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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 January 2020

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 January 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1.  How relevant is mythology for children now a days? What values do stories aim to inculcate in children? Explain. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

The article highlights the significance of storytelling and Mythology to Children and the benefits they carry in imparting values to children.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the significance of storytelling and Mythology to Children in detail.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that stories help connect Children to reality.

Body:

Discuss in detail the benefits of Mythology and storytelling.

Explain how it justifies the fact that children can’t be given direct sermon.

Explain how they help build values in children.

Use examples to justify.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

Introduction:

India has a rich history and tradition of oral song and storytelling. This took many forms: Simple stories (like Panchatantra), Folktales (like Jataka Tales), Songs, Mythological tales and Epics (like Mahabharat and Ramayan), Bhajans, Slokas, Satsangs, Janapada songs, Couplets etc. The spoken word has been, and still is, the most frequently used and most important mode of communication; even in these days of texting and emails.

Body:

Significance of mythology and story-telling for children:

  • It teaches them about our culture:
    • Mythology is an important part of any culture. It plays a large role in the rituals followed in society, and in the way your community thinks and functions.
    • In a world where our morals and values are challenged every day, a good grounding and understanding of what made us who we are can help our children stay strong.
  • It teaches them about good and evil:
    • The true essence of the stories is not just fictional characters with many heads and hands winning, but really about one conquering their own inner demons.
    • All the villains in our mythology are representations of undesirable traits we sometimes develop.
    • For example, Hiranyakashipu represents ego and Bhasmasur represents lust, and so on.If children read such subjects from a young age, they will not only learn about good and bad traits, but also how one can conquer them.
  • It unlocks their imagination:
    • A simple Google search will reveal many reasons why it’s important for a child to develop a healthy imagination.
    • It is important in all areas, whether for artistic pursuits or academic ones like problem-solving.
    • Look at Indian mythology and you will find it is replete with stories that require a young mind to stretch and imagine seemingly inconceivable situations and characters.
  • It encourages curiosity:
    • Some may say curiosity killed the cat, but when it comes to children, curiosity awakens the intellect.
    • Many good educators believe curiosity is a significant and common trait in all students who excel in any form of academics or sport. the reason is simple – curiosity leads to exploration which leads to development and ultimately mastery.
    • Created great occasions where people could socialise and fostered a strong feeling of community
  • It teaches them to respect women:
    • Our mythology is nothing if not an ode to feminism.
    • Read any of our stories and you will find powerful women who take their own decisions and aren’t dependent on men.
    • Whether young boys or girls, it is important to expose them to powerful women figures and teach them that women should not be disrespected simply because of their sex.
    • While school and colleges provide the necessary formal education, we can help our children develop their personality and values by reading mythology.
  • Other importance:
    • Positively impacts language development including Vocabulary, Grammar and Pronunciation
    • Helps enhance memory and instil the importance of values like discipline and regular practice
    • Helps develop an appreciation and understanding of art forms like Music, Literature, Poetry, Dance and Drama
    • Fosters a stronger sense of cultural Identity and an understanding of our rich heritage

Conclusion:

The storytelling plays an important role in early childhood and formative years. Such a rich tradition has lasting and wide-ranging benefits on early childhood development. It has many benefits for children in their formative years as it inculcates values and also improves child’s verbal proficiency. But unfortunately, this art of oral storytelling is slowly getting lost due to various forces of modernity. There is a need for utilization of the ICT to further spread the art of story-telling.

 

Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. The idea of India is being consistently challenged by narrow ideologies in recent times in our society. Analyse the causative factors for this phenomenon as well discuss the impact of such a situation and suggest measures to tackle the same.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article captures in what way the substantive versions of these ideas have been evoked in the popular upsurge across the country today.

Key demand of the question:

Bring out the trajectory of the democracy in the country. Explain how the idea of democracy has evolved over a period.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first what you understand by the Idea of India.

Body:

Discuss the recent happenings that have been challenging the idea of India.

Explain the reasons that have led to such phenomenon. Use hints from the article and list down the factors responsible.

Explain how we go about retrieving ideas of democracy and nation authentic to our context.

Conclusion:

Conclude that while this popular upsurge does not give us a full-blown ideal of democracy that we wish to be and the image of the nation it recasts, the indicators are all there to see. There is a surplus in the ideas of nation and democracy that formal rules of law and modes of representation can never exhaust, and one cannot trump the former by invoking the latter.

Introduction:

India is the largest democratic country in the world. Democracy is defined as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. The idea of India as a nation implied the assumption that it would invariably be a democracy — i.e., India realising itself or constituting itself as a nation will necessarily do so as a democracy.

Body:

The causative factors for India being challenged constantly by narrow ideologies:

  • The Gandhians laid stress on Swaraj but this idea, while not being not opposed to democracy, did not directly connote self-rule of the citizen-community.
  • The socialists and communists who were interested in the idea of democracy, and uncoupling it from the idea of nation, tended to lay stress on the economic prerequisites and redistribution of power to realise the former.
  • There were some thinkers such as V.D. Savarkar who argued that the idea of nation took shape in India in the epochal past, but they dwelt little on democracy.
  • Some Islamic scholars such as Maulana Maududi introduced concepts such as “theo-democracy”, i.e., the mode of self-rule where believers ordain their common affairs
  • There were those who thought through the lens of caste, examples being E.V. Ramaswami Naicker, K.M. Panikkar and B.R. Ambedkar and also Adivasi leaders such as Jaipal Singh, who argued that the idea of nation has to be profoundly rethought in India
  • There are certain measures that the current government has embraced in the name of constitutional rectitude have reopened new fissures within the Indian body polity.
  • One of the most ominous expressions of the Bharatiya Janata Party’s version of the nation is found in the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, or the CAA, 2019 and the National Register of Citizens, allegedly on the anvil but officially denied in the face of widespread resistance.

Way forward:

  • Universal literacy i.e. education for all, poverty alleviation, elimination of gender discrimination, removal of regional imbalances, administrative and judicial reforms and sustained economic, social and environmental development.
  • People must exercise their right to vote, participate in democracy and contribute towards the development of the country.
  • Democracy cannot survive without both citizens’ participation and politicians’ accountability.
  • The promises of democracy can only be realised through collective action in civil society.
  • The state must respect the articulation of the politics of voice and not just the politics of the vote

Conclusion:

India urgently needs to wrest and reclaim the democratic principles, anchoring it in a new vocabulary that redeems its credibility. Our collective ability to do so will determine whether India will reclaim itself or stay firm on its current path toward a re-imagination of its foundations.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

3.  The raging bushfires of Australia give India and Australia a chance to deepen their dialogue, including on energy. How far can the two countries seek amidst a tragedy, an opportunity? Discuss. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

Today, with wildfires burning more than 12 million hectares of land, destroying native flora, killing thousands of wild animals, including endangered species, and displacing residents and tourists, Australia is confronted with a dystopian vision, where “apocalypse becomes the new normal”.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in what way the Bush fires present New Delhi and Canberra a rare opportunity to translate their rapidly converging interests and coalescing of values into a formidable partnership for the 21st century.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly state the situation of Bush fires in Australia, explain the severity.

Body:

Briefly discuss what bush fires are and what leads to them.

Discuss that with this incident debate on global warming, climate change and fossil fuels are going to intensify.

Explain the significance of the disaster to Australia-India relationship.

Discuss the scope for partnership.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and assert the significance of partnership between the two countries on this front.

Introduction:

Australia is fighting one of its worst bushfire seasons, fuelled by record-breaking temperatures and months of severe drought. Australia has declared a state of emergency for the state of New South Wales (NSW) along with a catastrophic fire warning.

Body:

Australia

Current scenario of Bushfire in Australia:

  • Wildfires have affected more than 12 million hectares of land in Australia and the tragedy of the bushfires is still unfolding.
  • The wildfires have caused large scale loss to life and property leading to the displacement of many residents.
  • The wildfires have destroyed the native flora and fauna, killing thousands of wild animals. Australia is home to many endangered and rare species.
  • New South Wales has been the most severely hit, with more than 1.65m hectares razed, an area significantly larger than suburban Sydney.
  • Tourism which constitutes a major source of revenue for Australia has been affected by the raging bushfires.

Climate change and Australian bushfires:

  • This year a natural weather phenomenon known as the Indian Ocean Dipole has meant a hot, dry spell across the country.
  • But the overwhelming scientific consensus is that rising levels of CO2 are warming the planet. And Australia has been getting hotter over recent decades and is expected to continue doing so.
  • This year, Australia twice set a new temperature record: an average maximum of 41.9C was recorded on 18 December. That comes on top of a long period of drought.
  • Scientists have long warned that this hotter, drier climate will contribute to fires becoming more frequent and more intense.
  • The more extreme weather patterns and higher temperatures increase the risk of bushfires and allow them to spread faster and wider.

India and Australia have many converging interests. There is an opportunity to translate these converging interests and coalescing of values into a formidable partnership. There is the scope for partnership in diverse areas, including the most relevant challenge of climate change facing the planet. Post the tragedy of the bushfires, the debate on global warming, climate change and fossil fuels and the need for climate action is only going to intensify.

Areas of cooperation:

Energy sector:

Given the complementarity of India and Australia’s needs, it is critical for India and Australia to ensure that their dialogue on energy acquires momentum. The envisaged cooperation could take place in the following realms:

  • Joint scientific task force to investigate the latest evidence linking climate change and extreme climatic events. The role of fossil fuels in fuelling climate change needs further understanding.
  • To study the promise and potential of “clean” coal technology.
  • Both countries must simultaneously strengthen the International Solar Alliance.
  • R&D on alternative green fuels.

The other potential areas include:

  • Water management technologies, given the problem of water stress being faced by both countries
  • Skills and higher education
  • Maritime technology and maritime security
  • Cybersecurity
  • Counterterrorism

Economic cooperation:

  • Indians are today the largest source of skilled migrants to Australia and the economic relationship between the two is already robust.
  • There is still scope for enhanced economic cooperation between the two countries and efforts in this direction are afoot.
  • The Government of India will be officially releasing the Australia Economic Strategy (AES). This will complement Australia’s India Economic Strategy 2035.
  • Post India’s decision to exit from the RCEP trade deal, India aims to strengthen economic ties with Australia.

Shared Values:

  • India and Australia have large English-speaking populations. Language is not a major barrier for the two nations.
  • India and Australia are both multicultural, federal democracies that believe in and respect the rule of law.

Way forward:

  • There is the need to elevate the ‘two plus two’ format talks between India and Australia, from the secretary level to the level of foreign and defence ministers.
  • That would signal that New Delhi recognises Canberra as important a partner as Washington and Tokyo.
  • This will help take the bilateral relations to the next stage.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. The rising tensions between US and China affords an opportunity for India to secure some of its crucial interests. Do you agree? Analyse and comment. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in what way the rising tensions between US and China affords an opportunity for India to secure some of its crucial interests.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the present scenario; explain in detail the rising tensions between US and China. Highlight the possible challenges and opportunities that the context throws at India.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Recently USA and China agreed on a temporary trade deal (‘Phase One’) to ongoing trade war between them. However this will not significantly improve the relations between the two countries. Since many other challenges between these two countries have  risen  up  in  recent  times  like-  technology war, passing of Hong Kong Human rights  act, US’s decision on Iran etc.

Body:

Explain first what has been the impact of this tension on India so far?

Quote the “Ecowrap report” and the key highlights of it.

Explain the opportunities it poses to India.

Discuss in what way India can respond to this challenge.

Conclusion:

Conclude that US-China rising tensions could help India achieve its economic and strategic interests that are crucial to the growth of the country.

Introduction:

Trade war is a situation where countries restrict each other’s trade by imposing tariff or quota on imports. According to the World Bank’s Global Economic Prospect, the global economy has slowed to its lowest pace in three years because international trade and investment have been weaker than expected. International trade has been severely affected by the trade war between the US and China. The “Phase One” trade deal between the United States and China gives both sides a reprieve, especially since the U.S. stayed its hand in not imposing additional tariffs worth $160-billion in mid-December.

Body:

Trade war:

  • In the backdrop of a growing trade deficit with China, the U.S. in 2018 began setting tariffs and other trade barriers on China with the goal of forcing it to make changes to what the U.S. considers China’s “unfair trade practices”.
  • The U.S. claims that the trade practices of China have led to the theft of intellectual property, and the forced transfer of American technology to China.

The U.S.-China rivalry is not limited to the economic sphere and the differences between the two countries have been witnessed in many other domains as well.

  • Next-generation Technologies:
    • A technology war has erupted in the areas of artificial intelligence, digital space and 5G. Washington has blacklisted the Chinese telecommunications giant Huawei and urged governments not to work with it in developing 5G networks.
    • It accuses China of using Huawei to gather intelligence from other countries. The U.S. has cautioned its allies that using Huawei equipment will lead to less intelligence sharing from it.
  • Human Rights:
    • Tensions between the two countries have risen following the U.S.’s passing of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019 and the proposed Uighur Act. The U.S. accuses China of cracking down on domestic dissent and human rights violations.
    • China claims that the U.S. is behind the disturbances in Hong Kong. There is no sign of the protests abating.
  • Power Play in the Pacific region:
    • China has asserted its military control over the South China Sea by deploying more military assets to the region and occupying several man-made islands.
    • This is viewed as an arm twisting tactic of the Chinese to resolve the dispute over territorial issues in the South China Sea.
    • The U.S. and its allies have called for freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.
    • The U.S. has worked towards a military build-up in Asia by its move to arm its allies like South Korea and Japan with American missile defence systems. The Chinese view this as a provocation to China.
  • Defence field:

 

  • Despite the military advances made by China, U.S. defence spending is much larger than that of China’s budget. With the creation of a U.S. Space Force as a separate arm under the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. is seeking to increase its superiority in network-centric warfare.
  • The Chinese have been increasing their defence budget year on year citing the increased military build-up in the pacific region.

Opportunities for India:

  • According to the State Bank of India report-Ecowrap, India has scarcely benefited from the trade war.
  • China is facing pork shortage but India exports pork indirectly through Vietnam, increasing its cost and reducing market share.
  • China’s thrust on the AI, robotics, autonomous vehicles, and space technology has raised the U.S. suspicion, raising the prospects of high-tech war.
  • The big three Chines high-tech companies, Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent together invested $5bn in India.
  • India could use this opportunity to insist China open its market for the IT sector and other tech exports.
  • India has allowed all the players including Huawei to participate in the 5G trials but the outcomes are far from over.
  • With all that said, the U.S.-China tensions drive supply chains out of China, with the right policies as Vietnam has done, India could emerge as an alternative destination.
  • With the protests in Hong Kong showing no signs of abating, India may have to cater to refugees of Indian origin if things turn uglier.

However, concerns exist:

  • India is not a member of the Indo-Pacific Business Forum created by the U.S., Japan, and Australia.
  • India is also not a member of Blue Dot network created by the U.S., Japan, and Australia.
  • In future India might have to reconcile its regional connectivity issues with BRI projects that have mushroomed in the region.
  • On the ideological fronts, China is so emboldened by its economic success that it seeks to challenge the liberal democratic model and offers an alternative based on its own system.
  • India might have to contend with the greater Chinese presence in the Asia-Pacific theatre.

Way forward:

  • India should come out with the right policies and incentives to attract industries to invest in India.
  • India’s participation in the “Quad” dialogue on broader issues in the Indo-Pacific should be used as a leverage to protect India’s interest in the region.
  • India should try to reconcile its own regional connectivity initiatives with the BRI projects that have mushroomed in the neighbourhood.

Conclusion:

U.S.-China rivalry coincides with an upward trajectory in India-U.S. relations. This is important for equilibrium and multi-polarity in Asia, even as India and China try and build much-needed trust and cooperation. India should not officially push forward any such policy that intends to take advantage of the crisis. We should stick to our fundamental foreign policy of non-alignment and wait and watch without getting involved in the core trade war.

 

Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5. Write a short note on National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture.(250 words)

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

The question is direct from the static portions of GS paper III.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the NMSA project, highlight its key objectives, quote facts of achievements so far, challenges if any and conclude with way forward.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rain fed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.

Body:

Briefly discuss the mission objectives first.

Explain the mission strategy.

Discuss the major components of the scheme in detail.

Take hints from the reference and cover majority aspects in your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such missions to the agro-economics of the country.

Introduction:

National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) seeks to address issues regarding ‘Sustainable Agriculture’ in the context of risks associated with climate change by devising appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, equitable access to food resources, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at the national level. It has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.

Body:

Significance of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture:

  • Sustaining agricultural productivity depends on quality and availability of natural resources like soil and water.
  • Agricultural growth can be sustained by promoting conservation and sustainable use of these scarce natural resources through appropriate location specific measures.
  • Indian agriculture remains predominantly rainfed covering about 60% of the country’s net sown area and accounts for 40% of the total food production.

Objectives of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture:

  • To promote location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems that makes agriculture more productive, sustainable, and remunerative and climate resilient.
  • To adopt appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures that will enhance the conservation of natural resources.
  • To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
  • There should be optimisation of utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crops per drop’.
  • To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on-going Missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • There should be selection of block by the pilot model for improving productivity of rain-fed farming by mainstreaming rain-fed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources from other schemes/Missions like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), and RKVY etc.
  • There should be establishment of an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial co-ordination for accomplishing the goal of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of NAPCC.

Important components:

  • Rainfed Area Development (RAD)
  • Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF)
  • National Bamboo Mission (NBM)
  • Soil Health Management (SHM)
  • Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture: Monitoring, Modelling and Networking (CCSAMMN)
  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)

Challenges:

  • Proposed provision and strategies are highly extensive which is only targeting the big farmers and rest are remaining vulnerable.
  • Sustainable Agriculture is based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
  • But the proposed strategies of the mission given importance of water and largely ignored the usage of chemical fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizer required more irrigation as compare to the organic farming.
  • The mission is lacked by the adequate framework to meet the climate change especially challenges faced by agriculture due to the climate change.

Conclusion:

Conservation of natural resources in conjunction with development of rainfed agriculture holds the key to meet burgeoning demands for food grain in the country. Towards this end, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.

 

Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6. With suitable Illustrations, explain how Livestock farming backed by Agricultural Extension services can help weaker sections of society.(250 words)

FAO

Why this question:

Question is based on the topic of economics of animal-rearing.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the benefits of Livestock farming backed by Agricultural Extension services. And the positive impact it brings in development of weaker sections of the society.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Dis

Body:

Explain that Livestock make a major, although largely underestimated, contribution to rural development in developing countries. They produce food, enhance crop production and provide additional economic goods and services as well as cash income.

The inclusion of livestock diversifies and increases total farm production and income, provides year-round employment and disperses risk. Sales of livestock products provide funds for purchasing crop inputs and for financing farm investments

 Livestock often form the major capital reserve of farming households and, in general, enhance the economic viability and sustainability of a farming system.

Explain how linking it with agri extension services can help weaker sections of the society.

Discuss the stakeholders that will benefit from such a combination of services; Women, Rural areas etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.

India’s withdrawal from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is considered as a major victory for the farmer’s organisations, trade unions, MSME organisations and civil society groups, which had protested against the free trade agreement. RCEP would have proven suicidal for India’s dairy sector.

Body:

Trends in livestock population: (Source: 20th Livestock Census)

  • Total Livestock population is 535.78 million- an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
  • Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak)-79 Million in 2019- an increase of about 1% over the previous census.
  • A decline of 6 % in the total Indigenous/ Non-descript cattle population over the previous census.
  • The population of cows in the country has risen by 18 per cent in the last seven years, while that of oxen dipped by 30 per cent, according to the latest census of livestock.
  • there was a spectacular 16.8 per cent increase in the poultry population in the country to 851.81 million, mainly on account of a 46 per cent rise in backyard poultry birds, whose numbers have gone up to 317 million.
  • The number of female cattle is 145.12 million, which is 18 per cent over the 122.98 million in 2012. The number of male cattle, on the other hand, dropped to 47.4 million as against 67.92 million in 2012.
  • While cattle accounted for 35.94 per cent of total livestock in the country, goats accounted for 27.80 per cent, buffaloes: 20.45 per cent, sheep: 13.87 per cent and pigs: 1.69 per cent.

Role of livestock in socio-economic life of India:

The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways.

  • Income:
    • Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals.
    • Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk.
    • Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc.
    • The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners.
  • Employment:
    • A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods.
    • But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year.
    • The land less and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
  • Food:
    • The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners.
    • The per capita availability of milk is around 355 g / day; eggs is 69 / annum;
  • Social security:
    • The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society.
    • The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not.
    • Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country.
    • Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions.
    • Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons;
    • Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
  • Gender equity:
    • Animal husbandry promotes gender equity.
    • More than three-fourth of the labour demand in livestock production is met by women.
    • The share of women employment in livestock sector is around 90% in Punjab and Haryana where dairying is a prominent activity and animals are stall-fed.
  • Draft:
    • The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture.
    • The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs.
  • Dung:
    • In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).

Conclusion:

With increasing population, persistent rise in food inflation, unfortunate rise in farmer’s suicide and majority of the Indian population having agriculture as the primary occupation, the practice of animal husbandry is no more a choice, but a need in contemporary scenario. Its successful, sustainable and skilful implementation will go a long way in ameliorating the socio-economic condition of lower strata of our society.  Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.

 

Topic:  Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

7. What do understand by Scientific social responsibility (SSR)? Discuss the need and significance of having a dedicated policy to ensure SSR is achieved in a right manner .(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

Science outreach programme was on the agenda on the third day of the 107th Indian Science congress. Central government has a plan to launch a

Programme on implementing scientific social responsibility (SSR).

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the aspects of SSR and its importance. Explain why the country needs a dedicated policy to ensure SSR is in place.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is SSR – The ethical obligation of knowledge workers in all fields of science and technology to voluntarily contribute their knowledge and resources to the widest spectrum of stakeholders in society.

Body:

Explain in detail the significance of SSR.

To encourage science and technology (S&T) institutions and individual scientists in the country to proactively engage in science outreach activities to connect science with the society.

To harness latent potential of the scientific community for strengthening linkages between science and society, and for making S&T ecosystem vibrant.

To develop a mechanism for ensuring access to scientific knowledge, transferring benefits of science to meet societal needs, promoting collaborations to identify problems and develop solutions.

Explain the need for a dedicated policy to ensure SSR is in place.

Discuss the highlights of the draft policy dedicated to SSR.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need and significance of SSR; When most research is being done by using taxpayers’ money, the scientific establishment has an ethical obligation of “giving back” to the society. SSR is not only about scientific impact upon society but also about the social impact upon science. SSR would therefore strengthen the knowledge ecosystem and bring efficiencies in harnessing science for the benefit of society.

Introduction:

Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) is the confluence of scientific knowledge with visionary leadership and social conscience.  SSR is about building synergies among all stakeholders in our scientific knowledge community and also about developing linkages between science and society. India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A draft of the new policy has been made available by the Department of Science and Technology (DST).

Body:

Highlights of the draft:

  • Under the proposed policy, individual scientists or knowledge workers will be required to devote at least 10 person-days of SSR per year for exchanging scientific knowledge to society.
  • It also recognises the need to provide incentives for outreach activities with necessary budgetary support.
  • It has also been proposed to give credit to knowledge workers/scientists for individual SSR activities in their annual performance appraisal and evaluation.
  • No institution would be allowed to outsource or sub-contract their SSR activities and projects.
  • The draft defines SSR as “the ethical obligation of knowledge workers in all fields of science and technology to voluntarily contribute their knowledge and resources to the widest spectrum of stakeholders in society, in a spirit of service and conscious reciprocity”.
  • A central agency will be established at DST to implement the SSR. Other ministries would also be encouraged to make their own plans to implement SSR as per their mandate.

Need for SSR:

  • The earlier S&T policies have also emphasised on the utilisation of science for welfare of the people.
  • However, the new India with its vibrant young populace is a country of ambition and aspiration, requiring a renewed emphasis on the integration of S&T with society at both the institutional and individual levels.
  • When most research is being done by using taxpayers’ money, the scientific establishment has an ethical obligation of “giving back” to the society.
  • SSR is not only about scientific impact upon society but also about the social impact upon science.
  • SSR would therefore strengthen the knowledge ecosystem and bring efficiencies in harnessing science for the benefit of society.
  • An institutional mechanism through SSR policy, facilitating easy access to resources and knowledge, would be a significant step in the right direction.
  • This will have far reaching implications for the new initiatives such as Transformation of Aspirational Districts, make in India, Swachh Bharat and Digital India, leading to inclusive growth and development.
  • SSR would inculcate   moral   responsibility amongst   scientific community   which   may   trigger   social entrepreneurship and start-ups impacting S&T ecosystem and society.
  • This policy would strengthen the existing efforts of institutions in an organised and sustainable manner

Significance of SSR:

  • Expanding the domain of science and its benefits to the community. Encouraging students into science through handholding and nurturing their interest.
  • Creating an opportunity for cooperation and sharing of S&T resources in laboratories with other researchers in universities and colleges.
  • Providing training for skill development and upgrading scientific knowledge.
  • Helping MSMEs, Startups and informal sector enterprises in increasing their overall productivity. Facilitating scientific intervention in rural innovation.
  • Empowering women, disadvantaged and weaker sections society through scientific intervention. Identification of best practices and success models on SSR for replication with multiplier effect in the country.
  • Facilitating actions towards addressing Technology Vision 2035 Prerogatives and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the country such as water, ecology, health and livelihood.

Conclusion:

SSR envisages strengthening science-society linkages in an organic manner by building synergy among all the stakeholders so as to usher in a cultural change in the conduct of science for the benefit of society at large in the country.