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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic: Salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. How far the recent discoveries are capable in changing the older perspective of Indus Valley Civilisation? Discuss. (250 Words)

Businessline

Why this question:

The question aims to discuss the impact of recent discoveries with respect to the Indus valley civilisation and vis-à-vis the changing perspectives.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the changing perspectives owing to the discoveries related to the past IVC.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief discuss the significance of the IVC.

Body:

One must highlight the fact that history is all about building perspectives and the perspectives are always based upon evidences and thus the changing opinions about a place.

Highlight the recent excavations, evidences that have been revealed.

Discuss in what way they have led to changed and better understanding of the IVC.

Also highlight the specific challenges that are faced in materializing such findings.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note that history at times needs to be put to multiple trials to understand the real truth.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

2. Citizenship law amendment goes against non-discriminatory norms in the Constitution. Critically analyse. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

Home Minister Amit Shah moved Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 in the Lok Sabha recently  amid stiff resistance from the opposition parties that called it unconstitutional as it excludes Muslims from three neighboring countries – Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh – where Islam is the state religion from taking advantage of relaxed rules for obtaining Indian citizenship.

Key demand of the question:

One has to present a critical analysis of Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 and debate upon its constitutionality.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the coming of Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019.

Body:

Explain first the basic features of the bill.

Then move onto present the following aspects –

  • The Citizenship Amendment Bill explicitly seeks religious discrimination into law, against our secular constitutional ethos.
  • The Bill, will be the first time that religion or ethnicity will be made the basis of citizenship that would do damage to the very idea of India as an inclusive and diverse polity, where religion has no bearing on who can become a full member of society.

Discuss what needs to be done to overcome the challenges posed by the law to the secular fabric and the constitution; the law of the land.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to refine the laws and ensure the constitutional validity of the same.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a study done to produce comparable data on education policy and outcomes across countries. What is the aim of the test and how has India performed so far? Analyse while presenting the positives and negatives of such a scheme. (250 Words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the pros and cons of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

Key demand of the question:

One must analyse the utility of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in detail.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental economic organization with 36 member countries, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a study done to produce comparable data on education policy and outcomes across countries.

Body:

  • Explain in brief about the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
  • The test is set by educational experts from across the world. Until now, experts from more than eighty countries have contributed towards framing the test questions, mostly from countries that have already participated in the test.
  • Unlike conventional tests and exams, the PISA test does not assess students on their memory, but attempts to evaluate whether students can apply the knowledge they have gained through primary and secondary education.
  • Discuss the aim of the test.
  • Provide for a brief evaluation of India’s performance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

4. What are local bodies? Enumerate their key objectives. Discuss the causative factors of undue delay in conducting elections for these local bodies and highlight the impact of the same. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article highlights the undue delay witnessed recently in conducting

Elections for local bodies in Tamil Nadu.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss briefly the concept of local bodies enshrined in Indian constitution and the key objectives of the same and analyse the causes and impact of the delay in their elections.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Explain what are local bodies?; institutions of local self-governance, which look after the administration of an area or small

Community such as villages, towns, or cities.

Body:

Explain the basic features of these local bodies-

  • Provide democratic and accountable government for local communities
  • To ensure the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner
  • To promote social and economic development
  • To promote a safe and healthy environment; and
  • To encourage the involvement of communities and community organizations in the matters of local government.

Discuss the reasons for such delays in the elections – lack of political will, Interference of judiciary, Administrative lapses and political litigation etc.

Explain the impact of such delays on the functioning.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Political will coupled with enthusiastic community participation is the need of the hour to revive the state of local bodies in our country.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. . Disaster and disaster management.

5. Provided the lack of effectiveness of the current global climate policy the alternative strategy of the low carbon social development model adopted by India and China needs more consideration. Examine.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is in the context of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s 25th Conference of Parties that was held in Madrid recently.

Key demand of the question:

The article highlights the alarming concerns related to the current global climate policy and demands an analysis of what needs to be done to address the same.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short highlight the key facts from the article.

Body:

  • Explain the key factors responsible for the failure of the current global climate policy – the world’s major emitter, the US has rejected multilateralism, premised on burden-sharing and has pulled out of the Paris climate deal. The planned emission cuts fall short of what needs to be done to contain global warming.
  • The existing Nationally Determined Contributions filed under the Paris Agreement fall short. There is a yawning gap between planned emissions cuts, and what needs to be done by 2030 to contain global temperature rise at 1.5°C etc.
  • Present the case of India and China and highlight some specific efforts in this direction by the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude that by 2040 more than half of the global wealth is again going to be in Asia; the low carbon social development model adopted by India and China will become the world system, ensuring global sustainability. The alternative strategies led by India and China should now move centre stage and replace the ineffective Climate Treaty.


 

Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) Discuss the need for greater collaboration between the government and the private sector for developing trade-smart schemes that can ensure long-term sustainability for the growth of Indian industry.(250 Words)  

Financial Express

 

Why this question:

The recent WTO panel report highlights the fact that India needs a fresh debate on trade policy framework.

Key demand of the question:

One must analyse the need for greater collaboration between the government and the private sector for developing trade-smart schemes that can ensure long-term sustainability for the growth of Indian industry.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief trace the Recent global events that have had significant implications for reshaping India’s trade policy framework.

Body:

First discuss in short the trade policy currently being practiced by the country.

Bring out the policies that the government in power has been trying to aim.

Emphasize on the fact that India’s trade policy of the future ought to consider distinct approaches for trade in goods and trade in services.

Present case studies of successful collaborations of the government with private entities in the business scenario.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Greater collaboration between the government and the private sector, for developing trade-smart schemes and incentives that have long-term sustainability and contribution to the growth of Indian industry, is the only sensible way forward.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

7)Progress in human development cannot be sustained without addressing environmental degradation and climate change comment on the statement in the light of recently released 2019 Human Development Index (HDI) vis-à-vis India’s rank.(250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

Human Development Report 2019 has been released recently. The report is titled, “Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century”. India climbed one spot to 129 in the latest human development released by UNDP.

Key demand of the question:

One has to trace the links between human development and the climate change scenario.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief narrate few key facts from the report.

Body:

Discuss the key findings and emphasize on the following key aspects –

  • Inequality and the climate crisis are interwoven—from emissions and impacts to policies and resilience. Countries with higher human development generally emit more carbon per person and have higher ecological footprints overall.
  • Climate change will hurt human development in many ways beyond crop failures and natural disasters.
  • Climate change will hit the tropics harder first, and many developing countries are in the tropics. At the same time, developing countries and poor and vulnerable communities have fewer capacities to adapt to climate change and severe weather events than do their richer counterparts.
  • The negative impacts of climate change extend to health and education. Between 2030 and 2050 climate change is expected to cause some 250,000 additional deaths a year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress.
  • If disasters tend to hit disadvantaged people harder, climate change could make vicious cycles of low outcomes and low opportunities more persistent.
  • Millions of Indians in low-lying coastal areas are exposed to a rise in sea levels.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the report underlines that poor people should be protected from the fallout of climate change.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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