Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 OCTOBER 2019

Are you Ready for Insta 75 Days Revision Plan (UPSC Prelims - 2020)?


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1) What do you understand by ‘Sarpanch Pati’ in the context of Indian society? Examine the causative factors and impact of such culture. (150 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Panchayati Raj institutions are a watershed in India’s democratic history as they not only percolated democratic decentralization to the grassroots level but also made a giant leap in women empowerment by granting them 33% reservation. This decentralization model has its own blend of realism and tokenism. The question critically analyses Role of Women in Panchayati Raj Institutions.

Key demand of the question:

One must bring out the drawbacks of the phenomena of Sarpanch pati, discuss the challenges it poses and one should suggest solutions to such a concern.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly introduce the phenomenon of Sarpanch pati. 

Body:

Explain first the reasons behind emergence of this phenomenon – Poor social status of women, lack of education, social barriers placed by the traditional orthodox and parochial society, absence of recognition of women and their contributions etc.

Discuss the impact of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting what needs to be done and how can such a situation be overcome.

Introduction:

The 73rd constitutional amendment constitutionalized the local self-government with reservation of one third seats in Panchayats for women. A number of states raised the quantum of reserved seats to fifty percent. This was aimed at empowering women and ensuring their participation in political process and decision making at grass root level.

However, due to poor socio-economic status of women and prevailing patriarchal set-up, the intended benefit of emergence of women leadership at Panchayat level was not fully realized. The effective political power and decision making is wielded by husbands of elected women representatives. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘sarpanch-pati’.

Body:

Prime Minister called for an end to the practice of “husbands of women sarpanches” or “sarpanch pati” exercising undue influence on the work of their wives elected to power.

Causative factors:

  • Poor socio-economic status of women: Women in general have poor access to education, they are restricted to domestic spaces, they lack economic independence, they are not allowed participation in decision making at family level. This situation of lower social status results in them being mere ’titular heads’ and hampers their ability to challenge their husbands. In most cases, such “takeovers” have happened without the wife’s consent.
  • The lack of information and knowledge about government programs especially for both women and child development poses problems. However, again limited exposure to formal education breeds information gap and dependency on second-hand knowledge. In fact, consequently, political lineage determines the distribution of benefits of the different schemes.
  • Socio-Cultural barriers due to traditional society: Indian society in villages is still traditional and conservative e.g. in rural areas tradition of parda or veil is very strong especially North Indian states, women are discouraged in public spaces, even government officials at local level avoid talking to women due to conservative outlook. The veil, when imposed on women, severely hinders their public participation. This gives de facto control to Husbands in day to day activities of panchayats. Even in Gram Sabha meetings Husbands of elected representative take charge.
  • Absence of government initiative: Despite this widespread phenomenon, government failed to act against the practice, either through a strong deterrence through law or through public awareness.
  • Dual responsibility: Women traditionally burdened with domestic workers face difficulties in balancing the official work with their home.
  • The communication problem hinders performance as most of the correspondences, rules and also the regulations are in English.
  • Due to the lack of exposure and experience women, members face difficulty in asserting themselves. And the fact that the majority of women enter politics through reservation and kinship arrangement only accentuates this problem.

Impacts of Sarpanch-pati system:

  • Disempowerment of women: This phenomenon hinders the intended empowerment of women which was one of the aims of 73rd constitutional amendments through reservation of seats. In terms of social status of women, the status-quo is maintained.
  • Poor implementation of law: This phenomenon effectively manipulates the law effectively preventing its implementation in letter and spirit. The rule of law in such situation is casualty to social prejudices against women.
  • Lack of opportunity in decision making: this phenomenon reduces women’s ability to participate in decision making at village level.

Conclusion:

Reservation of seats in Panchayats was revolutionary step for the empowerment of women. However, for this to be effective government should address the phenomenon of ‘sarpanch pati’ through an effective law by outlawing such practice. capacity building of women in matters of governance, raising society’s awareness about women rights and sensitizing bureaucracy about importance of women participation at panchayat level.


Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2) “It was a strong belief of Mahatma Gandhi that in the non-violent struggle of Swaraj, the women of India can leave behind men by a mile.” Comment. (250 words)

 

Why this question:

For Mahatma Gandhi, Swaraj was not just liberation from foreign rule. It was a multi-dimensional concept. The question aims to ascertain the role of women in Swaraj.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the significant role women played in attaining Swaraj for India.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Introduce by explaining the Gandhian concept of Swaraj.

Body:

Explain first the idea of women empowerment as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi – According to Gandhiji, traits like perseverance and peaceful resistance of authority should be the ideals of women in India. They are the symbol of moral power.

Gandhian movements helped women shed their deep-rooted sense of inferiority and rise to dignity and self-esteem.

Gandhiji was against evil socio-religious practices like child marriage, purdah system, dowry system, etc.

Quote some women leaders during the period of struggle for Swaraj and highlight their significant role.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Women’s entry into national politics through non-violent methods brought miraculous results. On one hand, women became aware of their inner strength, and on the other, the process brought human and moral elements into politics.

Introduction:

Gandhiji was an ardent believer in equality and relentlessly spoke of women empowerment. Gandhiji said that ‘Women is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental capacity’

Body:

Gandhiji’s perception of women:

  • There was a marked departure of Gandhi’s perception of women from that of other reformers. The stance taken by other social reformers and leaders, prior to Gandhi created a helpless image of the Indian women.
  • With the emergence of Gandhi, a new conception of women gradually gained currency. For Gandhi, women were not mere toys in the hands of men, neither their competitors.
  • Men and women are essentially endowed with the same spirit and therefore have similar problems. Women are at par with men, one complementing the other.
  • According to Gandhi, education for women was the need of the time that would ensure their moral development and make them capable of occupying the same platform as that of men.
  • In Gandhi’s views, women can never be considered to be the weaker sex.
  • In fact, women for Gandhi were embodiments of virtues like knowledge, humility, tolerance, sacrifice and faith.
  • These qualities were essential prerequisites for imbibing the virtue of satyagraha.
  • The capability of enduring endless suffering can be witnessed only in the women, according to the Mahatma.
  • The doctrine of ahimsa as preached by Gandhi incorporates the virtue of suffering as is evident in the women.
  • Therefore, Gandhi envisaged a critical role for women in establishing non-violence. Gandhi invoked the instances of ancient role models who were epitomes of Indian womanhood, like Draupadi, Savitri, Sita and Damayanti, to show that Indian women could never be feeble.
  • Women have equal mental abilities as that of men an equal right to freedom.
  • To sum up in Gandhi’s words; “The wife is not the husband’s slave but his companion and his help-mate and an equal partner in all his joys and sorrows – as free as the husband to choose her own path.”

Role of Women as Envisaged by Gandhi:

  • According to Gandhi, the role of women in the political, economic and social emancipation of the country was of overriding importance.
  • Gandhi had immense faith in the capability of women to carry on a nonviolent crusade. Under his guidance and leadership, women shouldered critical responsibilities in India’s struggle for freedom.
  • Women held public meetings, organized picketing of shops selling foreign alcohol and articles, sold Khadi and actively participated in National Movements.
  • They bravely faced the baton of the police and even went behind the bars.
  • Gandhi’s urge to women to join India’s struggle for independence was instrumental in transforming the outlook of women.
  • Swaraj uprooted age old taboos and restrictive customs. Through their participation in Indian struggle for freedom, women of India broke down the shackles of oppression that had relegated them to a secondary position from time immemorial.
  • As far as the economic emancipation of women was concerned, Gandhi felt that men and women had different spheres of work.
  • In his opinion, women could take to economic activities to supplement the income of her families like spinning, which he believed to be a good option available to the women.
  • In the social realm, Gandhi envisaged a critical role for women in doing away with the forces of communalism, caste system and untouchability.

Conclusion:

It can be said without an iota of doubt that Mahatma Gandhi was indeed one of the greatest advocates of women’s liberty and all throughout his life toiled relentlessly to improve the status of women in his country. His faith in their immense capabilities found expression in his decisions to bestow leadership to them in various nationalistic endeavours.


Topic:Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3) Discuss whether mandatory linking of Aadhaar to social media accounts violates an individual’s right to privacy, and the balance between intermediary liability and free speech.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article brings out a detailed discussion upon the balance between intermediary liability and free speech in the days of rising use of Internet.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the recent step taken by the government of India to frame rules to regulate social media citing unimaginable disruption to democracy and the growing menace of fake news.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In first explain the step being taken the GOI.

Body:

Currently, liabilities of the intermediaries on online content are governed by the Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines) Rules operational from April 2011.

The government now says that they recognise that rules need to be revisited and has initiated a consultation process on framing the revised guidelines.

The government aims to ramp up the regulatory regime considering the ever-growing threats to individual rights and the nation’s integrity, sovereignty, and security.

Explain then the concerns raised by Social Media intermediaries.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

From January, the Supreme Court will hear cases seeking the linking of Aadhaar with social media profiles of individuals. It will be the first big legal battle on the right to privacy after the Supreme Court held in a landmark verdict in 2017 that privacy is a fundamental right.

Body:

Need for linking of Aadhar:

  • To keep a check on the spread of fake news, pornographic and anti-national content, among other things.
  • The government has referred to the Blue Whale game, the online suicide challenge that has reportedly claimed hundreds of deaths in countries like Russia and India.
  • In the case of the Blue Whale challenge, the government found it hard to trace the originator of the online content.

Opposition to this move:

  • Social media platforms like Facebook have been fighting this move to link user profiles with Aadhaar as they believe it would violate the users’ privacy policy.
  • Facebook has also defended itself, saying that it cannot share the 12-digit Aadhaar number on WhatsApp as it is end-to-end encrypted, even for Facebook.
  • If the apex court rules in favour of Aadhaar linking with social media accounts, it would end private communications and experts believe this could also allow the government to use social media platforms as surveillance tools.

Concerns of linking social media with Aadhaar card:

  • Cyberspace is like an ocean — endless and limitless — and we just cannot restrict it by or within any geography. There is no Indian internet as such.
  • Since Aadhaar has almost all information related to our bank accounts it is better to avoid treading that path.
  • Also, a social media account is a private account of a person — it necessarily does not have to be linked to a government database just for the sake of privacy.
  • Linking with Aadhaar will be jeopardizing the independence and democratic rights of the person for one never knows know that data may be misused by the companies or the government of the day.

Measures needed:

  • Phone verification: Most of the folks and younger generation use social media from their phones. There are already norms that every phone number needs to be verified — the need of the hour is to get them implemented more stringently on the ground.
  • Another way is KYC option of linking social media accounts via the traditional physical verification option or through the references options.
  • There is also a big need to create awareness among the users to stop propagating fake news and verify the news because in the long run an educated consumer of news is the best antidote to fake news.

 Way ahead:

As a country, we must focus on investing on research to develop the technology to save our virtual space and not open our data for any misuse.


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4) India is planning to frame rules to regulate social media citing unimaginable disruption to democracy and the growing menace of fake news. In this context discuss what are the concerns raised by Social Media intermediaries? And suggest way forward.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

India plans to frame rules to regulate social media citing unimaginable disruption to democracy and the growing menace of fake news. 

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concerns associated with social media intermediaries. What are the issues around it?

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the context of the article.

Body:

Explain that Currently, a liability of the intermediaries on online content is governed by the Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines) Rules operational from April 2011.

The government now says that they recognise that rules need to be revisited and has initiated a consultation process on framing the revised guidelines.

The government aims to ramp up the regulatory regime considering the ever-growing threats to individual rights and the nation’s integrity, sovereignty, and security.

Discuss the point that Social media intermediaries like Facebook and WhatsApp have argued that “seeking to trace the origin of messages” would lead to loss of individual privacy.

Conclusion:

Conclude that while the government must ensure that privacy is not compromised, Social Media companies must not take umbrage under the right to privacy.

Introduction:

The Central Government recently informed the Supreme Court that the entire process of finalising the laws on regulating social media will be completed by January 2020. The Supreme Court transferred to itself all cases pending before HCs relating to web content regulation. The petition urged the Court to transfer to itself certain petitions filed in various High Courts for linking social media accounts to Aadhaar numbers.

Body:

The Tamil Nadu government told the Supreme Court that social media profiles should be linked to users’ Aadhaar number to check terrorist messages, pornography, and fake news.

Government’s stance on need for rules:

  • The government also informed the apex court that, in the last few years, there has been an enormous increase in the use of social media and with lower Internet tariffs, smart devices and last-mile connectivity, more and more people in India are becoming part of the Internet and social media platforms.
  • While appreciative of technology for ushering in economic growth and societal development, the government also raised concerns over the exponential rise in hate speech, fake news, threat to public order, anti-national activities, defamatory postings, and other unlawful activities in these platforms.
  • Internet has emerged as a potent tool to cause unimaginable disruption to the democratic polity, it was felt that the extant rules be revised for effective regulation of intermediaries keeping in view the ever growing threats to individual rights and nation’s integrity, sovereignty, and security.

Concerns raised by Social media intermediaries:

  • Social media intermediaries, Internet companies and privacy advocates say the new measures are a threat to free speech.
  • All “intermediaries” are required to “proactively” purge their platforms of “unlawful” content or else potentially face criminal or civil liability.
  • The rules also require services to make information about the senders of content and messages available to government agencies for surveillance purposes.
  • Amending Section 79 of India’s IT Act would require internet companies to take down content deemed inappropriate by authorities.
  • Implementing such a measure would effectively break the end-to-end encryption services of platforms like Facebook-owned WhatsApp.
  • Another recommendation would require internet companies to purge their platforms of “unlawful” content, although a clear definition of what that actually constitutes has yet to be decided, prompting concerns that its loose definition leaves it open to abuse.
  • The regulatory provisions will turn internet companies into censors and undermine users’ security.

Measures needed:

  • We do need to find ways to hold social media platforms to higher standards of responsibility, and tackling harmful content on the internet is no doubt a challenging task.
  • One-size-fits-all obligations for all types of online services and all types of unlawful content is arbitrary and disproportionately harms smaller players.
  • Requiring services to decrypt encrypted data weakens overall security and contradicts the principles of data minimization, endorsed in MEITY’s draft data protection bill.
  • Disproportionate operational obligations, like mandatorily internet companies to incorporate in India, are likely to spur market exit and deter market entry for SMEs.

Conclusion:

Any conversation on additional regulation of social media brings up concerns about privacy and surveillance. Therefore, any bid at regulating expression online has to be proportional and concrete with adequate redressal mechanisms and without any blanket provisions.


TOPIC:   Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment, Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, and Human Resources.

5) Agreeing to the recently released National milk sample safety quality survey, contamination in milk is a more severe problem than adulteration. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

National milk sample safety quality survey has been released by the Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI). The “most comprehensive and representative” milk safety and quality survey has demolished the perception of large-scale milk adulteration in India.

Key demand of the question:

One has to debate upon the fact that in India, contamination in milk is a more severe problem than adulteration. Suggest solutions to it by providing a brief analysis of the issue.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the findings of the survey.

Body:

First quote the Key findings of the report.

FSSAI has claimed that the quality of milk in the country is largely safe. However, it has added that contamination due to Aflatoxin M1 and Antibiotic residues is a more serious problem than adulteration.

Explain in detail the concerns associated.

Suggest what should be the way forward to handle the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

The Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) recently released National milk sample safety quality survey. This is the first-of-its-kind comprehensive survey FSSAI has conducted through a third-party agency. It covered both organised (retailers and processors) as well as non-organised (local dairy farms, milk vendors and milk mandis) sectors.

Body:

Key findings:

  • Around one-tenth of processed milk samples have safety issues, while over a third of the samples, even those of major brands, failed to meet one quality standard or another.
  • In the survey of 2,607 processed milk samples, 10.4% had safety issues while another 37.7% missed at least one quality standard.
  • Both raw and processed samples were found non-compliant on account of low fat or low SNF (solid not fat) or both. Proportion of fat and solid non-fat in milk varies widely by species and depends on breed as well as quality of feed and fodder.
  • In the survey of 3,825 raw milk samples, about 47% missed one quality parameter or another, while another 4.8% had safety issues.
  • On an average only, 7% of the milk had safety issues, and that most of the milk sold both in raw and processed form was fit for human consumption.
  • Out of the total 6,432 samples of liquid milk which were tested, 456 samples (7.1 per cent) were found to be unsafe due to contaminants such as Aflatoxin-M1, antibiotics or pesticides.

Measures needed:

  • To address these issues, FSSAI and the government are instituting a scheme for testing and sampling for organised dairy players. The scheme will be implemented from January 1, 2020.
  • The scheme stipulates sampling points during various stages of milk processing, test methods and frequency of sampling.
  • all attempts need to taken both before and after food crop harvest to reduce the toxin amount.
  • Improper storage of food harvest in warm and humid conditions leads to aflatoxin contamination that is much higher than what is seen in the field. Equally important is in having facilities to regularly test for aflatoxin M1.

TOPIC: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6) India intends to move away entirely from single-use plastics by 2022,yet the fact is India hasn’t had much success with plastic waste regulation despite ambitious policy moves. Discuss in detail the underlying causes of such a situation and suggest solutions.( 250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

The article captures a detailed discussion on What does India’s plastic regulation provide for, and where does it fall short.

Key demand of the question:

One must debate upon the plastic regulation scenario of the country. 

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief state some key facts to set the context of the question.

Body:

The answer must detail upon what ails India when it comes to meaningful action on reducing plastic waste.

Explain what does India’s plastic regulation provide for, and where does it fall short?

Discuss that India has tried to regulate plastic pollution for at least two decades now. And yet nearly every stakeholder seems ill-prepared. Is regulation the problem, or is it industry and consumers who have simply failed to respond?

Suggest solutions specific to the problems.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Govt. of India has laid great emphasis on eradicating single use plastic which has become one of the biggest sources of pollution. During his Independence Day Speech this year Prime Minister Narendra Modi had urged the people to take a pledge on Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th Anniversary on 2nd October to make the country free of single use plastic.

Body:

Single Use plastic is a form of plastic that is disposable, which is only used once and then has to be thrown away or recycled. The single-use plastic items include plastic bags, water bottles, soda bottles, straws, plastic plates, cups, most food packaging and coffee stirrers. The single-use plastic products also prevent the spread of infection. Instruments such as syringes, applicators, drug tests, bandages and wraps are often made to be disposable. Also, single-use plastic products have been enlisted in the fight against food waste, keeping food and water fresher for longer and reducing the potential for contamination

India’s policies to curb single-use plastic:

  • The Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Rules, 2016, with specific obligations for every stakeholder in the plastic supply-chain, including the extended producer responsibility (EPR) for producers, importers, brand owners.
  • The Solid Waste Management Rules (SWM Rules), 2016, also have provisions for plastic waste, including EPR.
  • The Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016, mandated phase-out of chlorinated plastic bags, gloves and blood bags within two years.
  • Then there are state regulations banning single-use plastics (SUP).
  • Odisha has defined SUP as polythene carry-bags, bottled water of less than 200ml, disposable cutlery made of thermocol and plastics and decorative materials (flower and the likes) made of thermocol.
  • UP has excluded 200ml plastic water bottles and decorative materials, and included disposable tumblers, in the definition of SUP.
  • Tamil Nadu has defined SUP as “use and throw plastics,” which include plastic carry-bags, flags, plastic sheets used for food wrapping and spreading on the dining table, plastic plates, plastic-coated cups, tumblers, water pouches and packets.

Shortcomings in the above regulations:

  • The problem is with regulations, and with consumer awareness and industry’s status-quo approach.
  • There is a difference in EPR provisions under SWM Rules and PWM Rules.
  • SWM Rules say that manufacturers/brand-owners shall provide financial assistance to local authorities for establishing waste management systems to fulfil their EPR.
  • PWM Rules, however, don’t mention the financial contribution to local authorities.
  • Instead, these direct manufacturers/brand-owners to collect waste through their distribution channel or the local body concerned.
  • Implementation of the Biomedical Waste Management Rules is still lax.
  • States have different definitions of what constitutes SUP.
  • Consumer apathy is at the core of the problem. We all talk about plastic pollution, but end up using polythene bags. We crib about dumpsites, but litter ourselves, and waste segregation is still to take off meaningfully.
  • No company in India has shown leadership in dealing with plastic pollution.
  • our approach to rule-making is command-and-control or ruling with a stick, to be precise. The experience of the past 20 years should have made it clear that regulations and penalties are not sufficient to eliminate the use of SUP.

Solutions needed:

  • Proper plastic waste management will only happen if there is good municipal waste management. EPR provisions will have to be designed for this reality.
  • we must be more focused on recycling than bans, given almost 40% of the plastic waste generated in the country remains uncollected
  • To increase recycling, we must improve segregation of waste at source and improve the collection and transportation of segregated wastes.
  • Multi-Layered Plastics contain several polymers, they can’t be recycled. At best, they can be incinerated in cement plants, used as a refuse-derived fuel (RFD), used in road construction or for making down-cycled products.
  • plastic waste management can’t be treated as separate from solid waste management.
  • Along with banning thin plastic carry-bags, the government should also promote options like textile or paper bags.
  • A combination of economic and regulatory tools is required to incentivise quick entry of alternatives in a viable manner.

Global practices to tackle single-use plastic:

  • Globally, plastic waste regulation is about better segregation, collection, and then disposal.
  • The focus is not so much on the end-of-the-life reuse/recycling. This is the reason why, globally, more than 90% of the plastics are not recycled.
  • Sweden, which is considered to have one of the best plastic waste management systems. Its plastic recycling rate is meagre, as it burns most of its plastic waste to generate electricity.
  • Other developed countries, like the US, have outsourced plastic pollution. They consume a lot and then ship the waste to developing countries like China, India and now Africa.

Way forward:

  • Design for recycling. Instead of using multiple polymers in packaging like multilayered plastics, they should be shifting to single polymers that will aide recycling. This can be done quickly.
  • Reduce the weight of packaging and the need for packaging. There is a vast scope to reduce plastic consumption here. This is again a short- to medium-term goal.
  • Start developing, substituting plastic with alternatives. This is something that they need to start working immediately, but this is a medium- to long-term goal.
  • Start working closely with the local authorities to ensure littering is minimised and the collection of segregated plastics is maximised. This will reduce visible pollution, enhance recycling and end-of-life use.
  • The plastic life cycle eventually is “from oil to oil” or “from oil to ash (incineration).” So, we will have to develop state-of-the-art facilities for energy recovery and conversion.

Topic: Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) Compare and contrast code of ethics and code of conduct. (250 words) 

Ethics by Lexicon publications 

Why this question:

Both of these concepts are important concepts which share some similarities and several differences which need to be discussed upon.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to simply bring out in detail the differences between the Code of Ethics and the Code of Conduct and draw a detailed comparison of the same.

Directive:

Compare and contrastprovide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Mention that both Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct are similar as they are used in an attempt to encourage specific forms of behaviour by employees. However, the two have several differences between them.

Body:

Start by defining both the terms first.

An aspirational document, issued by the higher level management/ board of directors containing core ethical values, principles and ideals of the organization is Code of Ethics while as a directional document containing specific practices and behavior, that are followed or restricted under the organization is Code of Conduct; the former is general and wide in nature while as the latter is specific and narrow in range; COE governs decision making while as COC governs actions;  Code of Conduct are originated from the code of ethics, and it converts the rules into specific guidelines, that must be followed by the members of the organisation;COE is focused on values and principles while as COC is focused on compliance and rules etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Codes of ethics are those rules which govern decision-making and codes of conduct govern actions of people. These represent two common ways that companies or organisations self-regulate.

Body:

Code of Ethics:

  • Code of ethics is a written set of rules issued by an organization to its workforces and management to help them conduct their actions in accordance with its primary values and ethical standards
  • It defines the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioural expectations instead of specific activities.
  • For example, if an organization is committed to protecting the environment and “being green”, the Code of Ethics will state that there is an expectation for any employee faced with a problem, to choose the most “green” solution.
  • When faced with ethical dilemmas or debatable situations, what’s articulated in the Code of Ethics can help guide decision making.

Code of Conduct:

  • Codes of conduct represents the set of enforceable rules that should be followed by a person in an organisation. Codes, along with other measures, have helped some companies dig themselves out of scandals, and have helped many companies build a healthier work climate and reputation.
  • A Code of Conduct applies the Code of Ethics to a host of relevant situations. A particular rule in the Code of Ethics might state that all employees will obey the law, a Code of Conduct might list several specific laws relevant to different areas of organizational operations, or industry, that employees need to obey.
  • The Code of Conduct outlines specific behaviours that are required or prohibited as a condition of ongoing employment. It might forbid sexual harassment, racial intimidation or viewing inappropriate or unauthorized content on company computers.

Differences:

  • Both are used in an attempt to regulate behavior in very different ways.
  • Ethical standards generally are wide-ranging and non-specific, designed to provide a set of values or decision-making approaches that enable employees to make independent judgments about the most appropriate course of action.
  • Conduct standards generally require little judgment
  • Code of ethics is a set of principles which influence the judgement while the Code of conduct is a set of guidelines that influence employee’s actions.
  • The scope of code of ethics is wider than that of code of conduct
  • Code of Ethics is general in nature, whereas code of conduct is specific.
  • Code of Conduct are originated from the code of ethics, and it converts the rules into specific guidelines, that must be followed by the members of the organisation.
  • Lengthwise, code of ethics is a shorter document than a code of conduct.
  • Code of Ethics regulates the judgment of the organisation while a code of conduct regulates the actions.
  • Code of Ethics is publicly available, i.e. anyone can access it. Conversely, Code of Conduct is addressed to employees only.
  • Code of Ethics focuses on values or principles. On the other hand, Code of Conduct is focused on compliance and rules

Similarities:

  • Both a Code of Ethics and a Code of Conduct are similar as they are used in an attempt to encourage specific forms of behaviour by employees.
  • In both cases, the organization’s desire is to obtain a narrow range of acceptable behaviours from employees
  • Ethics guidelines attempt to provide guidance about values and choices to influence decision making.
  • Conduct regulations assert that some specific actions are appropriate, others inappropriate.

Conclusion:

Code of Conduct is actually extracted from the Code of Ethics. Therefore, the latter concept is wider than the former. Moreover, these codes are beneficial for businesses of any size and nature as the codes lays down direction which is helpful for employees, to behave in a particular manner and also making a public image of ethical behaviour.