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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 31 OCTOBER 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 31 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:   Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

1) What is the sub-terranean twin river system? Discuss with reference to the Amazon-Hamza twin river system. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I. 

Key demand of the question:

One should explain the concept of sub-terranean twin river system in detail and highlight the significance of Amazon-Hamza twin river system.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define twin river system – Two rivers flowing at different levels in the same region, i.e., on the ground surface and below the ground surface but following the same direction and the gradient is called the twin river system.

Body:

Start by explaining the fact that it is an unusual geological happening. Such a river system has been discovered in 2011 in Brazil, called the Amazon-Hamza river system. Hamza river is a subterranean river, which is flowing below the Amazon River.

Then move on to discuss key features of Amazon-Hamza twin river system.

Explain How Amazon and Hamza are two different rivers?

Conclusion:

Conclude that due to differences in flow, level and source of water these two rivers have been considered different and have been named as a subterranean twin river system.

Introduction:

Two rivers flowing at different levels in the same region i.e., on the ground surface and below the ground surface but following the same direction and gradient may be called twin-river system. Such river system is an example of geological unusual instance. Such twin-river system formed by the Amazon River and subterranean river just below the Amazon, named the Hamza River, has been recently discovered in the year 2011 in Brazil.

Body:

The river ‘Hamza,’ named after the discoverer, an Indian-born scientist Valiya Mannathal Hamza who is working with the National Observatory at Rio, makes it the first and geologically unusual instance of a twin-river system flowing at different levels of the earth’s crust in Brazil.

The following are the characteristic features of the Hamza and the Amazon twin-river system:

  • Several geological factors have played a vital role in the formation and existence of these subterranean water bodies.
  • The underground ocean, discovered in 2007, has been formed when the plate carrying the Pacific Ocean bottom gets dragged and ends up under the continental plate.
  • the porous and permeable sedimentary rocks behave as conduits for the water to sink to greater depths.
  • East-west trending faultsand the karst topography present along the northern border of the Amazon basin may have some role in supplying water to the “river”.
  • If the impermeable rocks stop the vertical flow, the west to east gradient of the topography directs it to flow towards the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The subterranean Hamza river flows for a total distance of 6000 km at a depth of about 4 km from the bed of the Amazon River and follows the same flow direction of the Amazon.
  • The Hamza river runs all the way from the foot hills region of the Andes Mountain to the Atlantic Ocean in a west-east direction. It drains into the Atlantic Ocean as does the Amazon River but at different levels.
  • The primary source of water of the Hamza river is infiltration of surface water through permeable sedimentary rocks. In fact, there are west-east trending faults which act as conduits for water to sink to greater depth and form subterranean stream (Hamza).
  • In other words, west to east topographic gradient directs the water of the Amazon and the Hamza river just below the Ama­zon to adopt Atlantic-bound flow path.
  • It may be mentioned that except for flow direction the Amazon and the Hamza riv­ers greatly vary in terms of their width, flow velocity etc. as follows:
  • The width of the Amazon ranges from 1 km (1000m) to 100 km at different locations but the width of the Hamza River varies from 200 km to 400 km. It means the Hamza is much wider than the Amazon.
    • The average speed of water in the surface river Amazon is 5 m/s whereas it is less than one milli-meter per sec­ond in the subterranean Hamza river. Thus, the Hamza is exceedingly slug­gish in flow velocity.

Conclusion:

Unlike the Hamza, the 153 km-long underground river in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula and the 8.2 km-long Cabayugan River in the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park in the Philippines have come into being thanks to the karst topography. Water in these places has dissolved the carbonate rock to form extensive underground river systems.


Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

2) Discuss the key features of glacial landforms? Also, explain their significance and threats glaciers are facing.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

Glaciers exist in the areas where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over a long period of time. The question aims to ascertain the key features of such landforms and the threats they are facing.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straight forward; explain the key features and the threats faced by the glaciers.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define glacial landforms in brief.

Body:

Explain the key features of the glacial landforms with suitable diagrams where ever necessary.

Discuss their significance of the glaciers with respect to the resources they offer.

Explain the challenges they face and what needs to be done to overcoe such threats.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A glacier is a large mass of ice that is persistently moving under its own weight over the land or as linear flows down the slopes of mountains in broad trough-like valleys. Glaciers are formed in the areas where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers move under the influence of the force of gravity.

Glaciation generally gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features on the lowlands, though these processes are not mutually exclusive because a glacier plays a combined role of erosion, transportation and deposition throughout its course. It erodes its valley by two processes viz. plucking & abrasion.

  • Plucking → Glacier freezes the joints & beds of underlying rocks, tears out individual blocks & drags them away.
  • Abrasion → Glacier scratches, scrapes, polishes & scours the valley floor with the debris frozen into it.

Body:

Key features of glacial landforms:

Erosional Landforms:

  • Cirque:
    • Cirques are horseshoe shaped, deep, long and wide troughs or basins with very steep to vertically dropping high walls at its head as well as sides.
    • Cirques are often found along the head of Glacial Valley
    • The accumulated ice cuts these cirques while moving down the mountain tops.
    • After the glacier melts, water fills these cirques, and they are known as cirque lake.
  • Horns:
    • Horns form through head-ward erosion of the cirque walls.
    • If three or more radiating glaciers cut headward until their cirques meet, high, sharp pointed and steep-sided peaks called horns form.
  • Aretes:
    • Arete is a narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys.
    • Aretes are typically formed when two glacial cirques erode head-wards towards one another
    • The divides between Cirque side walls or head walls get narrow because of progressive erosion and turn into serrated or saw-toothed ridges referred to as aretes with very sharp crest and a zig-zag outline.
  • Glacial Valleys:
    • Glaciated valleys are trough-like and U-shaped with wide, flat floors and relatively smooth, and steep sides.
    • When the glacier disappears, and water fills the deep narrow sections of the valley, a ribbon lake is formed.
  • Fjords/Fiords:
    • A fjord or fiord is a long, narrow and steep-sided inlet created by a glacier
    • They are formed where the lower end of a very deep glacial trough is filled with sea water
    • Fjords are common in Norway, Chile, and New Zealand etc.
  • Hanging Valleys:
    • A hanging valley is a tributary valley that is higher than the main valley. Hanging valleys are common along glaciated fjords and U-shaped valleys.
    • The main valley is eroded much more rapidly than the tributary valleys as it contains a much larger glacier
    • After the ice has melted tributary valley, therefore, hangs above the main valley
    • The faces of divides or spurs of such hanging valleys opening into main glacial valleys are quite often truncated to give them an appearance like triangular facets.
    • Often, waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley
    • Thus, the hanging valley may form a natural head of water for generating hydroelectric power

Depositional Landforms:

  • Outwash plains:
    • An outwash plain is a plain at the foot of the glacial mountain
    • They are made up of fluvioglacial sediments, washed out from the terminal moraines by the streams and channels of the stagnant ice mass.
    • As it flows, the glacier grinds the underlying rock surface and carries the debris along.
  • Moraines:
    • The unassorted coarse and fine debris dropped by the melting glaciers is called glacial till.
    • The long ridges of deposits of these glacial till is called as Moraines
    • Depending on its position, moraines are classified into be ground, lateral, medial and terminal moraine.
  • Eskers:
    • An esker is a long, winding sinuous ridge of stratified sand and gravel
    • Eskers are frequently several kilometres long and, because of their peculiar uniform shape, are somewhat like railway embankments
    • When glaciers melt in summer, the water flows on the surface of the ice or seeps down along the margins or even moves through holes in the ice.
    • These waters accumulate beneath the glacier and flow like streams in a channel beneath the ice.
    • Such streams flow over the ground with ice forming its banks.
  • Drumlins:
    • Drumlins are smooth oval shaped ridge-like features composed mainly of glacial till with some masses of gravel and sand.
    • The drumlins form due to the dumping of rock debris beneath heavily loaded ice through fissures in the glacier.
    • The long axes of drumlins are parallel to the direction of ice movement.
    • They may measure up to 1000m in length and 30-35 m or so in height.
    • One end of the drumlins facing the glacier called the stoss

Significance of Glaciers:

  • Glaciers and Thermo (heat) Haline (salt) Circulation:
    • The melting fresh water from glaciers alters the ocean, not only by directly contributing to the global sea level rise, but also because it pushes down the heavier salt water, thereby changing the currents in the ocean.
  • Glaciers and winds:
    • As the planet’s air conditioner, the polar ice caps impact weather and climate dynamics, such as the jet stream.
  • Glaciers and climate change:
    • Glaciers are also early indicators of climate changes that will have a somewhat more delayed impact on other parts of the Earth system. Glaciers are sentinels of climate change.
  • Glaciers provide drinking water:
    • People living in arid climates near mountains often rely on glacial melt for their water for part of the year. e.g.: Ganges, Yangtze
  • Glaciers irrigate crops:
    • In Switzerland’s Rhone Valley, farmers have irrigated their crops for hundreds of years by channelling meltwater from glaciers to their fields.
  • Glaciers help generate hydroelectric power:
    • Scientists and engineers in Norway, central Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and South America have worked together to tap into glacial resources, using electricity that has been generated in part by damming glacial meltwater.

Threats faced:

  • The processes that remove snow, ice, and moraine from a glacier or ice sheet are called ablation. Ablation includes melting, evaporation, erosion, and calving.
  • Glaciers melt when ice melts more quickly than firn can accumulate. Earth’s average temperature has been increasing dramatically for more than a century.
  • Glaciers are important indicators of global warming and climate change in several ways.
  • Melting ice sheets contribute to rising sea levels. As ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland melt, they raise the level of the ocean. Tons of fresh water are added to the ocean every day.
  • Large additions of fresh water also change the ocean ecosystem. Organisms, such as many types of corals, depend on salt water for survival. Some corals may not be able to adjust to a more freshwater habitat.
  • The loss of glacial ice also reduces the amount of fresh water available for plants and animals that need fresh water to survive. Glaciers near the Equator, such as those on the tropical island of Papua or in South America, are especially at risk.
  • Less precipitation also affects some glaciers. In 1912, the glaciers on Tanzania’s Mount Kilimanjaro covered 12 square kilometers (4.6 square miles). In 2009, Kilimanjaro’s alpine glaciers had shrunk to two square kilometers (0.8 square miles). This reduction is the result of few heavy snowfalls.

Conclusion:

Glaciers are one of the most visible icons of the “cryosphere”, the cold parts of the world where temperatures fall below the freezing point of water, a natural tipping point that profoundly changes the environment. From the Andes to the Himalayas, the loss of mountain glaciers is a real concern.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) In order to ensure smooth functioning of the criminal justice system, one needs accurate, reliable and comprehensive data reports of crimes in the country. Discuss in the light of recently released National Crime Records Bureau report. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article brings out the findings of the report published by National Crime Records Bureau.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the relevance of accurate, reliable and comprehensive data reports of crimes in the country for smooth functioning of the criminal justice system.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the findings of the report released recently.

Body:

  • Give a brief introduction about Criminal Justice system and its importance in a democracy.
  • Mention the importance of data reports for smooth functioning of criminal justice system.
  • Mention the lapses in the crimes data collection and its management by NCRB.

Conclusion:

Give the way forward for the lapses mentioned. 

 

Introduction:

The latest annual crime data, “Crime in India-2017”, released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) revealed that there was an increase of 3.6 per cent in criminal cases in 2017 compared to 2016 when 50 lakh cases of cognisable offences were lodged across the country. However, data of death due to mob lynching, murder by influential people, killing ordered by khap panchayat and murder committed for religious reason have not been published. The new report has largely followed the pattern of the 2016 edition, barring additions in the category of cyber-crimes and offences against the state.

Body:

Issues in the report:

  • While the 2017 reports released last week by the National Crime Records Bureau present numbers on different aspects of the criminal justice system, there are crucial gaps in the data collected.
  • Further, the opacity surrounding the methodology for collection and compilation makes the data obscure and renders them ineffective for policymaking.
  • While the report states that “socio-economic causative factors or reasons of crimes” have not been captured, the non-legislative parameters for classifying some offences have not been adequately explained. This raises questions about the basis for classification.
  • In contrast to crime statistics, prison statistics do not provide any such offence-wise data on undertrials and convicts. This prevents cross-referencing and examination of the numbers in both reports.
  • while prison statistics provide information on the different kinds of sentences being served by convicts, these numbers have not been categorised on the basis of offences.
  • Thus it is impossible to gain insights into the sentencing trends for various offences and in various States or formulate policy on sentencing.
  • There are concerns about the methods of computation and presentation of data.
  • For instance, the crime statistics report, while recording rates of recidivism, collates State-wise information on the number of juveniles and adults who were arrested earlier but not convicted, and those who were previously convicted.

Measures needed:

  • In order to effectuate cogent policies which do justice to the goals of reformation and rehabilitation, it is important to critically understand existing programmes.
  • Robust policies cannot be formulated which would ensure successful reintegration of prisoners and provide those serving life-term imprisonment (52.6% of all convicts) an opportunity to reform.
  • These policies are especially important since 94.4% of those entering the criminal justice system were arrested for the first time.

Conclusion:

In order to explore more precise and effective solutions to criminal justice issues, NCRB must first take steps towards ensuring the accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness of these reports.


TOPIC: : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) As one of the fastest growing online retail markets among the economies of the world, the e-commerce sector must be assured of a fair policy framework to support India’s emergence as a $5 trillion economy by fiscal year 2024-25. Comment.( 250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article brings out the significant contributions that e-commerce in India is making and the steady trajectory of growth it has been achieving amidst economic slowdown facing the country.

Key demand of the question:

One has to elaborate on the fact that the potential of job creation in e-commerce is evident from the extent to which it has penetrated India’s retail and consumption ecosystem. Explain in depth in what way e-commerce can be potentially used to create more jobs and augment the dream of $5 trillion economy.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight statistics related to e-commerce in India.

Body:

Explain that the e-commerce sector’s resilience indicates an increasingly sharper understanding of what both India and Bharat want.

It also must be noted that amid a perceived nationwide slowdown in consumption, India’s e-commerce sector has recorded its highest sales ever.

Discuss the benefits of e-commerce.

What are the possible challenges? And how they can be addressed.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the fact that the potential of e-commerce sector must be utilized to the fullest.

Introduction:

E-commerce or Electronic commerce is a type of business model, or segment of a larger business model, that enables a firm or individual to conduct business over an electronic network, typically the internet. It operates in all four of the major market segments in India – business to business, business to consumer, consumer to consumer and consumer to business. Keeping a tab on the growing e-Commerce in India, Ministry of Consumer Affairs has released the draft guidelines on e-commerce for consumer protection.  It will act as the guiding principles for e-commerce business for preventing fraud, unfair trade practices and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.

Body:

Status of e-Commerce in India:

  • India’s e-commerce sector has grown quickly despite an uncertain policy environment.
  • The e-commerce sector in India is estimated to reach USD 230 billion by 2028 (accounting for 10% of India’s retail).
  • The e-commerce sector in India has been witnessing an explosive growth fuelled by the increase in the number of online users, growing penetration of smartphones and the rising popularity of social media platforms.
  • The Indian e-commerce industry is expected to surpass the US to become the second largest e-commerce market in the world by 2034.
  • Online shoppers in India are expected to reach 120 million in 2018 and eventually 220 million by 2025.
  • Even in non-traditional items such as furniture and high-end fashion labels, growth has been phenomenal.

E-Commerce and its push for $5 trillion economy:

  • e-commerce is generating sufficient value for all buyer classes, enabling it to boost consumption in a way that is both exponential and inclusive.
  • The potential of job creation in e-commerce is evident from the extent to which it has penetrated India’s retail and consumption ecosystem.
  • e-commerce is giving equal shelf space to domestic artisans and small- and medium-sized manufacturers, granting them access to local, national and even global markets.
  • As the e-commerce sector grows and deepens, its engagement with both the “classes” and the “masses” of India, so to speak, its status as a multiplier of prosperity, can only grow.
  • Today, placed at the intersection of economic growth, job creation and unprecedented market access for enterprises of all sizes, the e-commerce growth story epitomizes the inclusiveness of the Indian economy set in motion by government policies.
  • As it sustains its growth trajectory, e-commerce can emerge as a leading generator of jobs in areas ranging from delivery, logistics and data-analytics to product and brand experience, design and inventory management, as well as support functions such as finance, payments, legal and human resources.
  • Newer and more specialised competencies, including payment gateways, big data and mobile technology are being harnessed to give consumers a hassle-free purchase experience.

Current Policy Environment:

  • It is still a work in progress when it comes to safeguarding customer interest.
  • Consumers are still compelled to take wild chances in online transactions.
  • There is little they can do if their calls go wrong, as returns and reimbursements are risky and cumbersome.
  • There are no authentic ways to figure out if product reviews, ratings or even discounts are genuine.

Measures needed to strengthen e-Commerce:

  • The sector comprises a growing number of players of various sizes.
  • To remain competitive, they will all have to make regular investments that would place our workforce on a par with its global counterparts, while also serving to acquire and sustain a business advantage that enables the sector to surge ahead.
  • The sector’s multifaceted positives and its evolving nature have led the government to adopt a consultative approach. Such consultations must continue.
  • While strategically designed and implemented regulations have a place in our economy, being overly critical of a marketplace that currently serves as a beacon of commercial success may inadvertently stifle its growth and bring back the worst of the Licence Raj regime.

Conclusion:

Given all these, the Centre should take a call soon on the e-commerce policy, balancing the priorities of the stakeholders. The draft guidelines thus propose a series of consumer safeguards in India that forbid e-commerce companies from influencing pricing, adopting unfair promotion methods or misrepresenting the quality of goods and services.


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5) When used sensibly, Big data can save lives and help build better future citizens. Explain with suitable illustrations.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article highlights the importance of Big data as a technology for building better future for citizens.

Key demand of the question:

Bring out the significance of Big Data as a technology. Its applications in detail.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what Big Data is and explain its evolution.

Body:

  • Explain first the relevance of Big Data and its emergence as a powerful tool. 
  • Mention the significance of Big Data in India.
  • Then move on to discuss how big data can help vulnerable people manage their health and lives.
  • List down the applications of Big Data ranging from governance, economy, disaster management etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. Almost 90% of the world’s data today was generated during the past two years. “Big data” refers to the use of predictive analytics, user behavior analytics, or certain other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data. Big data can be understood as the consolidation and centralization of public data inputs from various spheres of activities like commercial, consumer based, census, or even Aadhar controlled personal information.

Body:

Big data can be used in a variety of applications which can help build better future for citizens.

Good Governance:

  • Big data with the government is a huge boon for governance.
  • Consumer habits can be studied and policies can be framed which would then be in line with the need of the hour.
  • Patterns of investment, savings and expenditure can be revisited with changing time and government can instil such changes in its policies.
  • Security of the state can be further enhanced by access to larger data.
  • Transforming government programmes and empowering citizens to improving transparency and enabling the participation of all stakeholders.
  • Geo-tagging in MGNREGA can help analyse the effectiveness of the policy geographically and bring in required changes.
  • The Digital India and Smart Cities initiatives of the government also include efforts to utilise data to design, plan, implement, manage, and govern programmes.

Economy:

  • Big data can provide huge benefits to various sectors of the economy like,
  • In Insurance Sector to improve customer experience & ensure their right to claim
  • In Banking Sector to manage financial data
  • To capture the production, price statistics, & calculate the resultant GDP
  • Evade risks & minimize losses for financial firms
  • Tax officials catching hold the tax evaders using Project Insight

Health Care: Big Data in health care caters the following benefits:

  • Predicting diseases,
  • Prescribing medicines,
  • Optimizing treatment,
  • Using clinical data to improve patient care,
  • In critical Diagnostic tests,
  • Finding new cures (R&D)

Agriculture and Food:

  • Seed Selection
  • Geo-Tagging to keep the track record of agricultural assets in the country
  • Weather Forecasting
  • Irrigation & effective water management
  • Food Processing
  • Identification of Crop Diseases

Digital Space:

  • In the telecom sector- connecting the hinterland areas and bringing them to the mainstream,
  • On Social Media for targeting platform users,
  • Artificial Intelligence – Controlling home appliances,
  • Analysing & Improving individual performance (at work, sports, or home) using wearable devices.

Way forward:

  • Ethical issues related to data privacy need to get addressed.
  • Data protection law must incorporate some of the best practices followed in the World.
  • It must strengthen cybersecurity in order to safely utilize the large pool of virtually available data.
  • Economically, the alliance of big data with blockchain technology will potentially change the way we see big data for now.
  • To effectively analyse the large chunks of available data, well-equipped data centres are needed. It is essential to segregate the relevant data from the irrelevant data pool.
  • In a world where most of the governments & businesses rely more on new-age data sources such as satellite imagery, parking images, and night lights, Big Data governance could be a game-changer for India, where policies have for long been under-implemented.

Conclusion:

The big data revolution is in its early days and most of the potential for value creation is still unclaimed. But it has set the industry on a path of rapid change and new discoveries. Stakeholders committed to innovation will likely be the first to reap rewards. If the farmers would have been concerned about the infirmities in terms of data-based farming, production could be increased.


Topic:  Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6) Edge computing is the new future face of cloud computing. Elucidate while explaining the relevance of edge computing in the coming times.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article suggests that By 2025, according to the global research and advisory firm Gartner, companies will generate and process more than 75% of their data outside of traditional centralized data centres — that is, at the “edge” of the cloud.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to elaborate on the new technology of edge computing and in what way it will be the new face of cloud.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is edge computing? –  Edge computing enables data to be analyzed, processed, and transferred at the edge of a network.

Body:

  • Explain the application of cloud computing first, and then discuss in what way edge computing is different from it.
  • Cloud computing — by which remote servers hosted on the Internet store and process data, rather than local servers or personal computers — is ready to move to the next level.
  • Amazon, Microsoft, and Alphabet, the parent company of Google — the technology giants that provide cloud computing infrastructure to major corporates and governments — want to leverage 5G wireless technology and artificial intelligence to enable faster response times, lower latency (ability to process very high volumes of data with minimal delay), and simplified maintenance in computing.
  • This is where Edge Computing comes in — which many see as an extension to the cloud, but which is, in fact, different in several basic ways. 
  • Quote relevant examples highlighting the uses of such applications. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Edge computing enables data to be analysed, processed, and transferred at the edge of a network. The idea is to analyse data locally, closer to where it is stored, in real-time without latency, rather than send it far away to a centralised data centre. So whether you are streaming a video on Netflix or accessing a library of video games in the cloud, edge computing allows for quicker data processing and content delivery.

Body:

Edge computing vis-à-vis Cloud computing:

  • Edge Computing can be seen as an extension to the cloud, but which is, in fact, different in several basic ways.
  • By 2025, says the global research and advisory firm Gartner, companies will generate and process more than 75% of their data outside of traditional centralised data centres — that is, at the “edge” of the cloud.
  • At the moment, the existing Internet of Things (IoT) systems perform all of their computations in the cloud using data centres.
  • Edge computing, on the other hand, essentially manages the massive amounts of data generated by IoT devices by storing and processing data locally.
  • That data doesn’t need to be sent over a network as soon as it processed; only important data is sent — therefore, an edge computing network reduces the amount of data that travels over the network.
  • Technologies such as 5G wireless technology and artificial intelligence enable faster response times, lower latency (delay), and simplified maintenance in computing.
  • It is preferred over cloud computing in remote locations, where there is limited or no connectivity to a centralized location. These locations require local storage, similar to a mini data centre, with edge computing providing the perfect solution for it.

Relevance of Edge computing in coming days:

  • Edge application services reduce the volumes of data that must be moved, the consequent traffic, and the distance that data must travel.
  • That provides lower latency and reduces transmission costs. Computation offloading for real-time applications, such as facial recognition algorithms, showed considerable improvements in response times as demonstrated in early research.
  • Further research showed that using resource rich machines near mobile users, called cloudlets, offering services typically found in the cloud, provided improvements in execution time when some of the tasks are offloaded to the edge node.
  • For instance: Nvidia, one of the biggest players in the design and manufacture of graphics and AI acceleration hardware, has just announced its EGX edge computing platform to help telecom operators adopt 5G networks capable of supporting edge workloads.
  • The new Nvidia Aerial software developer kit will help telecom companies build virtualised radio access networks that will let them support smart factories, AR/VR and cloud gaming.
  • Other notable applications include connected, autonomous cars, smart cities, and home automation systems.

Conclusion:

Experts believe the true potential of edge computing will become apparent when 5G networks go mainstream in a year from now. Users will be able to enjoy consistent connectivity without even realising it.


Topic:  Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) The message delivered by Gandhi throughout his life still finds resonance in the 21st century. Elaborate.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article explains the overall contributions of Mahatma Gandhi and his teachings.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the fact that The power to transform the world does not flow from political parties or big multi-national companies rather it flows from the collective non-violent energies of ordinary men and women in our society.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the context of the question.

Body:

One can discuss the following aspects of the question – 

  • Explain that Mahatma Gandhi spoke on several issues which give us an insight to this thought-process and more importantly also helps us to navigate some of the current issues in our society. Such as on the question of future of women in India. He expressed that they will be equal in every respect to men, if not superior.
  • Discuss his views on political ideologies. Example: Socialism, He felt it was good if it did not rely on force to achieve its objectives.
  • On the issue of religion- He rejected the idea of intrinsic superiority of one religion over another and the imperative of constricted, exclusive belonging. He also believed that learning good principles from other religion was not intrinsically bad.  More importantly, though, Mahatma Gandhi believed social transformation can be brought about only by a change in the moral character of every individual person. 
  • Indian society at this point of time is facing many challenges such as- rise in majoritarian ideology, fall in the moral character of individuals in society, discrimination of women in all sectors etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that thoughts and messages delivered by Gandhi possess the ability to fight these challenges successfully.

Introduction:

Gandhian philosophy is not only simultaneously political, moral and religious, it is also traditional and modern, simple and complex. It embodies numerous Western influences to which Gandhiji was exposed, but is rooted in ancient Indian culture harnessing universal moral & religious principles. Truth, nonviolence, Sarvodaya and Satyagraha and their significance constitute Gandhian philosophy and are the four pillars of Gandhian thought.

Body:

The relevance of the life and teachings of the great stalwart is very high in today’s era

  • Truth:
    • In today’s post truth era, where social media rules the ICT, there are increased incidents of fake news, doctored videos, radicalization through fake propagandas etc.
    • Truth should be verified about such information and then accepted. It is a responsibility of every citizen to be responsible to curb spreading of lies and hatred.
  • Equality:
    • Many traditions and customs which hurt the equality, dignity, fraternity of the human being are present in India like caste discrimination, honour killings, banning women from entering sacred places, manual scavenging etc.
    • Non-cooperation and resistance to such indiscriminate ideas is necessary and it is already visible.
    • The use of non-violent means to achieve morally endowed ends like demand for justice against irresponsible, unacceptable government e.g. Arab spring, Anna Hazare’s movement etc.
  • Culture of peace:
    • Today, the world is suffering from immense crisis from many sides. Crimes, conflict, hatred and distrust between one community and another, insecure environment among minorities, hunger, unemployment, poverty and literacy, refugee crisis, ethnic violence, terrorism, etc., all these altogether make a grave danger to peace.
    • Resistance through non-violence and appeal to the conscience of perpetrators can bring change.
    • Compassion is necessary for victims, minorities, fellow humans and other earth creatures.
  • Educational values:
    • Gandhiji’s education philosophy also emphasised on environment, conservation, kindness for animal, focus on villages hence which brings out concept of all round development of individual and society which is required in today’s world.
  • Self-determination and Courage:
    • In the fast-paced world today, many farmers, students are bogged down by desperation of failures, fall in to depression and even commit suicides.
    • There is a need of self-determination, courage and resilience to face the failures and bounce back.
  • Simplicity and Sustainability:
    • Climate change effects are being seen across the world with many ramifications.
    • The ideals of simple living, minimalistic and non-materialistic lifestyle and respect for the nature are imperative today.

Conclusion:

The teachings of Gandhiji will remain a moral compass for the generations to come. The need of the hour is to inculcate such values in individuals through value based education, moral parenting and socialisation.