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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic: Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) The outcomes of Mughal administration enrich the diversity of the country in various ways. Elucidate with illustrations.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article highlights the works of Dara Shukoh who worked with Sanskrit scholars to translate the Upanishads to Persian — an example of the closely intertwined histories of Sanskrit, Persian, Urdu.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the significant role that Mughal administration played in enriching the diversity of the country.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the cultural aspects, socio-religious aspects that prevailed in the Mughal administration.

Body:

Talk about the diversity in terms of trade, religion, art and architecture, literature etc.

Highlight the ways and means in which the Mughal administration enriched the culture in multiple ways.

Conclusion:

Conclude with essence of the diversity that the Mughal empire brought to the country.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) Similar to PM-KISAN (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi) several states have come out with the farm income support scheme. Discuss the numerous Farm Income support scheme initiated by various state governments.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article captures the success and failure aspects of Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income Augmentation (KALIA) scheme propounded by Odisha government.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and one must discuss in detail the relevance of Farm Income support scheme initiated by various state governments.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Highlight the significance of PM-KISAN (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi) scheme to the farmers of the country.

Body:

Explain first the need of the hour. Discuss why the state governments have emerged with specific state schemes.

Discuss the pros and cons with suitable example. Say the Odisha case of KALIA.

Deliberate upon the possible challenges that the States may face.

Discuss the relevance of PM-KISAN and its aspects of utility.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3) The apex Court’s Indra Sawhney judgment is a landmark in the domain of reservations in India, Remark. Does the Supreme Court’s stand in the 2018 Jarnail Singh case follow the same principles as laid out in the Indra Sawhney case? Analyse.(250 words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question:

The Central government has asked the Supreme Court of India to refer to a seven-judge Bench the question whether the creamy layer concept should apply (or not) to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes while giving them reservation in promotions. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

One must comment upon the Supreme court’s historical Indra Sawhney judgment that has proven to be a landmark case. Also discuss the relevance of Jarnail singh case and the current context of reservation amidst the creamy layer principle.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the reservation system prevalent in India, trace its historical coming into existence.

Body:

Explain that the progression from poor to bourgeois to elite is a welcome evolution in nation-building.

Present the debates over reservation around the concept of creamy layer.

Explain that a close reading of relevant constitutional provisions and the verdict in Indra Sawhney make it clear that the SC/STs are given job reservations not because they are poor but because they are excluded. The first part of Article 335 stipulates job reservations for SC/STs as a right of representation, not as a welfare measure. However, the creamy layer among SC/ST employees helps fulfill the second part of Article 335 that requires maintaining the “efficiency of administration.

Discuss the current scenario, explain the government’s stand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) Even though child mortality in India has reduced significantly, the numbers are still the highest in the world. Explain the reason behind the persistence in high rate of child mortality in the country and highlight the steps taken by the government in this regard with special focus on need for mass immunization campaigns.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

In 2017, 2.9 million children in India less than one year of age had not been vaccinated with the first dose, according to UNICEF. In one year, the number of unvaccinated children in India had reduced from 2.9 million to 2.3 million. 

Key demand of the question:

One should present the child mortality case prevalent in India with focus on the need and relevance of Immunization to overcome the challenge of child morbidity and mortality.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight some facts related to child immunization and mortality equation in the country.

Body:

Explain using the case study of the measles; In 2018, measles caused an estimated 10 million cases and 1,42,000 deaths globally, according to the report published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

Discuss the factors responsible for such a scenario.

Explain the concerns involved.

Suggest an effective strategy to resolve the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


Topic:Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

5) Violence against women continues to be an obstacle to achieving equality, development, peace and fulfilment of women and girls’ human rights. In the context of recent rape cases witnessed in the country discuss how the laws on rape and sexual crimes changed over the years in the country and what should be the way forward?(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

After the rape and murder of a veterinarian in Hyderabad on November 28 and the burning of a rape survivor in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, on December 5, there has been an outcry for justice for the victims. Within and outside Parliament there has been a clamor to make the criminal justice system tougher on an offender committing sexual crimes against women and children. 

Key demand of the question:

One must trace the evolution of the laws on rape and sexual crimes in the country and in what way they have changed over the years and what should be the way forward to ensure the country is free from incidence of such evils.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the current system that is in place since the time of the rule of British.

Body:

Discuss the following aspects:

  • Rape’ as a clearly defined offence was first introduced in the Indian Penal Code in 1860.
  • The codification of Indian laws began with the enactment of the Charter Act, 1833 by the British Parliament which led to the establishment of the first Law Commission under the chairmanship of Lord Macaulay.
  • The first Code of Criminal Procedure was enacted in 1861, which consolidated the law relating to the set-up of criminal courts and the procedure to be followed in the investigation and trial of the offence.
  • Then move on to discuss and debate over the laws available currently; if the laws are gender neutral? Are the laws stricter and stringent now? Etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) While the present climate activism movement has certainly helped the cause in terms of raising awareness, it spells out little in terms of meaningful action. Comment with suitable justifications.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

 

Why this question:

The article brings out the concerns associated with climate activism and argues over the success of the same.

Key demand of the question:

One must 

Discuss the instance of climate activism, explain the challenges involved therein.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate what you understand by climate activism.

Body:

Explain the concerns involved as to what are the issues, why the movement of climate activism isn’t achieving its true agenda.

What are the flaws? – Failure to recognise the need for a sustainable outcome.

Explain with suitable examples, take hints from the article.

Discuss what needs to be done to ensure the movement achieves true outcomes.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to foresee and that fighting climate change is a mammoth task and we need all hands-on deck if we are to have a real shot.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) “Public service is the basic objective of the welfare state”, in the backdrop of the statement discuss the basic public service values that a civil servant must aim to, to ensure effective and efficient public service delivery. (250 words)

 Ethics by Lexicon Publications.

Why this question:

In rapidly changing society, there is a need of good public administration. 

The question seeks to examine the need and importance of public values for effective delivery of public services by the civil servants.

Key demand of the question:

One should explain the essence of public values, importance and their need in public services to ensure a welfare state.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain the concepts of Public Service and Welfare State. A Welfare State can be described as a ‘system of government organized to ensure the well-being of citizens’. Public service is associated with the government and it is offered by administrative bodies to people living within its region and considered essential to modern life.

Body:

Discuss the core principles of the welfare state.

Highlight the relevance of public values to the civil servants.

Explain why values are important and essential? How they aid in effective delivery of public services.

For bureaucracies, adherence to high-level public service values can produce substantial public trust and assurance. On the contrary, weak application of values or promotion of incorrect values can lead to reductions in these essential elements of democratic governance, as well as to ethical and decision-making quandaries. Though a core set of public service values is necessary, it is also factual that different values apply to different parts of the public service.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of values to public administration in general.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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