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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic: Social empowerment;

The long separation of young children from their parents will have devastating effects on the former. Critically analyse with respect to vulnerable children of various sections like illegal immigrants, distress migrants and refugees.

The Indian Express

 

Why this question:

The question of the long separation of the children from the mother came up in the Karnataka High Court last month. For over a year now, two girls aged eight and nine, the daughters of a woman accused of being an illegal immigrant, have been living in a children’s home in Bengaluru, while their mother is imprisoned in the Parappana Agrahara central jail.

Key demand of the question:

One has to analyse the impacts of separation of young children from their parents during their childhood stage. The impact on their psyche, physical health, education and their overall development. On the other hand, how illegal immigrants pose a threat to national security should also be highlighted.

Directive:

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce the situation of children itself as vulnerable section of society. Further, describe how a few sections like children of migrants, refugees, illegal immigrants are more vulnerable.

Body:

Discuss the various threats that these children face like

Lack of basic rights –right to life, education, nutrition

physical abuse – molestation, rape, organ trafficking, prostitution

Mental trauma

And other vulnerabilities.

How this can further lead to a vicious cycle

On the other hand, talk about threat posed to national security by illegal immigrants

Provide the measures needed to safeguard these children and provide their due rights.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way ahead.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

For a neoliberal style of development process, Indian government has established arrangements to involve people and voluntary groups that could complement ‘incapacities of the State’ and secure ‘bureaucratic accountability’. Discuss and substantiate your views.

Indian polity by Lakshmikant.

Why this question:

With LPG Reforms of 1991, the power of Central Governments was diminished due to privatization of many sectors. The Central and State governments started to create arrangements that could facilitate people participation and voluntary groups in development process.

Key demand of the question:

To evaluate how the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders has been increased in Governance.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce the pre-LPG reforms era where the power was centralised with Central government leading to the infamous license-raj system. Then discuss about role of Government as a facilitator post-LPG era.

Body:

Discuss the initiatives taken up by Government to involve the various stakeholders

  1. SHG Bank-Linking Programme 1992
  2. National Policy Voluntary Sector, 2007 and so on.

Now discuss the measures taken in particular how these measures have helped in overcoming the ‘incapacities of the State’ and secure ‘bureaucratic accountability’.

You can take help of various examples to substantiate your arguments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with challenges faced by these bodies and way forward.

 


Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

Discuss the role played by NGOs, SHGs and international institutions through their development initiatives in women empowerment and gender sensitisation? (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

Last week’s brutal rape and murder of a 26-year-old veterinarian in Hyderabad has led to an outpouring of anger across the country and in Parliament. The huge increase in such crimes across the country needs Gender sensitisation and wider societal changes are needed to end such heinous acts.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to discuss the role played by NGOs and developmental institutions in women empowerment and gender sensitisation. First we need to highlight the women issues in India and thereafter explain how NGOs and international institutions can and are playing a huge role in tackling such challenges.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that in a democracy, civil society has an important role to play in fulfilling developmental agenda and organised efforts happen through NGOs.

Body:

Discuss the state of problem of women empowerment and gender sensitisation.

Highlight how NGOs help in addressing the hunger problem and the role played by international institutions in women empowerment and gender sensitisation

Discuss what more needs to be done. Discuss the issues faced by such NGOs and what needs to be done in this regard.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 


Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

From trade to geopolitical significance, it is time for India to look again at Mauritius. Analyse.

The Indian Express

Why this question:

As it prepares to host the prime minister of Mauritius, Pravind Jugnauth, who returned to power in the recent general elections, Delhi needs to change the lens through which it sees the small island republic in the western Indian Ocean.

Key demand of the question:

One has review the significance of Mauritius to India, as the latter aspires to be a net security provider in the Indian Ocean region.         

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Provide a brief introduction of Mauritius, its strategic location and the recent political happenings.

Body:

Give a brief history of the India-Mauritius relations and give the limitations of previous ties.

Discuss about how more recently, Delhi has certainly begun to see the strategic significance of Mauritius thanks to the renewed great power contestation in the Indian Ocean.

Highlight the various possibilities present that themselves, if Delhi appreciates the value of Mauritius as a regional hub.

Mauritius can be the fulcrum for India’s own African economic outreach.

Mauritius the pivot of Delhi’s island policy.

Provide measures needed to strengthen the ties between the two nations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Economists and experts argue that India is now in classic Stagflation Territory. Analyse. What are the structural policies needed to curb the economic slowdown facing India?

The Hindu

The Wire

The Economic Times

Why this question:

The slowdown is three years in the making and it is now irrefutable that India is in a growth recession.

Key demand of the question:

One has to find the reasons for the economic slowdown facing India and provide the structural measures needed to overcome the same.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is stagflation.

Stagflation, as defined by Princeton economist Alan S. Blinder, is “the simultaneous occurrence of economic stagnation and comparatively high rates of inflation”.

Body:

Discuss the reasons for the economic slowdown.

Provide data to substantiate your views.

According to the National Statistical Office (NSO), the Consumer Food Price Index increased from 5.11% in September 2019 to 7.89% in October 2019. The retail price inflation rate reached an annual high at 4.62%. The government itself has admitted that growth has slowed. The recent NSO estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) for the second quarter of 2019-20 reported a further reduction in the growth rate of GDP to 4.5%, the lowest since 2012-13.

Provide the various structural measures needed to overcome

like Higher liquidity and disposable income, and increased employment; reduction and reform of direct individual and corporate taxes, and indirect taxes. Labour laws also need to be amended to generate employment.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

The idea that ‘green technology’ can help save the environment is dangerous because it glosses over the alternatives’ ills. Analyse.

The Wire

Why this question:

The world is grappling with the consequences of climate change and environmental degradation. A number of solutions have been posed and several of them are current being implemented. However it has been seen that many of those solutions while addressing one aspect create further problems for environment and our climate. It is therefore important to discuss those solutions and their effects.

Directive word:

Analyze-here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to dig deep into the solutions being posed and implemented to address the issue of climate change and environmental degradation and how they in turn affect the environment in a negative way.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines highlighting environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change. E.g Industrialists around the world have been extracting a wide array of minerals and metals to build electric vehicles and ‘cleaner’ batteries, simply replacing one injustice with another. present some related statistics and mention that a number of solutions have been currently in vogue to address those issues.

Body:

In a bid to reduce the extraction of hydrocarbons for fuel as well as to manufacture components for more efficient electronic and mechanical systems, industrialists around the world have been extracting a wide array of minerals and metals, destroying entire ecosystems and displacing hundreds of thousands of people. It’s as if one injustice has replaced another.

Discuss how the extraction of minerals for development of Green technology has been leading to environmental pollution, taking the cases of Guinea, Congo etc.

Discuss Biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels and challenges posed by them.

Wind farms vs biodiversity loss and air pollution.

Challenges posed by recycling.

Conclusion:

Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions.

In today’s quintessential world of Internet and Social media, Tech giants watch our every move online. Comment on how that violate our human rights?

The Guardian

Why this question:

The argument by social media giants that data collection is inherent to the way the internet works. The internet didn’t have to be this way. A new report by Amnesty International made the bold case this week that we need to stop accepting the status quo and start seeing it for what it really is: a violation of our human rights “on an unprecedented scale” perpetrated by two American companies, Facebook and Google.

Key demand of the question:

One has to argue the how privacy is inherent part of every individual and how this must be respected and upheld by others.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce about how the access to the internet is critical for the realization of human rights in the modern world. To voice out our opinions, to spread a message, to help people in distress etc.

Body:

Highlight how the social media platforms have been an important source of information dissemination. People all around the world are reliant on these platforms in order to express themselves freely, to access information online and to engage in society.

Now discuss specifically issues related to privacy concerns.

Argue how the the eradication of privacy has “knock-on effects” that threaten other rights, including freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom from discrimination.

Talk about how Facebook and Google are also exacerbating the threat of government surveillance, the report argues, by amassing so much personal information in the first place. The companies’ data troves are attractive “honeypots” for governments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to the problem and suggest way forward.

 

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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