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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Madan Mohan Malaviya.


GS Paper 2:

1. The Recycling of Ships Act.

2. ‘Good Governance Index’.


GS Paper 3:

1. Jal Jeevan Mission.


GS Paper  : 1

Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Contributions and significance.

 Context: The Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya on his 158th birth anniversary (25th December, 2019).

Key facts:

  1. Madan Mohan Malaviya was a freedom fighter and social reformer.
  2. He had served as the President of the INC on four occasions.
  3. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 2014.
  4. He was the editor of a Hindi magazine, ‘Hindosthan’.
  5. He became the editor of the ‘Indian Opinion’ in 1889. He also started a Hindi weekly ‘Abhyudaya’, an English daily ‘Leader’, a Hindi newspaper ‘Maryada’.
  6. Pandit Malaviya was instrumental in founding the Benares Hindu University in 1916. He also became its Vice-Chancellor till 1939.
  7. He was opposed to separate electorates to Muslims and the Lucknow Pact.
  8. He was also against the INC’s participation in the Khilafat Movement.
  9. He was a participant in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931.
  10. He started the Ganga Mahasabha to oppose construction of dams in the Ganga.
  11. He was also a social reformer who opposed untouchability. He worked for the temple entry of Dalits at the Kalaram Temple at Nashik, Maharashtra.
  12. He also founded the organisation Shri Mathura Vrindavan Hasanand Gochar Bhoomi in Vrindavan.

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper  : 2

Topics Covered: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Recycling of Ships Act

What to study?

For Prelims: Overview of Recycling of Ships Bill and HKC- features and significance.

Context: The Recycling of Ships Act has come into force with President Ram Nath Kovind giving assent to the law which provides for safe and environmentally sound recycling of ships.

The government has also decided to accede to the Hong Kong International Convention for safe and environmentally sound recycling of Ships, 2009.


The Union Cabinet had approved the proposal for enactment of Recycling of Ships Bill, 2019 and accession to the Hong Kong International Convention for Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009.

Key features of the bill:

  1. It restricts and prohibits the use or installation of hazardous material, which applies irrespective of whether a ship is meant for recycling or not.
  2. For new ships, such restriction or prohibition on use of hazardous material will be immediate,that is, from the date the legislation comes into force, while existing ships shall have a period of five years for compliance.
  3. Restriction or prohibition on use of hazardous material would not be applied to warships and non-commercial ships operated by Government.
  4. Ships shall be surveyed and certified on the inventory of hazardous material used in ships.
  5. Under the Bill, ship recycling facilities are required to be authorized and ships shall be recycled only in such authorized ship recycling facilities.
  6. It also provides that ships shall be recycled in accordance with a ship-specific recycling plan.
  7. Ships to be recycled in India shall be required to obtain a Ready for Recycling Certificate in accordance with the HKC- Hong Kong International Convention for the safe and environmentally sound recycling of ships.

What is Hong Kong convention?

The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009 (the Hong Kong Convention), was adopted at a diplomatic conference held in Hong Kong, China in 2009.

  • It was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2009.
  • The Convention is aimed at ensuring that ships, when being recycled after reaching the end of their operational lives, do not pose any unnecessary risks to human health, safety and to the environment.
  • It also addresses concerns raised about the working and environmental conditions at many of the world’s ship recycling locations.
  • The Convention is yet to come into force because it has not been ratified by 15 nations, representing 40 per cent of the world merchant shipping by gross tonnage (capacity) and a maximum annual ship recycling volume of not less than 3 per cent of the combined tonnage of the countries.

Need for legislation:

India is the leader in the global ship recycling industry, with a share of over 30% of the market.

  • As per UNCTAD report on Review of Maritime Transport, 2018, India had demolished 6323 tonnes in 2017, of known ship scrapping across the world.
  • The ship-recycling industry is a labour-intensive sector, but it is susceptible to concerns on environmental safety.

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

‘Good Governance Index’

What to study?

For Prelims: Particulars of GGI.

For Mains: Performances of various states ans ways to improve them.

Context: Latest edition of the ‘Good Governance Index’ has been launched on the occasion of ‘Good Governance Day’.


Good Governance Day is observed on the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee (25th December). It was observed for the first time in 2014.

What is the Good Governance Index (GGI)?

It is a tool to assess the status of governance and the impact of various interventions taken up by the State Government and UTs.

The objectives of GGI are:

  1. To provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all states and UTs.
  2. To enable states and UTs to formulate and implement suitable strategies for improving governance.
  3. To shift to result-oriented approaches and administration.

How is the GGI calculated?

The GGI takes into consideration 10 sectors — agriculture and allied sectors, commerce and industries, human resource development, public health, public infrastructure and utilities, economic governance, social welfare & development, judicial and public security, environment and citizen-centric governance.

  • These 10 governance sectors are further measured on a total of 50 indicators. These indicators are given different weightage under one governance sector to calculate the value.

The states and UTs are divided into three groups — big states, north-east and hill states, and Union territories.

Key Findings of the first GGI Report:

  • Top performers among the big states: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The bottom six states are Odisha, Bihar, Goa, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  • Among the North-East & Hill States: Top 3 states are Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Tripura. The bottom 3 states are Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Pondicherry leads among the UTs followed closely by Chandigarh with Delhi bagging the third spot. Lakshadweep is at the bottom among the UTs.
  • Sector-wise ranking: In the environment sector:
  • The top three states are West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • The bottom 3 states are Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Goa.
  • Judicial and public security ranking: West Bengal is at the bottom two in the judicial and public security ranking. Tamil Nadu tops the chart here.
  • Economic governance: Karnataka is at the top under the economic governance category.
  • Health: Kerala is at the top in the public health sector.

Sources: pib.


GS Paper  : 3

Topics Covered: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Jal Jeevan Mission

What to study?

For Prelims: Key features of the mission.

For Mains: challenges and concerns in water conservation, ways to address them.

Context: Operational guidelines for the implementation of Jal Jeevan Mission have been released.

About Jal Jeevan Mission:

The Mission was announced in August 2019.

The chief objective of the Mission is to provide piped water supply (Har Ghar Jal) to all rural and urban households by 2024.

It also aims to create local infrastructure for rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household waste water for reuse in agriculture.

The Mission will converge with other Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives of sustainable water supply management across the country.

 Benefits of the mission:

  • Household pipeline water supply.
  • Clean and drinkable water.
  • Recharge of groundwater level.
  • Better local infrastructure.
  • Less water-borne diseases.
  • Less water wastage.

Need for and significance of the mission:

India has 16% of the world population, but only 4% of freshwater resources. Depleting groundwater level, overexploitation and deteriorating water quality, climate change, etc. are major challenges to provide potable drinking water.

It is an urgent requirement of water conservation in the country because of the decreasing amount of groundwater level. Therefore, the Jal Jeevan Mission will focus on integrated demand and supply management of water at the local level.

Sources: Pib.


Note: Some news articles will covered tomorrow.