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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 OCTOBER 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism

1) Differentiate between religiousness and communalism while explaining how the former transformed into latter in the post -independent India. (250 words)

Class XI and XII NCERT – Indian society

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to ascertain the difference between the religiousness and communalism and in what way one transformed into another.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what religiousness is and what communalism is.

Body:

Present the differences between the two; Religiosity is as old as the religion and civilization itself. Communalism is a newer phenomenon compared to religiosity. It was born during the colonial times, when the British used religious contrasts among different communities to rule over them. Religiosity is concerned with the worship of God. Communalism is a belief system and a social phenomenon wherein, history is interpreted for mobilization of people. Etc. 

Then explain how religiousness transformed into communalism in Free-India?

Illustrate with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude that transformation of religiosity into communalism creates serious obstacles to good governance, economic development and social harmony of our country. Therefore, both the state and the society must prevent any individual, organization or event that encourages such process.

Introduction:

Religiousness or Religiosity is the feeling of devoutness or reverence to a particular deity. Such faith often provides the people not only with a religious identity, but shapes their personal identity, social behavior and world view. Communalism as a political philosophy has its roots in the religious and cultural diversity of India. It has been used as a political propaganda tool to create divide, differences and tensions between the communities on the basis of religious and ethnic identity leading to communal hatred and violence.

Body:

Religiosity is concerned with the worship of God. Religiosity is often accompanied by prayers i.e. petition direct at a supernatural power and rituals i.e. symbolic series of actions to appear the aid supernatural power. Religiosity by default is not associated with violence, unless the religious tenants themselves require human or animal sacrifice.

Communalism is a belief system and a social phenomenon wherein, history is interpreted for mobilization of people. It involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. Secularism and egalitarianism are portrayed as abnormal. People belonging to other faith and religion are portrayed as antagonists.

Religiosity has certainly transformed into communalism in independent India:

  • The communalism before independence was rooted in the ‘divide and rule’ policy of the British. They had fostered communalism to weaken the nationalist movement by forcing religious rather than national allegiance.
  • After partition, the class divisions of our society and the backwardness of our economy resulted in uneven development.
  • As a result, some sections and individuals developed a sense of rivalry vis-à-vis their counterparts in other communities.
  • Such leaders began encouraging communal feelings to strengthen their political support.
  • When ordinary Indians feel insecure because of some adverse circumstances, they often tend to rely on religion, which make them vulnerable to political manipulation to inflame communal passions.
  • With economic problems becoming important, leaders began to convert economic insecurities like poverty unemployment, price rise etc. into caste and communal ones.

Example: secessionist movement & the communalization of Sikhs in Punjab. The demolition of Babri Masjid.

Conclusion:

Transformation of religiosity into communalism creates serious obstacles to good governance, economic development and social harmony of our country. Therefore, both the state and the society must prevent any individual, organization or event that encourages such process.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism

2) Discuss with suitable examples how regional assertiveness can prove to be a peril to National Unity.(250 words)

Class XI and XII NCERT – Indian society

Why this question:

The question again is from GS paper I. Aims to discuss the role of regional attitudes on the national unity of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain with suitable examples the effect of regional attitudes on the national unity of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by discussion the concept of regionalism.

Body:

Explain that regionalism is the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose by people within a specific geographical region, united by its unique language, culture, language, etc.

Discuss – Emergence of regional political parties as a result of secessionist tendencies. This trend is polarizing citizens of the country on regional lines. Example, Telugu Desam Party of Andhra Pradesh, DMK and AIDMK of Tamil Nadu.

Regionalism reached that stage where it is equivalent to be an internal security threat to the country. It is causing friction among states. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions to overcome such attitudes.

Introduction:

Regionalism is a feeling or an ideology among a section of people residing in a particular geographical space characterized by unique language, culture etc., that they are the sons of the soil and every opportunity in their land must be given to them first but not to the outsiders. It is a sort of Parochialism. In most of the cases it is raised for expedient political gains but not necessarily.

Body:

Regional assertiveness can prove to be a peril to national unity:

  • Regionalism puts the regional priority above the national priority. Therefore, it may impair the national development.
  • It breeds hatred among the region. Example violence against Bihari workers in North East by ULFA
  • It impacts the integrity of nation. Over motivated regionalism sometime turns into secessionist movement. example Khalistan movement.
  • Violence is a very common character of regionalism. To protect regional identity people may take violent means. Example Nellie massacre during Assam movement.
  • It discourages the cultural exchange and often breeds intolerance towards other region. E.g.: The anti-migrant or anti-Bihari stance of the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) which opposes the employment and residence of non-Maharashtrian people in the state of Maharashtra is a prime example of negative regionalism.
  • It discourages migration. Due to hostility towards people from other region workers reference from moving out and settling there
  • It impacts the ease of doing business. Due to regional aspiration local people pass difficulties for private investors to hire freely as per their own requirement private companies are often forced to reserve job and contract only for local people son of the soil
  • It also impacts the International relationship example West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee is obstructing Teesta deal between India and Bangladesh only to quench her regional thirst.
  • Regionalism beyond a point can lead to secessionism, such as strong regionalism in Punjab ultimately resulted in the growth of Khalistani terrorism.
  • Regionalism often promotes Vote- Bank politics, thereby weakens the national integration.
  • Regionalism can weaken the time tested fabric of ‘Unity in Diversity’, if promoted in an ultra-manner.

Measures needed to quell the extreme regionalist perspectives:

  • Unity in Diversity ethos needs to be preserved for the pluralistic character of the Indian nation state.
  • The accommodation of multiple aspirations of a diverse population is necessary.
  • Formation of the NITI Aayog has been a positive step to enhance co-operative federalism by fostering the involvement of the State Governments of India in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.
  • While a number of steps such as the launch of centrally sponsored schemes, incentives to private players for development in backward states have been taken by the government for inclusive development, there is a greater need for their effective implementation.
  • There is a need to increase the level of social expenditure by the states on education, health, and sanitation which are the core for human resource development.
  • Introducing a system of national education that would help people to overcome regional feelings and develop an attachment towards the nation can act as a long-term solution to the problem of sub-nationalism.
  • While the National Integration Council was set up in 1961, there is a need to utilise its potential more effectively.
  • Schemes like “Ek Bharat-Shreshtha Bharat” have been launched by the GOI to celebrate unity in diversity culture of the nation and to strengthen sentiment for National Unity between the citizens of states, is a welcomed step.
  • National unity is not impaired if the people of a region have genuine pride in their language and culture.

Conclusion:

The need of the hour is to develop each region of India, through devolution of power to local governments and empowering people for their participation in decision-making. The governments at State level need to find out the alternative resources of energy, source of employment for local people, use of technology in governance, planning and for agriculture development.


Topic: Effects of Globalization on Indian society, Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

3) Do you think Smart televisions took the ‘idiot box’ from a luxury to a necessity? Comment and also explain in what way the methods of consumption of television have greatly evolved over the past few years.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is based on the context of coming of Smart televisions that have replaced the way televisions have been see as idiot boxes in the past.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain the transformations of televisions.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by suggesting the way we consume television has greatly evolved over the past few years. 

Body:

Discussion should first bring out a comparison between the past and present trends.

Explain in terms of content that is and was being hosted. Draw the set of differences between the two.in terms of technological improvements.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

TV today is in the midst of a massive evolution with unprecedented changes occurring in the way we consume television content. Rapid proliferation of the internet is all set to bolster the demand for smart TVs in India.

Body:

Smart TVs have become a necessity today due to following reasons:

  • The evolution of smart TVs doesn’t only restrict itself to the end consumer but also offers myriad opportunities to marketers and brands to reach out to their audiences.
  • The measures taken by the government such as bringing TV’s above 32 inches in the 18% GST slab as well as the decision to remove BCD (basic custom duty) on open cells will provide the necessary impetus to the segment in India.
  • Emerging technologies like Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) drive digital transformation, a connected ecosystem is necessary with the new Industrial wave (IR 4.0).
  • Rapid changes in video advertising, companies will be able to create campaigns across different channels, establish various touchpoints and communicate specific offerings to the consumers.
  • With advancements in quality content driven by OTT platforms, there is immense opportunity for marketers to adapt their creative strategies to include the digital audience that will chose to view content on demand.
  • traditional metrics such television rating points (TRP) will eventually be replaced by more advanced ways of measuring outreach like we do today with mobile marketing and social networks

The ways in which methods of consumption of television has evolved:

  • The way we consume television has greatly evolved over the past few years.
  • We are no longer bound to a strict TV schedule to watch our favourite shows.
  • We have the option of watching them on demand and as per our own convenience.
  • Technology has truly transformed the television into an ideal multi-device experience.
  • The gamut has widened, with viewers increasingly opting to view television by connecting their devices such as smartphones and tablets to the TV screen.
  • Content is king today, and with advancements in technology, there is a burgeoning market in India for people who chose to view over the top (OTT) platforms and YouTube on their TV screens.
  • TV networks, while catering to a specific audience through its programming, are also investing in OTT platforms to lure the millennial audience.
  • The Indian smart TV market is estimated to touch $20.4 billion by 2024, growing at a CAGR of 4.7% over the forecast period (2017-2025), according to a report by Goldstein Research.

Conclusion:

The television has stood the test of time and has come a long way from black and white and CRTVs with long picture tubes to smart devices. As smart TVs continue to evolve with new technologies coming to the fore, the device has truly evolved from an ‘idiot box’ into a device for the ages.


Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

5) Critically present a detailed analysis of India’s One-China policy.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the India’s policy of one-China policy and in what way It can’t validate its claim over Arunachal Pradesh without recognising the historical independence of Tibet.

Key demand of the question:

One has to provide for an in-depth discussion of India’s one- China policy.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define one-child policy.

Body:

Explain first how Indian nationalism is often stumped when China claims Arunachal Pradesh as part of “South Tibet”.

Explain the historical context of these aspects. Take hints from the article and present in detail the analysis of the India’s one-China policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The One-China policy refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called “China”, despite the existence of two governments that claim to be “China”. As a policy, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC, Mainland China) must break official relations with the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) and vice versa. The One China policy is different from the “One China principle”, which is the principle that insists both Taiwan and mainland China are inalienable parts of a single “China”.

Body:

Significance of Taiwan for India:

  • India-Taiwan relations are significant to India’s security interests.
  • Taiwan is known for hardware manufacturing while India has an established software industry; some even refer ‘India and Taiwan’ as IT to indicate the fact that both countries complement each other.
  • Taiwan has for long been a world leader in high-tech hardware manufacturing, and is able to contribute much to the “Make in India”, “Digital India” and “Smart Cities” campaigns. Apparently, India is yet to explore Taiwan’s vast technological potential.
  • Taiwan’s agro-technology and food processing technology will also be very beneficial for India’s agriculture sector.

Challenges:

  • Constrained by its commitment to Beijing’s “One China” policy, New Delhi finds it difficult to realise the potential of its bilateral relationship with Taiwan.
  • Despite the fact that the economic interests of the two nations dovetail well, the economic exchange is still relatively insignificant. Taiwan’s share of trade with India is around one per cent of its global trade.
  • Taiwanese direct investment into India totalled $66.46 million between 2004 and 2014, far less than its investment in most of the Southeast countries. Over the past decade, Taiwanese firms have invested more in China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Cambodia than India.
  • India is a democracy and only has to deal with the Kashmir issue. But China is facing resistance movements in Tibet, East Turkestan (Xinjiang) and Southern Mongolia.
  • The five-month revolt in Hong Kong is also hugely significant for it shows the limits of Chinese power, and may be inspiring citizens inside China. Taiwan too remains a concern for Beijing.
  • This makes Delhi’s One-China policy absolutely lopsided in terms of diplomacy.
  • India has to remain silent on 60% of contested area under China’s territorial control, and also its rule over Hong Kong and claims over Taiwan, while China has to stand with India only on Kashmir.

Measures needed:

  • On the strategic security front, both India and Taiwan have serious and deep concerns about China’s growing assertiveness in the region. The China factor can become a medium to bring the strategic communities in New Delhi and Taipei closer.
  • It is not to say that India and Taiwan should forge a military alliance against China, which is too proactive and unrealistic. Taiwan does not expect India to be some kind of a military ally but believes that India’s presence in the region will provide some sort of balance. Regular information exchange between the militaries and the intelligence agencies of Taiwan and India would benefit both.
  • India should deploy its military attaché to its office in Taipei as part of plans to strengthen defence cooperation.
  • More interactions and collaboration between strategic studies communities are needed.
  • For many years Taiwan has been focusing on China’s market and has now attempted to diversify its investments away from China.
  • Equipped with Taiwan’s technology and experiences, India can modernise its capacity as nearly 40 per cent of its fruits and vegetables go waste after harvesting. Such collaboration could seriously change the landscape of India’s rural areas and agriculture.
  • India has abundant natural bamboo resources while Taiwan owns the world-class bamboo charcoal technology. With this sort of technology, India can make use of its bamboo resources to produce high value-added goods.
  • Both sides need to work out plans to pep up trade volume and increase economic cooperation between the two nations so as to take advantage of the joint strength.
  • India’s cultural diplomacy can bring rationality to India-Taiwan relations. There is religious intimacy between the two societies as most Taiwanese are Buddhists.
  • Both countries are free democracies with a strong civil society. Though few Taiwanese know India very well, there are an increasing number of India-related elements in Taiwan, ranging from Tagore’s poetry and Darjeeling tea to herbal soaps.
  • In the absence of formal diplomatic relations, there is also a need to conduct friendly sister-city activities to promote engagement and mutual understanding.
  • Another obvious area of cooperation with Taiwan is educational exchange. Taiwan is host to 160 accredited universities that accept hundreds of thousands of international students every year. Degrees earned in Taiwan are recognised worldwide.

Way forward:

  • It is understandable that Taiwan is not the priority of India’s foreign policy as the present government is interested in big power diplomacy. But India should not neglect Taiwan at the cost of its national interests.
  • Even as India launches its “Act East” policy and ambitious initiatives such as “Make in India”, it is time to highlight the importance of Taiwan for an emerging India and bring the India-Taiwan relationship into focus.
  • As India becomes more and more important in Taiwan’s policy, it is time for Indian policy makers to review India’s Taiwan policy and fashion a new approach.
  • Greater cooperation between India and Taiwan could prove critical in helping New Delhi and Taipei achieve their economic goals at home and their strategic aims in the region.
  • It is time to acknowledge the importance of India-Taiwan relations. India should consider its own interests not the third party’s ones, when it thinks of developing relations with Taiwan or other countries.

Topic:    Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

6) Throw light on the nature of crimes based on the recent report published by the National crime records bureau (NCRB) and examine the possible causes behind the several crimes cited in the report.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is based on the report published by the National crime records bureau (NCRB).

 Key demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the issues facing the Indian society in the aspects of crime and the causative factors behind it.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief quote facts from the report.

Body:

Focus on the crime statistics and analyze the nature of crime, as released by the report.

Enumerate the possible reasons for such crimes and examine each reason.

 In brief, suggest measures to be taken to address such crimes.

Add a note on the initiatives taken by government to tackle such crimes.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions as to what needs to be done.

Introduction:

The latest annual crime data, “Crime in India-2017”, released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) revealed that there was an increase of 3.6 per cent in criminal cases in 2017 compared to 2016 when 50 lakh cases of cognisable offences were lodged across the country. However, data of death due to mob lynching, murder by influential people, killing ordered by khap panchayat and murder committed for religious reason have not been published. The new report has largely followed the pattern of the 2016 edition, barring additions in the category of cyber-crimes and offences against the state.

Body:

Nature of Crimes:

  • Offences against the state:
    • There has been a 30% rise in incidents of offences against the state as compared to 2016.
    • This category includes offences such as sedition, waging war against the country and damage to public property among others.
  • Crime Against Women:
    • The number of crimes committed against women increased by 6% over the year 2016.
    • Majority cases were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’.
  • Cyber Crimes:
    • Bengaluru topped the list among metropolitan cities across the country in terms of number of cyber-crimes registered. Bengaluru was followed by Mumbai and Jaipur.
    • For the first time, “cyber stalking and bullying of women” has been included in the report. A total of 542 cases were reported under this category, with the maximum incidents recorded in Maharashtra (301).
    • Cyber frauds relating to credit cards stood at 395 cases, for ATMs at 1543 cases, online fraud stood at 804, and 170 cases of posting fake news on social media were also included in the report.
  • Riots:
    • Out of the total 58,880 incidents of rioting reported, communal and sectarian riots accounted for 723 and 183 incidents respectively.
    • There were 805 riots due to caste conflict and 1909 riots due to political reasons.
  • Crime Against SC/STs:
    • The incidents registered under the Scheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw an increase from 5,082 incidents reported in 2016 to 5,775 in 2017.
    • Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dipped from 844 in 2016 to 720 in 2017.

Possible causes behind the crimes:

  • As per the data, “disputes” (7,898 cases) were the motive in the maximum number of murder cases, followed by “personal vendetta or enmity” (4,660) and “gain” (2,103).
  • Fraudulent transactions and sexual exploitation were the most reported cyber-crimes in India in 2017, according to the NCRB.
  • Sexual exploitation and personal revenge have been noted as the two most focused motives behind cyber-attacks in Assam, throwing interesting insight into how the nature of cybercrime differs among states.
  • Among the other most affected states, frauds and extortion were the biggest motives behind attacks in UP, while sexual exploits and frauds were the biggest causes of attacks in Maharashtra.
  • Alongside the uniform aspect of frauds in each state, “causing disrepute” has been noted as the second most reported form of cyber-attacks in Karnataka in 2017.

Way forward:

  • The state needs to avoid unprincipled criminalisation and rather focus on developing a guiding principle for re-classification of offences.
  • This is because unprincipled criminalisation often leads to not only the creation of new offences on unscientific grounds, but also arbitrariness in the criminal justice system.
  • There is also need for simultaneous reforms in police, prosecution, judiciary and in prisons.
  • Thus, Criminal Justice Reform Committee must be constituted with a mandate to evolve criminal justice policy in India.
  • The Committee needs to carry forward the work done earlier by Menon Committee on Criminal Justice System, the Malimath Committee, and the Law Commission.
  • Implementation of Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS), which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level.
  • Use of technological solutions like e-Courts, LIMBS to quicken the justice delivery and case-management.
  • Police should be a SMART Police -a police which should be sensitive, mobile, alert, reliable and techno-savvy.
  • Second ARC recommended that the government should declare certain crimes as “federal” and entrust their investigation to a Central agency
  • The number of Forensic Science Institutions with modern technologies such as DNA fingerprinting technology should be enhanced.
  • Justice Malimath Committee in 2003 recommended incorporation of some aspects of an inquisitorial system to make the system more efficient.
  • Inquisitorial system of investigation is practised in countries such as Germany and France, where a judicial magistrate supervises the investigation.

TOPIC: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

7) Espionage activities through the use of digital tools are increasing in the recent past, in this context discuss the need for India to invest and recruit heavily in counter-measures against social media espionage. ( 250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Espionage activities through the use of digital tools are increasing in the recent past. The article presents a detailed discussion on the same.

It was recently found out that a spy from Pakistan had managed to get access to secret and crucial information pertaining to Indian security through the means of honey-trap by using social media.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the emergence of espionage and other methods of cyber terrorism with the coming of newer digital tools and the urgency to curb them.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate what are Espionage activities.

Body:

Discuss the emergence of espionage activities with increasingly coming of digital tools – for example explain what Honey trap is? –  It is an investigative

practice involving the use of romantic or sexual relationships for interpersonal, political, or monetary purpose.

Discuss what are the challenges involved.

Explain what measures need to be taken.

Role of government agencies and other stakeholders.

Conclusion:

Conclude  with way forward.

Introduction:

Cyber espionage, is “the act or practice of obtaining secret information without the permission of the holder of the  information  (personal,  sensitive,  proprietary  or  of  classified  nature),  from  individuals,  competitors,  rivals, groups, governments and enemies for personal, economic, political or military advantage using methods on the Internet,  networks  or  individual  computers  through  the  use  of  cracking  techniques  and  malicious  software including Trojan horses and spyware.” Simply said, Cyber espionage is “The use of computer networks to gain illicit access to confidential information, typically that held by a government or other organization.”

Body:

honey-trap cases are a weapon of hybrid warfare being waged by the enemy across the borders.

Instances of Cyber Espionage:

  • Using social media profile, by infecting their lives and devices. The second is to find someone on adult sites and inject malware into their phones and computers. According to reports, three of the world’s 20 most visited websites are pornographic-related sites.
  • It is important to note that 25% of all Android malware is porn-related. A 2017 study found that a hacker collective known as KovCoreG had been targeting millions of users of the site PornHub, tricking them into installing viruses on their computers.
  • Indian Army reported two cases of honey-trapping in 2015 and another two in 2017.
  • The Indian Air Force reported one case in 2015, while the Navy did not report any.

Counter-Measures needed:

  • An information warfare team is being set up at the Army headquarters.
  • Suspected Twitter handles and Facebook accounts have also been identified.
  • Investing in the latest technologies for early and better detection of viruses.
  • Conducting frequent workshops to sensitise defence personnel against cyber risks.
  • Conducting timely reviews and audits of all devices; developing better protocols in the event of contamination.
  • Developing a methodology to embed dormant malware in all sensitive data and devices which will be able to track the bad actors and destroy the documents with a programmed kill switch.
  • Developing a doctrine to hit back. The Defence Cyber Agency should be leveraged towards this end.
  • Best cyber practices must be built amongst fresh recruits.
  • Reforms in Indian intelligence need to cover a lot of ground, especially in providing a firm legal basis to the agencies involved in the trade. But they must begin with a complete overhaul of the recruitment process.

Conclusion:

In this information age, the enemy will be relentless and continue to invest and recruit heavily in these methods. India needs to act fast to deter such threats.