collection of statistics from the owners of factories or establishments engaged in the production, processing, packaging, marketing or export of the scheduled products or from such other persons as may be prescribed on any matter relating to the scheduled products and publication of the statistics so collected or of any portions thereof or extracts therefrom;
  • Training in various aspects of the industries connected with the scheduled products;
  • Such other matters as may be prescribed.

Conclusion:

APEDA has been promoting the export of various agricultural commodities and provides a platform to showcase India’s quality produce to the global market. Ministry of Food Processing Industries and other agencies are working in close coordination; they are also focusing on exports. In addition, involving states since they also have an important role in encouraging exports of agriculture products from the region.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

7. In what way small entrepreneurs can prove to be a key to India’s urban future, job creation, and growth revival of the economy? Analyse.(250 words)

Financial Express

Why this question:

The article highlights the growth dynamics of the formal and informal sectors and in that it explains the vital role that small entrepreneurs can play in reviving the growth story of the Indian economy.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the possible contributions that small entrepreneurs can make to the economy.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First discuss who small entrepreneurs are.

Body:

Discuss first the existing Trends in urbanization and formalization of the Indian economy.

Comment on the importance of recognising the role of informal sector as an important driver of growth and job creation.

Quote relevant example if any.

Discuss what aspects foster the coming of small entrepreneurs and in what way they can largely contribute to the economy.

Explain challenges if any involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude that our mindset lets large enterprises have a disproportionate influence in policy making, with no place for the informal sector at the table. But India’s urban future, job creation, and growth revival may be with the small entrepreneurs.

Introduction:

India’s informal manufacturing sector is large, no matter which definition we use, enterprise or employment. A vast majority of India’s workforce is informally employed – those who work outside of formal establishments, in un-incorporated private enterprises and mostly without any social security benefit.

Body:

Potential of India’s MSME sector:

  • Contribution to GDP: The share of MSMEs in the country’s gross value added is estimated to be about 32%.
  • Leveraging Exports: It also contributes about 40% to total exports and 45% to manufacturing output.
  • Employment Opportunities: It employs 60 million people, creates 1.3 million jobs every year and produces more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets.
  • Diversity: There are approximately 30 million MSME Units in India and is quite diverse in terms of its size, level of technology employed, range of products and services provided and target markets.
  • Fostering Inclusive Growth: MSME is constructing inclusive growth in numerous ways through promoting non- agricultural livelihood at least cost, unbiased regional development, large female participation, and providing a protection against deflation.

The challenges and concerns associated with the growth of Informal sector:

  • Access to Credit:
    • According to Economic Survey (2017-18), MSME sector faces a major problem in terms of getting adequate credit for expansion of business activities.
    • The Survey had pointed out that the MSME received only 17.4 per cent of the total credit outstanding.
    • Most banks are reluctant to lend to MSMEs because from the perspective of bankers, inexperience of these enterprises, poor financials, lack of collaterals and infrastructure.
  • Poor Infrastructure:
    • With poor infrastructure, MSMEs’ production capacity is very low while production cost is very high.
  • Access to modern Technology:
    • The lack of technological know-how and financial constraints limits the access to modern technology and consequently the technological adoption remains low.
  • Access to markets:
    • MSMEs have poor access to markets. Their advertisement and sales promotion are comparatively weaker than that of the multinational companies and other big companies.
    • The ineffective advertisement and poor marketing channels makes it difficult for them to compete with large companies.
  • Legal hurdles:
    • Getting statutory clearances related to power, environment, labour are major hurdles.
    • Laws related to the all aspects of manufacturing and service concern are very complex and compliance with these laws are difficult.
  • Government policies:
    • While the goal of Goods and Service Tax reform is commendable, its hasty implementation has adversely impacted small entrepreneurs in the informal sector. It has broken the link between formal and informal sectors.
    • Large enterprises that outsource a lot of tasks to small enterprises are now less inclined to outsource it to the informal sector that barely come under the GST net.
    • There is rising concern that demonetisation has also adversely impacted the informal sector more than the formal sector. Hundreds of millions of small enterprises that operate in the informal sector, and which are cash dependent, have suffered losses and lost their jobs.
    • Insolvency and bankruptcy reforms are important and needed for more efficient resource allocation. But it is not of a great consequence to the informal sector. There is mounting evidence that economic shocks that worsen infrastructure affect informal sectors by reducing their access to markets and basic services.
  • Lack of skilled manpower:
    • The training and development programs in respect of MSME`S development has been. Thus, there has been a constant crunch of skilled manpower in MSMEs

Other issues:

  • Low ICT usage.
  • Low market penetration.
  • Quality assurance/certification.
  • IPR related issues.
  • Quality assurance/certification.
  • Standardization of products and proper marketing channels to penetrate new markets.

Measures needed:

  • Government of India and banks should design plans and measures to widen easy, hassle-free access to credit.
  • The RBI should bring stringent norms for Non-Performing Assets (NPA) and it will help curbing loan defaulters and motivate potential good debts. Further, according to critics, the Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSME (CGTMSE) run by SIDBI is a growing contingent liability and needs to be examined with urgency
  • Government should provide enhanced development and upgradation of existing rail & road network and other infrastructure facilities in less developed and rural areas to boost growth and development of MSMEs
  • There should proper research and development in respect of innovative method of production and service rendering. Further, the government should promote and subsidise the technical know-how to Micro and small enterprises.
  • Government should encourage procurement programme, credit and performance ratings and extensive marketing support to revive the growth of sick units.
  • Skill development and imparting training to MSME workers is a crucial step to increase the productivity of the sector. The government should emphasise predominantly on skill development and training programs

Way forward:

  • India’s favorable structural trends and young demographics will revive growth, with urbanisation and informal sector playing a key role in job creation.
  • The finance minister could explicitly recognise the role of informal sector as an important driver of growth and job creation in the next Budget.
  • While the agenda on smart cities has caught the attention of policy makers, it needs to be made more inclusionary by integrating the informal sector into city planning, budgeting and financing. Technological revolution has made the informal sector as partners in development.
  • Smartphones have become the key tool for women entrepreneurs, putting instant information about safety alerts, traffic, tourism, health services, and community news into millions of hands. India’s urban future is in the informal sector.