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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 NOVEMBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 NOVEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

1) “Power grab has become the sin quo non for political parties in determining their actions rather than anything else. “Comment in the backdrop of recent furore of politics in Maharashtra.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

In brief state that In the recently concluded Maharashtra elections, no party secured absolute majority to form a government.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects one to highlight the ongoing political turmoil in the Maharashtrian politics and the unconstitutional and amoral methods in which the situation was carried out.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

State the context of the question briefly.

Body:

Explain the situation in Maharashtra politics.

Discuss the concerns associated with such developments in the Politics of the state.

Explain why situation was taken in unconstitutional manner; The role of the President of India and also governor of state in this case also appears to

Be partisan which undermines the constitutional character of their office.

Explain what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the pursuit of power that is inspired by amoral reasons can hamper the quality of democracy in India.

Introduction:    

The state of Maharashtra has been placed under the President’s Rule amid a stalemate over government formation after the assembly polls in October 2019. The ongoing political turmoil in Maharashtra post the legislative assembly elections due to the hung assembly has seen many twists and turns in the formation of Government. The surreptitious manner in which Devendra Fadnavis and Ajit Pawar were sworn in as Chief Minister and Deputy Chief Minister, respectively, of Maharashtra on Saturday morning was an outright mockery of democratic norms and established procedure.

Body:

Power Grab and lack of political ethics:

  • Pursuit of power often involves amoral ingredients, but the surreal birthing of the new government was nothing short of sheer depravity.
  • The BJP has not set any inspiring ethical bar when it achieved power without winning a popular mandate in several States, but this new low leaves the nation’s political ‘conscience’ with a sinking feeling.
  • In one stroke, the President, the Prime Minister, and the Governor, all appear to be not as guardians of the constitutional order but collaborators in a clandestine, nocturnal scheme.
  • Politically indefensible as the Sena-Congress-NCP alliance might be, its claim to form a government is technically unimpeachable, and cannot be denied.
  • A series of unprecedented actions by the Centre and the Governor, and several unresolved questions that are associated with their actions, throw up multiple legal and constitutional issues.
  • Similar situations had arisen in the past as seen in Karnataka post assembly elections in 2018.

Power Grab affects democratic principles:

  • The precedent set by the court in comparable situations in which governments with dubious claims of numbers sought to delay the floor test and horse trading was suspected.
  • The Governor administered the oath of office to the same person who had declined his invitation to form a government earlier.
  • The Discretionary Powers of a Governor in case of Hung Assembly: The recent incidents of Karnataka, Goa etc. elected have highlighted the misuse of Governor’s Power to provide benefits to Political Parties.

Punnchi commission recommendations in case of hung assembly:

Forming the government:

  • Among the significant suggestions made by the Commission is, laying down of clear guidelines for the appointment of chief ministers. Upholding the view that a pre-poll alliance should be treated as one political party, it lays down the order of precedence that ought to be followed by the governor in case of a hung house:
    • Call the group with the largest prepoll alliance commanding the largest number;
    • The single largest party with support of others
    • The post-electoral coalition with all parties joining the government
    • The post electoral alliance with some parties joining the government and remaining including Independents supporting from outside.

Governor:

  • As for qualifications for a governor, the Punchhi commission suggests that the nominee not have participated in active politics at even local level for at least a couple of years before his appointment.
  • It also agrees with the Sarkaria recommendation that a governor be an eminent person and not belongs to the state where he is to be posted.
  • The commission also criticizes arbitrary dismissal of governors.
  • It has also recommended that the state chief minister have a say in the appointment of governor.
  • Underlining that removal of a governor be for a reason related to his discharge of functions, it has proposed provisions for impeachment by the state legislature along the same lines as that of President by Parliament. This, significantly, goes against the doctrine of pleasure upheld by Supreme Court judgment.
  • Endorsing an NCRWC recommendation, it says appointment of governor should be entrusted to a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Home Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha and chief minister of the concerned state. The Vice-President can also be involved in the process.
  • Unlike the Sarkaria report, the Punchhi report is categorical that a governor be given fixed five-year tenure.
  • The Punchhi Commission report also recommends that a constitutional amendment be brought about to limit the scope of discretionary powers of the governor under Article 163 (2). Governors should not sit on decisions and must decide matters within a four-month period.

Conclusion:

Every System needs continuous Evolvement to ensure proper functioning, same is with democracy. The need of hour is Stricter laws to curb un-ethical and un-constitutional decisions by political representatives to ensure a healthy Democracy in India.


Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2) “If big money entirely funds elections in a secretive way, democracy as we know it will not exist.” Analyse and explain the role of electoral bonds in the above stated context.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The recent disclosures that the Election Commission (EC) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had expressed reservations about the Electoral Bonds scheme highlight the importance of this issue. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain what is the issue associated with big funds for elections and the role that electoral bonds play, present pros and cons of allowing secretive funding and what needs to be done to put a check onto it.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the need for electoral funding.

Body:

Explain first the available routes prevalent in India for electoral funding.

Then move onto discuss that today, India spends more on elections than the U.S. with a per capita GDP that is 3% of the U.S.

Explain the role that electoral bonds play.

Suggest issues and what remedies can be provided to tackle them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:    

The Finance Bill, 2017 introduced “electoral bonds” — interest-free bearer bonds (like Promissory Notes) that can be purchased from specified branches of the State Bank of India in a designated 10-day window in every quarter of the financial year. The recent disclosures that the Election Commission (EC) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had expressed reservations about the Electoral Bonds scheme highlight the importance of this issue.

Body:

Rationale behind the electoral bonds:

  • Electoral bonds have been introduced to promote transparency in funding and donation received by political parties.
  • The scheme envisages building a transparent system of acquiring bonds with validated KYC and an audit trail. A limited window and a very short maturity period would make misuse improbable.
  • The electoral bonds will prompt donors to take the banking route to donate, with their identity captured by the issuing authority. This will ensure transparency and accountability and is a big step towards electoral reform.
  • The previous system of cash donations from anonymous sources is wholly non-transparent. The donor, the donee, the quantum of donations and the nature of expenditure are all undisclosed.
  • According to government the system of Bonds will encourage political donations of clean money from individuals, companies, HUF, religious groups, charities, etc.
  • After purchasing the bonds, these entities can hand them to political parties of their choice, which must redeem them within the prescribed time.
  • Some element of transparency would be introduced in as much as all donors declare in their accounts the amount of bonds that they have purchased and all parties declare the quantum of bonds that they have received.
  • The electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.

Concerns expressed as it affects the transparency of funding:

  • The move could be misused, given the lack of disclosure requirements for individuals purchasing electoral bonds.
  • Electoral bonds make electoral funding even more opaque. It will bring more and more black money into the political system. electoral bonds would cause a “serious impact” on transparency in funding of political parties
  • With electoral bonds there can be a legal channel for companies to round-trip their tax haven cash to a political party. If this could be arranged, then a businessman could lobby for a change in policy, and legally funnel a part of the profits accruing from this policy change to the politician or party that brought it about.
  • Electoral Bonds Scheme has “opened the floodgates to unlimited corporate donations to political parties and anonymous financing by Indian as well as foreign companies which can have serious repercussions on the Indian democracy”.
  • The amendments would pump in black money for political funding through shell companies and allow “unchecked foreign funding of political parties in India which could lead to Indian politics being influenced by foreign companies
  • The contribution received by any eligible political party in the form of electoral bonds will be exempt from income-tax as per Section 13A of the Income Tax Act.
  • With the removal of the 7.5% cap on the net profits of the last three years of a company, corporate funding has increased manifold, as there is now no limit to how much a company, including loss-making ones, can donate.
  • This opens up the possibility of companies being brought into existence by unscrupulous elements primarily for routing funds to political parties through anonymous and opaque instruments like electoral bonds.
  • Companies no longer need to declare the names of the parties to which they have donated so shareholders won’t know where their money has gone.
  • They have potential to load the dice heavily in favour of the ruling party as the donor bank and the receiver bank know the identity of the person. But both the banks report to the RBI which, in turn, is subject to the Central government’s will to know.

Alternative mechanisms for electoral funding:

  • According to Former Chief Election Commissioner S.Y. Quraishi, an alternative worth exploring is a National Electoral Fund to which all donors can contribute.
  • The funds would be allocated to political parties in proportion to the votes they get. Not only would this protect the identity of donors, it would also weed out black money from political funding.
  • The total cost of MPLADS funding for all MPs is nearly ₹4,000 crore every year, and scrapping the scheme even for one year in an MP’s five-year term will be enough to bankroll state funding of Lok Sabha candidates. This is a legalized way of allowing MPs and MLAs to shower money on their constituencies at state expense.
  • Direct funding of candidates, who will be reimbursed according to their final share of the votes cast.
  • The best way to bring about such transparency in political funding is to put a complete ban on cash donations by individuals or companies to political parties.
  • Making it mandatory for all parties to receive donations only by cheque, or other modes of money transfer.
  • There should be clear provisions for getting tax benefits for all those making such donations.
  • Make it mandatory for political parties to submit details of all donations received with the Election Commission and also with the income-tax department.
  • State funding of political parties can be considered. The Indrajit Gupta Committee on State Funding of Elections had endorsed partial state funding of recognised political parties.
  • The mechanics of this process need to be carefully worked out to establish the allocation of money to national parties, State parties and independent candidates, and to check candidate’s own expenditure over and above that which is provided by the state.
  • Voters have to be made aware through awareness campaigns about ill effects of money power during elections. Bringing political parties under the preview of RTI act.

Conclusion:

The 255th Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms observed that opacity in political funding results in “lobbying and capture” of the government by big donors. Various commissions, including the Election Commission, have given detailed recommendations on suitable remedies. Public funding needs to be examined and introduced with proper checks and balances.


Topic Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

3) Highlight the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India (ECI). Also, discuss the issues regarding the independence and impartiality of the ECI. (250 words)

 Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India (ECI) and discuss the issues regarding the independence and impartiality of the ECI.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief introduction about Election Commission of India (ECI).

Body:

Highlight its administrative, advisory and quasi-judicial powers and functions.

State the provisions regarding the Commission’s independence and discuss various issues surrounding it.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is essential to impart requisite institutional protection and independence so that public faith in the EC is strengthened.

Introduction:    

The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country. The Election Commission operates under the authority of Constitution per Article 324, and subsequently enacted Representation of the People Act. It was established on January 25, 1950.

Body:

The powers of ECI:

  • Power to Superintendent, Direct and Control:
    • The Election Commission has got the power to conduct electoral rolls for all the elections of Parliament, State Legislature, Offices of President and Vice President.
    • The Election Commission has the power of Superintendence, Direction and control over the preparation of the electoral rolls.
  • Power to Order Re-Poll:
    • Article 324 confers on the Election Commission not only the power to conduct elections but also the power to order a fresh poll.
    • The order for re-poll may be given if there is hooliganism, breakdown of law and order at the time of polling or during counting of votes.
  • Power to Allot Symbols:
    • The Election Commission is empowered by the rule 5(1) of the rules made by the Central Government under Representation of People’s Act, 1951 to specify the symbols to the candidates for elections.
    • The Symbols Order, 1968 has also been issued by the Election Commission read with the above mentioned rules.
  • Power to Postpone the Elections:
    • In the case Digvijay Mote v. Union of India the Supreme Court has ruled that if there is any kind of disturbing situations going on in a state or in any part of the state which is preventing the conduction of free and fair elections, then the Election Commission has got the power to postpone the elections.
  • Power to Seek Information Regarding Election Expenses:
    • In the case Registered Society v. UOI, the question regarding the “election expenses” incurred by the political parties during the time of elections was brought before the court.
    • The Court ruled that the purity of election is fundamental to democracy and therefore the Election Commission has got the power to issues such directions requiring the political parties to submit to the Election Commission, for its scrutiny, the details of the expenditure incurred during elections.
  • Decriminalization of Politics:
    • Election Commission is seriously concerned about the existing criminalization in politics. In order to curb the criminal activities in politics it has taken variety of initiatives which are as follows;
  • Model Code of Conduct:
    • Election Commission in every election prescribes the model code of conduct for both political parties and the candidates which deals with the manner in which the political parties and the candidates should conduct themselves during elections in order to push forward free and fair elections.
  • Limiting The Poll Expense:
    • India has already experienced many elections where there has been vulgar show of money during elections.
    • In order to get rid of such activities, the Election Commission has issued limit on the amount that can be spent by a candidate during the election campaign.
    • Election Commission also appoints expenditure observers to keep an eye on the expenses incurred by the candidates during election campaign.

Functions of ECI include:

  • Primary Functions:
    • The primary function of the Election Commission which is entrusted by the Constitution is superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for and conduct of the elections to Parliament and to the legislature of every state and also of the elections to the offices of the President and Vice President of India.
    • Other primary functions of Election Commission include demarcation of constituencies, preparation of electoral rolls, arranging sufficient staff for smoothly conducting the elections, conduction of polls, briefings the details of elections to media
  • Advisory function:
    • The Election Commission has got an important duty of advising the President and the Governor in the matter of disqualification of sitting members of Parliament, State Legislature on all grounds other than the ground of defection. (Art 103 and 192).
    • The Election Commission has been vested with advisory jurisdiction under the law. If a person is found guilty of corrupt practise at election which comes before High Court in Election petition is before Supreme Court in election appeal, the President decides the question whether such persons should be disqualified from contesting future elections and, if so, for what period.
  • Quasi-Judicial Functions:
    • All political parties wishing to contest in the elections must register themselves with the Election Commission. Such function of registration of political parties by the Election Commission has been held by the Supreme Court as quasi-judicial function of the commission.
    • The Supreme Court also held that in merger disputes between two political parties, the Election Commission exercises the judicial power of state and against whose decision an appeal shall straight away lie to Supreme Court under appellate jurisdiction under Art. 136.

ECI currently faces some challenges which are seen as its limitations:

  • Model code of conduct:
    • The lack of statutory backing of MCC makes it difficult to be implemented in its true letter and spirit.
    • MCC has become increasingly more difficult in recent times due to evolution of new mediums of communications and innovative and overzealous campaigning.
    • Social media is an evolving platform. It provides an intimate, immediate and democratic space for information dissemination and interaction. The scale and depth of this platform is so vast that it is practically impossible to oversight and regulates it in a liberal democracy like India.
  • Lack of Autonomy:
    • According to the Supreme Court of India, The Election Commission has to act in conformity with the law (representatives of People’s Act) made by Parliament and it cannot transgress the same.
    • The election process of Chief election commission is not interference proof. The expenditure incurred by it is not charged on consolidated fund of India.
    • It doesn’t even has a separate dedicated staff for conducting election process and has to be dependent on various government departments for roping in personnel.
  • Decreasing credibility:
    • Many political parties challenged the tampering with the EVMs which led to victory of a particular party.
    • Frequent use of money power and muscle power is being viewed as rude shock to fairness of election pr
  • Insufficient Plenary powers:
    • The EC can only disqualify a candidate if the money expenditure is no shown in his accounts. Other than that use of illicit money and black money tackling is outside the purview of EC.
    • However, it has recommended the govt. to amend RPA and make it an offence. It has also suggested to include new clause 58 (B) to empower itself to cancel poll in case of muscle power use.
  • Structural issues:
    • The Constitution has not prescribed the qualifications (legal, educational, administrative or judicial) of the members of the Election Commission.
    • The Constitution has not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.
    • The tenure of Election commissioner not fixed hence not safe and independent of government’s intervention.

Way forward:

  • ECI has taken stringent measures to overcome many of the challenges like VVPAT, open challenge to hack the EVM, multi- stakeholder involvement of social media companies to regulate the Social media during MCC, cVIGIL to involve people also in MCC activities etc.
  • However, there needs to be some positive action from the side of the Government too to incorporate changes.
  • Further, full usage of the powers of EC is the need of the hour to ensure MCC is followed in true letter and spirit.
  • Technology has been a saviour for ECI over a period of time. Innovative usage of the social media and apps like cVIGIL can be leveraged to make elections free and fair.

Conclusion:

EC has transformed itself into an institution which is trusted by Indian people. Its various recommendations and moves to keep up with the challenges of the times have strengthened the elections process. Its neutrality, efficiency and work ethic are well established now. Robustness of our election results, peaceful transition of power and people’s faith in the EC stand testimony to all its virtues. It certainly is the dark knight of our democracy.


Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

4) Discuss the framework of the security forces in India. List the security agencies in India and their respective mandates.(250 words) 

The hindu

Reference

Why this question:

The article highlights the attempt that is underway to shift the operational control of Assam Rifles from the Army to the Home Ministry.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and one must discuss in detail the framework of the security forces in India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the internal security scenario of the country.

Body:

Provide for a detailed overview of the system works, straightaway list the security agencies in India and their respective mandates.

Explain that there are external and internal threats to security of India and different specialized forces of India deal with these threats. The external threats are handled often by the Armed Forces under the Ministry of Defence, while internal threats are managed by the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their significance.

Introduction:    

Reports suggest that an attempt is under way to shift the operational control of Assam Rifles from the Army to the Home Ministry. Having failed to convince the discerning political leaders, the current effort is to hijack Assam Rifles by transferring its full control to the Home Ministry, and replace Army officers with police officers.

Body:

In 2009, the draft Cabinet note for the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) was moved to amalgamate the Assam Rifles, a paramilitary force, with the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), a Central Armed Police Force, and provide leadership from the police, replacing military leadership. This proposal was turned down by the CCS, understandably recognising the importance of the history and traditions of Assam Rifles, and the crucial role it continues to play in the security of the Northeast region.

Home grown challenges and threats from across international borders have taken different shapes, be it ethnic insurgency, militancy or terrorism that have weakened and damaged the nation.

Central Armed Police Forces: There are many divisions of Central Armed Police Force, which deal with internal threats.

  • Assam Rifles (AR): The Assam Rifles contribution towards assimilation of the people of the North-East into the national mainstream is truly monumental. They perform many roles including the provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of counter insurgency and border security operations, provision of aid to the civil power in times of emergency, and the provision of communications, medical assistance and education in remote areas.

 

  • Border Security Force (BSF): Its operational responsibility is spread over 6385.36 kms. of international border along Indo-Pakistan, Indo-Bangladesh borders. BSF is also deployed on LoC in J&K under operational control of the Army.

 

  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF): Raised in the year 1969, CISF is presently providing security cover to important installations like space and atomic energy establishments, sea ports, airports, coal mines, steel plants, thermal and hydel power plants, oil and petrochemicals installations, heavy industries, defence establishments, security presses, museums and historical monuments. The charter of CISF has been expanded to provide security cover to VIPs as well as to provide technical consultancy services relating to security and fire protection to industries in public and private sectors.

 

  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF): The Force is presently handling a wide range of duties covering law and order, counter insurgency, anti-militancy and anti-terrorism operations. The Force plays a key role in assisting States in maintaining public order and countering subversive activities of militant groups.

 

  • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): ITBP plays an important role in organizing the annual Kailash Mansarovar Yatra besides providing assistance in disaster management in the central and western Himalayan regions. New challenging role that has emerged for ITBP is disaster management as it is the first responder for natural Disaster in Himalayas. ITBP is in the forefront of movement for the preservation of Himalayan environment & ecology.

 

  • National Security Guard (NSG): National Security Guard was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect States against internal disturbances”. The primary role of this Force is to combat terrorism in whatever form it may assume in areas where activity of terrorists assumes serious proportions, and the State Police and other Central Police Forces cannot cope up with the situation.

 

  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB): As a border guarding force and lead intelligence agency (LIA) for Indo-Nepal border and Indo-Bhutan border. To promote sense of security among the people living in the border area. To prevent trans-border crimes and unauthorized entries into or exit from the territory of India. To prevent smuggling and other illegal activities.

Challenges in moving AR from Defence to Home ministry guard:

  • The Northeast is the most volatile and insurgency-affected region of India after Kashmir.
  • Besides operating from within the region, militants surreptitiously operate from neighbouring countries by exploiting the free movement regime along the India-Myanmar border and inaccessible terrain.
  • These borders, though settled, require specialised skills, not just mere policing functions.
  • Recently China has brought its frontier troops, including those guarding its border with India, directly under the military command, removing civilian control over them.
  • The India-Myanmar border, though manned by Myanmar’s Border Guard Police, is also controlled by Myanmar’s Army for conducting seamless operations against insurgent groups operating against the state.

Way forward:

  • A more viable alternative for the Home Ministry would be to look inwards and merge ITBP with the Sashastra Seema Bal to space out the almost continuous high altitude tenures of ITBP personnel.
  • Since both are being led by police officers, internal management would be easier.
  • It is more prudent to have a specialised counterinsurgency force, which doubles as a reserve for conventional war.
  • This is due to its continued functioning, manning and training under the Army with a similar ethos and structure.

Conclusion:

Downgrading Assam Rifles from its present status of paramilitary force by merging a part or whole of it with a Central Armed Police Force will not only impinge on national security but also affect the strength and morale of the force. Shifting Assam Rifles under a cadre which is looking to just create career opportunities places personal interests over national security


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5) What is preventive precision medicine? Discuss in what way it can help India address inequities in healthcare system.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses the relevance of mapping genes to the Indian healthcare system.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the concept of preventive precision medicine and its utility to Indian healthcare system.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the concept of precision medicine.

Body:

Discuss the concept – It is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.

Take hints from the article and explain in what way can help and aid the health system of India.

Quote examples to signify the utility of such an idea.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its relevance to Indian health system.

 

Introduction:    

Preventive Precision medicine is “an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.” This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people.

Body:

Precision medicine:

  • It is about devising a tailor-made treatment process for each patient with detailed specifics for the right drugs, doses, medication timing and course duration, by capturing data about his or her genetic coding, environment and lifestyle.
  • Laying the groundwork for a participatory, predictive and preventive healthcare service delivery system, it offers an effective and scalable solution to today’s healthcare problems.
  • Precision medicine focuses on specific treatments by getting to the root of the illness.
  • This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people.
  • It is in contrast to a one-size-fits-all approach, in which disease treatment and prevention strategies are developed for the average person, with less consideration for the differences between individuals.

IndiGen benefits for precision medicine:

  • The whole genome data will be important for building the knowhow, baseline data and indigenous capacity in the emerging area of Precision Medicine.
  • The benefits include epidemiology of genetic diseases to enable cost effective genetic tests, carrier screening applications for expectant couples, enabling efficient diagnosis of heritable cancers and pharmacogenetic tests to prevent adverse drug reactions.
  • The outcomes will have applications in a number of areas including predictive and preventive medicine with faster and efficient diagnosis of rare genetic diseases.
  • The outcomes will be utilized towards understanding the genetic diversity on a population scale, make available genetic variant frequencies for clinical applications and enable genetic epidemiology of diseases.

Preventive Precision Medicine can help address inequities:

  • Preventive precision medicine of this kind can help address inequities in how healthcare is financed.
  • The combined government expenditure on healthcare was around 1.4% of India’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2017-18.
  • Private expenditure is three times as much, which means individuals and families bear an overwhelming share of the costs.
  • By some estimates, as many as 39 million people are pushed into poverty by healthcare expenses.
  • Given such a pattern, making information about potential health risks available, raising awareness and providing counselling services can help reduce the incidence of many diseases.

Conclusion:

If the Indian government creates a national genomic platform now, it would serve as inclusive health infrastructure and enable future generations to lead much healthier lives, without having to suffer debilitating financial burdens.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6)  “The world perishes not from bandits and fires, but from hatred, hostility and sheer apathy”. Comment.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is quotation based and tends to analyse the effect of negative emotions on the society.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain how the harmful effects of harboring negative emotions far outweigh the harm done by physical acts of theft or loss of material possessions.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Open up the quote in the question statement and explain its meaning.

Body:

Bring out the underlying theme of statement – State how harm done by harboring negative emotions is much greater than done by any physical harm.

Explain through examples/illustrations how negative emotions are detrimental.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a suitable way forward suggesting a framework to address it

Introduction:    

Negative emotions can be defined as “as an unpleasant or unhappy emotion which is evoked in individuals to express a negative effect towards an event or person”. A few of the most commonly felt negative emotions are Fear, Anger, Disgust, Sadness, Rage etc.

Body:

Buddha once said “Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”

Anger is mostly instinct than rational thinking so most of the time people behave in an animal manner since animal works mostly on instinct. It is injurious to

  • personal life: For instance, a Father beat a child for stealing Rs10 repeatedly the end result can be more rebellious child who will look for more money or may be less emotional developed child.
  • professional life: for instance, if a boss humiliates the employee for not coming to office without finding the actual cause can often result into abomination towards boss which sometime result in revenge and leaking of sensitive company data.

Like anger, Apathy can arise when we lose control over a scenario or situation but instead of becoming angry, we pursue a more passive-aggressive expression of rebellion. The lack of apathy could lead to effects on the social fabric like mistreatment of marginalized section of the society, Lack of emotions towards animals, insensitivity, instances like Mob lynching etc.

However, at times negative emotions are necessary. Although they are not pleasant to experience, negative emotions really are necessary for a healthy life. This is true for two big reasons:

  • Negative emotions give us a counterpoint to positive emotions; without the negative, would the positive emotions still feel as good?
  • Negative emotions serve evolutionary purposes, encouraging us to act in ways that boost our chances of survival and help us grow and develop as people.
  • For instance, Anger: to fight against problems and Fear: to protect us from danger

Conclusion:

As a human being, one will experience a full range of emotions throughout your lifetime in response to rapidly changing situations. No emotion is without purpose. It’s when we begin to further explore and understand the purpose behind each emotion, that we learn new ways to respond which supports our emotional growth and sense of well-being.