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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic: Social empowerment; Salient features of Indian society

1) The status of elderly in India has transformed a lot from the era gone by, in part because the society is in the throes of turbulent change. Examine in the light of Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens (Amendment) Bill, 2019 cleared by the cabinet recently.

The Indian Express

 

Why this question:

The article talks about the status of elderly people in India, the factors which have led to the change in the status of elderly, the issues plaguing them and the efforts made by the government in addressing their challenges. UPSC in the past has asked about the effect of globalisation on elderly people in India , and thus preparing this topic would bode well for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the status of elderly people in India. Thereafter, we need to examine how the changes in society has affected their status. Next, we need to highlight the issues faced by them, followed by the effort taken by the government through the mentioned Act in improving their status. Finally, way forward has to be mentioned.

Directive word

Examine – The status quo of the elderly, and the reasons for that status quo need to be discussed in this part.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the status quo of the elderly. Mention that the share of the elderly in India living alone or only with a spouse increased from 9 per cent in 1992 to 19 per cent in 2006. Both the share and size of elderly population is increasing over time.

Body

Highlight the issues plaguing them and the changes that have taken place in society which is responsible for their current status. Discuss factors that have affected them like lack of infrastructure, changing family structure (mention that Since 1991, the number of households has grown faster than the population. Nuclear families now constitute 70 per cent of all households), lack of social support, social inequality, Availability, Accessibility and Affordability of Healthcare, economic dependency.

Discuss how the government through Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act made an attempt to ensure that the elderly in India do not suffer. Thereafter mention that the act made it a legal obligation for children to provide maintenance to parents in the form of a monthly allowance. In 2018, the revised Act seeks to increase the jail term for negligent children, broaden responsibility beyond biological children and grandchildren and expand the definition of maintenance to include safety and security.

Highlight the limitations of the Act and discuss way forward

Conclusion – Mention that the share of elderly in population is set to increase and its imperative that we act to protect their interest.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Indian Constitution – Amendments, significant provisions and basic structure; Mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) The whole object of reservation is to see that backward classes of citizens move forward so that they may march hand in hand with other citizens of India on an equal basis. Analyse.

The Hindu

The Print

Why this question:

The Supreme Court kept affluent SC, ST members out of quota benefits. The issue has again hit headlines after Modi govt demanded review of a 2018 Supreme Court verdict that excluded creamy layer in SCs, STs from quota benefits.

Key demand of the question:

One has to find the reasons for the economic slowdown facing India and provide the structural measures needed to overcome the same.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is creamy layer and the current context – The Narendra Modi government’s demand for a review of a 2018 Supreme Court verdict in Jarnail Singh vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta case has brought focus back on the exclusion of ‘creamy layer’ within the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) categories from reservation benefits

Body:

Discuss briefly the logic of creamy layer and its evolution through Supreme Court cases.

  • The Union government has called upon the Supreme Court to form a seven-judge Bench to reconsider the formulation in M. Nagaraj vs Union of India (2006) that it should be applied to the SC and ST communities. This verdict was a reality check to the concept of reservation

Explain the various challenges if creamy layer status is accepted among SC/ST.

  • the question whether the exclusion of the advanced sections among SC/ST candidates can be disallowed only for promotions.
  • Most of them may not fall under the ‘creamy layer’ category at the entry level, but after some years of service and promotions, they may reach an income level at which they fall under the ‘creamy layer’.

Discuss the pros and cons of having creamy layer status among the SC/ST.

Discuss what measures are needed to make Reservations ensure equality to all.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

3) The role played by NGOs in protecting and promoting human rights in India is exemplary. However, they pose an equal security concern in recent days. Critically examine the paradox. What measures are needed to regulate the NGOs?

Reference

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the active role of NGOs in India and the recent controversies and blacklisting of few NGOs by Home Ministry.

Key demand of the question:

Answer must discuss the role of NGOs in Indian society and the challenges that they face /issues involved in their functioning in detail along with suggestions as to how can we overcome and address such issues.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain what are NGOs.

Body:

What are NGOs and their key features –

  • As defined by the World Bank NGOs refers to not-for-profit organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.
  • These organizations are not a part of the government, have a legal status and they are registered the specific Act under which they have to be registered.
  • The term NGO in India denotes wide spectrum of organizations which may be non-governmental, quasi or semi-governmental, voluntary or non-voluntary etc.

With suitable examples, discuss how they have upheld the human rights and spoken vociferously about the human rights violations in India.

Discuss the various challenges posed by NGO –

  • Accreditation remains a big challenge as it is very difficult to distinguish whether an organization wants to work for the cause or has been set up only for the purpose of receiving government grants.
  • Over dependence on funds from the government dilutes the willingness of NGOs to speak out against the government.
  • NGOs have acted as a cover for organized crime in past and are often seen as fronts for fundamentalist causes. Foreign funded NGOs have been responsible for organizing agitations and scuttling development projects in India.
  • NGOs are often seen as encroaching on centuries-old tradition and culture of the people, and lead to mass protest at times. Ban of Jallikattu, after the PIL by PETA is one such example.

Now discuss the measures needed to regulate the NGOs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation; Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices.

4) Realisation of the Minimum support scheme has been a mirage for farmers in India. Critically discuss in the light of the performance of PM-AASHA scheme.

The Hindu

Why this question:

Less than 3% of this season’s sanctioned amount of pulses and oilseeds have actually been procured so far under the once-hyped PM-AASHA scheme, Agriculture Ministry data show.

Key demand of the question:

One has discuss the limitations of MSP in India till date. Further, evaluate the objectives and performance of the PM-AASHA scheme.   

Directive:

Critically discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define MSP and talk about how PM-AASHA was introduced to ensure farmers of remunerative prices in light of falling income levels. Give a brief introduction of how the PM-AASHA scheme has performed – A total of 37.59 lakh metric tonnes of procurement had been sanctioned under the Centrally funded scheme. However, only 1.08 lakh tonnes have been procured so far, according to data placed in the Lok Sabha.

Body:

Discuss the limitations of MSP scheme in general till date.

Highlight the objectives of PM-AASHA scheme like

The PM-AASHA or Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan, was announced with great fanfare in September 2018, as an effort to ensure that farmers growing pulses, oilseeds and copra actually get the minimum support prices they are promised for their crops each year

Discuss how it has performed and the lacunae and limitations faced by the scheme.

Evaluate the success so far.

Provide measures needed to strengthen the realisation of PM-AASHA and MSP in general.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

5) Pressure tactics and methods have become an integral part of the political process in India. In this light, critically examine the role played by caste based pressure groups in Indian politics? (250 words)

Indian polity by Lakshmikant.

Why this question:

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to discuss the role played by NGOs and developmental institutions in women empowerment and gender sensitisation. First we need to highlight the women issues in India and thereafter explain how NGOs and international institutions can and are playing a huge role in tackling such challenges.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is a pressure group.

Body:

Discuss the impact of pressure groups in Indian politics in general. Like by means of ‘lobbying’, behind-the-schemes bargaining, propaganda and information and electoral support, persuasion and threats of violence, these groups make tremendous pressure on the government political process.

Define what is a caste based pressure group.

Discuss the various positive impacts like political empowerment, influencing policy decisions and so on

Discuss the negative impacts like Identity politics, communal violence, and so on

Conclusion:

Give your view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: basics of cyber security; Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers.

6) Critically analyse the provisions of Personal Data Protection Bill which seeks to update the currently non-existent standards for privacy and consent.

Deccan Herald

Livemint

The Economic Times

Why this question:

The government has listed the Personal Data Protection Bill in Parliament for the winter session. The Union Cabinet has approved the Bill and it is likely to be introduced for discussion before the on-going winter session of Parliament. It is essential to discuss the bill and its effect on freedom of individuals. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion on the provisions of the draft Bill and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a background of the data protection Bill and talk about the challenges emanating for RTI Act from all corners

Body

Highlight the provisions of the data protection bill

  • One of the most important aspects of the Bill is the setting up of the data protection authority (DPA).
  • the bill proposes social media platforms to create a mechanism so that for “every user who registers their service from India or uses their service from India, a voluntary verifiable account mechanism has to be made
  • And so on.

Highlight the challenges posed by the bill.

  • The Bill calls for privacy by design, but ensuring accountability will be difficult since most design decisions are opaque
  • While the draft Bill sets up broad principles for privacy, a huge chunk of the work has been left for the DPA to carry forward.
  • in the interest of national security, certain agencies can have access to personal data for any investigation pertaining to offences.
  • The Personal Data Protection Bill only lists a set of broad principles that lay down the contours of privacy in the country. That in itself offers neither a clear road map for governance nor any of the details that data principals, and fiduciaries alike, would need in order to understand their rights and obligations
  • And so on.

Provide measures to tackle the challenges posed.

Conclusion

Give a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss the way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: ethical issues in international relations and funding.

7) In the fast-paced world, laced with many issues, the importance of ethics in international relations is much higher and needed today than ever. Examine.

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of ethics in international relations.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the relevance of ethics in international relations.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

What do you understand by ethics in international relations.

Body:

Explain first that Ethics is the study of the moral code of conduct or the ideal behavior to be sought by the human beings. It provides guidance to the realm of international relations as well.

significance of ethics in the international relations can be understood as:

adherence to the human rights

accountability

To avoid the “ego clash” & “ideological clash” between two or more nations.

ethics aim at “peaceful world”, “respect for all” & “equality” while forming international organizations, declarations & forums.

ethics of cooperation in the issues like combating law and order problems, with cross-border impacts.

ethics of standing by the countries that are facing insurgencies, and domestic civil wars.

ethics of pitching for a transparent system in the international financial administration.

globalization has rendered borders, useless. increasing trade balance between developed and underdeveloped countries is the cause of concern. mindless exploitation of these countries’ resources cannot be ignored. it requires a more empathetic view from developed nations.

it reduces tensions between countries and avoids war-like situations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

 

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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