RSTV: IN DEPTH- NOBEL PRIZE 2019
The 2019 Nobel Prize announcements were made. The first prize in the category of physiology or medicine have been given to a trio of scientists for their work on cells’ ability to sense and react to oxygen availability. The Nobel Prize in Physics has also been announced for three scientists for their contribution to the understanding of the evolution of the universe. While for Chemistry as well, the Nobel Prize has been given to three scientists who have worked to develop and advance lithium-ion batteries. Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who made peace last year with bitter foe Eritrea, has been awarded the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award given for intellectual achievement in the world. They are awarded annually from a fund bequeathed for the purpose by Alfred Nobel. The laureates will be honoured at an elegant ceremony on December 10 – the death anniversary of Alfred Nobel.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019:
- The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”
- They identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen.
- This year’s Nobel Laureates revealed the mechanism for one of life’s most essential adaptive processes.
- They established the basis for our understanding of how oxygen levels affect cellular metabolism and physiological function.
- Their discoveries have also paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019:
- The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics are awarded ”for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”, with one half to James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology” and the other half jointly to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.”
- It rewards new understanding of the universe’s structure and history, and the first discovery of a planet orbiting a solar-type star outside our solar system.
- This year’s Laureates have contributed to answering fundamental questions about our existence. What happened in the early infancy of the universe and what happened next? Could there be other planets out there, orbiting other suns?
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019:
- The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry are awarded to John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”.
- Through their work, they have created the right conditions for a wireless and fossil fuel-free society, and so brought the greatest benefit to humankind.
- It rewards the development of the lithium-ion battery.
- This lightweight, rechargeable and powerful battery is now used in everything from mobile phones to laptops and electric vehicles.
- It can also store significant amounts of energy from solar and wind power, making possible a fossil fuel-free society.
The Nobel Prizes in Literature for 2018 and 2019:
- The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2018 is awarded to the Polish author Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life.”
- The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2019 is awarded to the Austrian author Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.”
The Nobel Peace Prize 2019
- Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali is awarded the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize for his important work to promote reconciliation, solidarity and social justice.
- The prize is also meant to recognise all the stakeholders working for peace and reconciliation in Ethiopia and in the East and Northeast African regions.
- Abiy Ahmed Ali has initiated important reforms that give many citizens hope for a better life and a brighter future.
- The Norwegian Nobel Committee believes it is now that Abiy Ahmed’s efforts deserve recognition and need encouragement.
- Abiy Ahmed Ali is Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia since April 2018. He was born in Beshasha, Ethiopia.
- Abiy Ahmed Ali is the first Ethiopian to be awarded a Nobel Prize. This year’s prize is also the 100th Nobel Peace Prize.
Following Indians (or individuals of Indian origin) have been honoured with the Nobel: Rabindranath Tagore (Literature, 1913), C V Raman (Physics, 1930), Hargobind Khorana (Medicine, 1968), Mother Teresa (Peace, 1979), Subramanian Chandrashekhar (Physics, 1983), the Dalai Lama (Peace, 1989), Amartya Sen (Economics, 1998), Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (2009), and Kailash Satyarthi (Peace, 2014).
Nobel Prize Facts:
- On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace – the Nobel Prizes.
- In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
- 923 Laureates and 27 organizations have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2019.
- Of them, 84 are Laureates in Economic Sciences. A small number of individuals and organizations have been honoured more than once, which means that 919 individuals and 24 unique organizations have received the Nobel Prize in total.
- Between 1901 and 2019 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 54 times to women.
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