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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 31 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 31 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. To drive gender balance for economic progress, it is important that our ‘engines of growth’; our cities, become safer, more secure and comfortable for women. Explain. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

Thousands of women across cities and villages in Kerala took to the streets to drive home the importance of making public places safer for women. Thus the  question aims to analyse the role of planning and policy making in ensuring secure cities for women in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of an inclusive city planning and development to ensure safer cities for women in the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One in three women has experienced some kind of physical or sexual violence, according to the World Health Organization. Considering the high rate of incidents globally, it is only natural for women to have suppressed and internalized deep emotional and psychological trauma.

Body:

Explain first the issue in detail.

Discuss the causes of concern, as to why places are still unsafe for women in the country.

Highlight how city planners can help address the situation.

In India, urban planning – a design and infrastructure prerogative – has traditionally never been associated with ‘safety’, which is largely a law-and-order issue. Yet, city planners play an important role in creating safer cities by incorporating and advocating safe designs.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the need for a gendered approach to public spaces to ensure they are safe for everyone.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

1. Atal Bhujal Yojana has been launched amid growing concerns over the country’s groundwater resources. Explain the scheme and how will it help solve the current water crisis of India? (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Atal Bhujal Yojana, or Atal Jal, a day after the Cabinet approved it.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the details of the scheme ABY and its significance in helping resolve the current water crisis in the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight the water crisis prevailing in India with some key facts and figures.

Body:

Give a brief background of the scheme; Atal Jal is a World Bank-funded, central scheme aimed at improving groundwater management. It was approved by the World Bank Board in June 2018.

The idea first came up in 2015, in view of depleting groundwater resources. The government announced its intention to start a programme for management of groundwater resources in the Budget of 2016-17, with an estimated cost of about Rs 6,000 crore.

Explain how scarce water in India is.

Discuss the case of ground water specifically.

Explain the role that the scheme can play to aid conservation and better management of water.

Conclusion:

Conclude that The focus should be on arresting the rate of decline of groundwater levels as well as water consumption. The scheme should focus on strengthening the institutional framework and bring about Behavioural changes at community level for sustainable groundwater resource management.

 

Topic:  Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

2. Do you think that states’ operational freedom to perform within their specified jurisdictions is highly truncated in the country? Examine in the backdrop of cooperative and competitive federalism  that India subscribes to.(250 words)

Financial Express

Why this question:

The article brings about India’s eroding cooperative federalism in detail.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the provisions of constitution with respect to cooperative federalism and analyse in what way the operational freedom of states is being curtailed by the centre against the concept of federalism that India subscribes to.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short highlight the principles of federalism that India subscribes to.

Body:

Discuss and highlight the issues concerning the federal aspects in the country.

Discuss few recent examples wherein the States have been controlled by the centre and the idea of cooperative federalism has been threatened and curtailed.

Take hints from the article and explain.

Suggest what needs to be done to overcome the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions and highlight the importance of upholding the constitutional values pertaining to federalism in the country.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3.  The recent post-poll developments in Maharashtra and the hastily passed CAA have been in conflict with constitutional values. Elucidate.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

On the occasion of Constitution Day, at a joint sitting of Parliament to mark the 70th anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution, President Ram Nath Kovind, (quoting B.R.Ambedkar) made a significant observation that all three organs of the state, persons occupying constitutional posts, civil society members, and citizens should abide by ‘constitutional morality’.

Key demand of the question:

Critically analyse the recent happenings at the Maharashtra polls and the CAA that have been in conflict with constitutional values.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the current case.

Body:

Highlight that the Concerns about the future of democracy and democratic traditions are, no doubt, growing across the world.

India was hitherto perceived to be an exception to this, being protected by safeguards found in its Constitution — the product of a Constituent Assembly that consisted of not only the best legal minds, but also of compassionate individuals who espoused the finest human values.

Explain the case of Maharashtra, highlight the case of CAA.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating the fact that whatever are the merits or demerits of the CAA, given India’s many-layered democracy and the existence of different religious communities spread across different regions of the country, a more detailed and in-depth study was called for before pushing through such a key measure.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

1. “It is important not only to know how to counter the economic stagnation but also how not to counter it”. Deliberate upon  the statement in the context of rapidly increasing fiscal deficit of Centre and states in the country.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The Centre and the States are so short of resources that their fiscal deficit is burgeoning. The Prime Minister, at a function of the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India recently, was optimistic but the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor was less positive, admitting that the country’s economic problems are also structural. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the current economic conditions of the country. Explain in detail the causes and concerns of the fiscal deficit of the states and the country. Suggest methods and measures to overcome it.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what economic stagnation is.

Body:

Give a brief introduction about the increase of Centre and state’s fiscal deficit in the recent times.

Explain the recent steps to contain the situation.

Give the defects in taking such steps.

Suggest requires ways to be taken in this regard.

Give a futuristic way forward for the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and way forward.

 

Topic:  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

2.  Inclusive growth is expected to reduce poverty faster in the sense that it has to have a higher elasticity of poverty reduction. Do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Indian economy by Dutta and Sundaram.

Why this question:

The question is based on the Inclusive growth and its relations to Poverty reduction.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of inclusive growth and its relations with Poverty reduction and in what way it has links with higher elasticity of poverty reduction.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss what inclusive growth is.

Body:

Highlight the features of inclusive growth. The growth is inclusive growth when it is socially inclusive, regionally balanced, which enables every state to do better than in the past, which narrows the gap between different communities, which also brings in our concern for gender equality, upliftment of women, improving their educational condition and social status.

Discuss its relations with higher elasticity of poverty reduction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with detailed analysis and its effects and significance.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

3. The slowdown in combating HIV calls for a renewal of political commitment, finances and engagement. Discuss.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted by member countries of the United Nations in 2015, set a target of ending the epidemics of AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria by 2030.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The key indicator chosen to track progress in achieving the target for HIV-AIDS is “the number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations”.

Body:

In the terminology of HIV prevention and control, the phrase “key populations” refers to: men who have sex with men; people who use injected drugs; people in prisons and other closed settings; sex workers and their clients, and transgender persons.

Discuss about bridging gaps.

Provide statistics about HIV related deaths.

Discuss the concerns associated and in what way they can be dealt.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the Indian experience has been more positive but still calls for continued vigilance and committed action.