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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 OCTOBER 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Effects of globalization on Indian society. 

1)  Trace the impact of Globalisation on the Indian economy from past to present.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of Paper-I and is straightforward.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must trace the timeline with impact of Globalisation on the Indian economy from past to present discussing the benefits it brought in.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what globalisation is – Globalization is the free movement of people, goods, and services across boundaries.

Body:

Start by quoting some facts that imply upon the effects of globalisation on the Indian society. 

After 1991, the rise in GDP that dropped to 13% in 1991 -92 extended momentum in the following five years (1992-2001). Moreover, the annual average rate of growth in GDP was recorded to be 6.1%.

Furthermore, export growth skyrocketed to 20% in 1993-94. For 1994-95, the figures were recorded to be 18.4 per cent. Export growth statistics in recent years have been very impressive.

Explain the benefits of globalisation and way forward for Indian set up.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the impact of it.

Introduction:

Globalization can be defined simply as an expansion of economic activities across political boundaries of nation states. More importantly it refers to a process of deepening economic integration, increasing economic openness and growing economic interdependence between countries in the world economy. It is associated not only with a phenomenal spread and volume of cross-border economic transactions but also with an organization of economic activities which straddle national boundaries of the world. Globalization in India is generally taken as integrating the economy of the country with the rest of the world.

Body:

Globalization as a Boon:

  • The growth rate of GDP of India has been on the increase from 5.6 percent during1980- 90 to 7 percent in the period of 1993-2001. In the last fifteen years except two or three years, rate of GDP growth was more than 7 percent. It was 9.2 percent in 2006-07. At present in 2016 GDP is growing at 7.4 percent shown by union budget 2016-17.
  • The foreign exchange reserves were $39 billion (2000-01), $107 billion (2003-04), $145 billion (2005-06), and $180 billion in 2007. According to reserve bank of India, India’s foreign exchange reserves are $351.83 billion as on 19 Feb, 2016.
  • The cumulative FDI inflows from 1991 onwards has seen constant upward trends. The sectors attracting highest FDI inflows are electrical equipment including computer software (18 percent), Service Sector (13 percent), Telecommunications (10 percent), and Transportation industry (9 percent) etc.
  • India’s rank was fourth in market capitalization in 2005, it was preceded by USA, Germany and China. But at present its rank is ninth, it means it is now preceded by eight countries and India’s position has worsened but India was able to join trillion-dollar market by going through all ups and downs. India’s market capital is $1.6 trillion and it is 2.5 percent of world’s capital market.
  • As per the Forbes list 2015, India has 100 billionaires. There were only 40 billionaires in India as per Forbes 2007 list. The assets of these 100 billionaires are more than cumulative investment in the 91 public sector undertakings by the central government of India.
  • There is an International market for companies and for consumers there is a wider range of products to choose from.
  • Increase in flow of investments from developed countries to developing countries, which can be used for economic reconstruction.
  • Greater and faster flow of information between countries and greater cultural interaction has helped to overcome cultural barriers.
  • Technological development has resulted in reverse brain drain in developing countries.

Globalization as a Curse:

  • India is home to the largest number of child labourers in the world. The census found an increase in the child labourers from 11.28 million in 1991 to 12.59 million in 2001. M.V. foundation in Andhra Pradesh found nearly 40,0000 lakh children mostly girls between 7 and 14 years of age, toiling for 14-16 hours a day in cottonseed production across the country of which 90 percent are employed in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Poverty and lack of security are main causes of child labour.
  • Post reform period has witnessed drastic increase in child labour because due to LPG policy the role of public sector was reduced. Therefore, corporates are working for profit motive only.
  • Agriculture sector is the backbone of the Indian economy. Above 50 percent people are working in agriculture sector. This sector has been neglected by government in post reform period and share of agriculture has decelerated continuously.
  • At the time of independence, agriculture was contributing nearly half of the GDP but now its share is only 14 percent in total GDP of country. Reasons for backwardness of agriculture are lack of public investment, indebtedness of farmers and presence of intermediaries between sellers (farmers) and buyers.
  • Job and social insecurity: globalization has generated problems like job and social insecurity. Public sector provides jobs along with social as well as job security and other benefits also. But in the modern era a person can get a job but neither he would get a neither secure job nor social security. Therefore, increasing insecurity in society is perpetuating other social evils like dowry system, crimes, unemployment etc.
  • Poverty and unemployment: as per the Forbes list 2015, India’s number of billionaires has crossed 100 and the wealth they possess is more than the investment in public sector undertakings by central government.
  • This has led to wide range of inequalities of wealth among Indian people. Some people are such who dying from starvation and some are dying due to consumption of excessive food in our country.
  • Consequently, Malnutrition, child labour, and crimes are on the rise. Still a large proportion of people in India living below poverty line even India has been unable to achieve millennium development goals in case of many indicators.
  • Whether India’s present generation is education but Indian youth is suffering from unemployment and they have to survive on subsistence wages. Seasonal, underemployment and structural unemployment are found in India

Conclusion:

Thus, our performances during the reform years are a mixed bag. The country over the last 25 years has seen both quantitative and qualitative changes. Economic growth rate in a market-led economy is surely worth emulating. India is considered as one of the great economic powers of the world. It is hoped that she would sooner be a prospective international power. In spite of this development, the economy has not been able to adjust with a human face. We see some adverse, inadequate and counterproductive results which may be attributed to economic reforms / globalization. It is the nation which can reap the benefits from globalization if it prepares and implement pro-people policies to attract foreign direct investment.


Topic:  Effects of globalization on Indian society.

2) Do you think the impact of globalization hasn’t been uniform? Give your opinion while suggesting benefits and disadvantages of the same on the Indian society.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question expects us to examine how far globalisation and the resultant impact on economy and society have helped us in dealing with the problem of poverty, whether globalisation has helped in mitigating the issue or accentuating it.

Key demand of the question:

One has to clearly explain why and how impact of globalization hasn’t been uniform. And list down the advantages and disadvantages of it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Body:

Mention that India was main mover of globalization. The government of India made major modifications in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign investments in the country. As a result of this, globalization of the Indian Industry occurred at large scale.

Discuss how globalisation resulted in reduction of poverty – Creation of jobs through growth in services sector, due to the liberalization policies, India has become a consumer oriented market where the changes are brought by the demand and supply forces. Due to the high demand and the supply chains, there has been significant growth in the market. As such, more and more job opportunities are being created in different sectors. This has increased the per capita income considerably which has improved the poverty level to a great extent, technological changes taking place due to globalisation, gender equality in access to working opportunities which has positively impacted females etc.

Discuss issues which have led to worsening of poverty – issues such as MSP under dispute at WTO, the problem of jobless growth, greater incorporation of technology which was ill suited for Indian labour market etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by listing down the pros and cons of globalisation on the Indian society.

Introduction:

Globalization is an international platform for maintaining evenness in the living mode of the people all over the world. Globalization is the resultant of the interchange of worldly views, opinions and the various aspects of the culture everywhere around the world. The impact of globalization on Indian and rural life has a tremendous influence which is both positive as well as negative. The Indian urban and rural life is viewed as the two faces of the same coin. They are mutually interdependent and both have a greater impact of globalization.

Body:

Impact of globalization on Indian rural society

  • Positives:
    • Commercialization of agriculture: There is an increased trend of commercialization from sustenance farming. This has been successful only with farmers having large tracts of lands.
    • Expansion of agro-industries: Increased crop yield has led to development of agro-processing industries which help in adding value to the products and increasing their shelf life. E.g.; Tomato Ketchup, Potato chips etc.
    • Wider use of information, communication and technologies: Agricultural extension techniques like Kisan TV, sms about weather conditions has helped farmers plan better. Initiatives like e-Nam have helped farmers get better prices in certain areas.
    • Increased Mechanization, better inputs: Mechanization like use of tractors, harvesters, tillers has eased the job. High yield variety seeds, fertilizers have given better yield as seen during Green Revolution
    • Socio-economic development: With telemedicine and teleeducation, people are able to access the health and education facilities at the remotest areas. Adult literacy has helped in fighting for their rights.
    • MSMEs: There has been a rise of MSMEs with women entrepreneurs heading it.
  • Negatives:
    • Changes in Land-Use patterns
    • Internal labour migration: Labour migration to cities from rural areas in search of employment was a common phenomenon. This was for various reasons especially for luxurious life, handsome salary and for numerous job opportunities
    • Increasing privatization of resources: Rural population is still    suffering    from    unemployment    as    rural    labour    is    mostly    uneducated and unskilled.  Machines and latest technologies   have   reduced   the   number   of manpower a lot
    • Loss of jobs and Displacement: due to mechanization, women are the worst sufferers. When big-ticket projects like Dams, Roads, and Mining come up, people are displaced making them internal refugees.
    • Increased inequality: Regional and sectional disparity due to only a few reaping the benefits.
    • No Behavioural changes: Open defecation still present, caste discriminations are still prevalent.

Impact of globalization on Indian urban society

Positives:

  • Increased Urbanization: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
  • Increased job opportunities: due to inflow of MNCs, FDIs, people have a wide choice of job opportunities provided they have the requisite skills. Startups like Ola, Swiggy etc. have revolutionized the Gig-Economy. Development of Industries have also provided with jobs.
  • Higher Per capita income: employees are paid well albeit lesser than the global pay levels.
  • Enhanced lifestyle: due to higher PCI and wide array of facilities available from which the consumer can choose. It has raised the quality of life of many.
  • Better infrastructure: In terms of education, health, transport available to people. This has in turn enhanced the agglomeration of economies leading to industrial belts, IT parks, SEZ, CEZ etc.
  • Rapid Digitization: for faster and ease of connectivity, most of the services are digitized. This also increases the awareness of citizens in terms of rights, happenings around world etc. On the Governmental side, there is more accountability and transparency and faster delivery of services.

Negatives:

  • Family Structure: The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
  • Marriage Values: Similarly, marriages have also lost their values. It is very much evident from the increasing number of divorce cases and the extra-marital affairs reported every now and then.
  • McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
  • Walmartization: A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store WalMart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society. 
  • Rise in Lifestyle diseases: due to reduced physical activity, increased habits of liquor and smoking etc.
  • Urban Sprawl: Increasing slums, unplanned urbanizations are on the rise which is a ticking time-bomb.

Conclusion:

It is difficult to say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian rural and urban society.


Topic:  population and associated issues, Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Do you think insistence on two-child norm for government jobs is a fair stand-in for investments in health, education, nutrition? Critically analyse in the light of such policies adopted by some of the Indian state governments.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

Recently, the Assam government announced that people with more than two children will not be eligible for government jobs from January 2021. Assam will become the fourth state after Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to have a two-child norm in place for government jobs.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the consequences of such a policy. One should analyse the pros and cons with suitable justifications and form a fair and balanced opinion.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain two –child policy and its genesis in Indian setup.

Body:

Explain that there is now compelling evidence that measures such as debarring people from holding government office amount to penalising weaker sections of the population, including women, whose reproductive choices are often subject to a variety of constraints. It is unfortunate, therefore, that the Assam government has chosen to ignore the discriminatory nature of the two-child policy.

Almost all surveys indicate that India’s population growth rate has slowed substantially in the last decade. According to the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), at 2.2, India’s total fertility rate (TFR) is very close to the desired replacement level of 2.1.

In spite of the fall in TFR, India’s population has continued to grow because nearly 50 per cent of the people are in the age group of 15-49. This means that the absolute population will continue to rise even though couples have less children.

Thus analyse in detail using suitable facts and conclude with critical analysis of such a policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the right to seek a government job or contest elections is citizens’ rights. State governments will do well to rethink throttling such rights to enforce population control.

Introduction:

India’s Two-Child Policy refers to the family planning laws which restricts the number of children to two for a given couple. Recently, the Assam government announced that people with more than two children will not be eligible for government jobs from January 2021.

Body:

Instances in other states:

  • Assam will become the fourth state after Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to have a two-child norm in place for government jobs.
  • In Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the 1994 Panchayat Raj Act disqualifies a person with more than two children from contesting election. Those who already had more than three could, however, contest these polls.
  • In Maharashtra, people having more than two children are barred from contesting gram panchayat and municipal elections.
  • Also, the Maharashtra Civil Services (Declaration of Small Family) Rules of 2005 disqualify a person having more than two children from holding a post in the state government. Women are not allowed PDS (public distribution system) benefits if she has more than two children in Maharashtra.
  • Rajasthan is more like Assam in declaring candidates with more than two children ineligible for government jobs. The Rajasthan Panchayat Raj Act 1994 makes a person disqualified from contesting panchayat election with a relaxation if one of the two children is a disabled child.
  • The Odisha Zilla Parishad Act bars those individuals with more than two children from contesting.

The insistence on two-child policy is criticised due to the following:

  • India is a country with a booming technology industry, one that relies on young people. There is fear that, by restricting the number of children that can be born, there will not be enough educated young people in the next generation to carry on India’s technological revolution.
  • Critics also argue that the population growth of India will slow down naturally as the country grows richer and becomes more educated.
  • There are already well-documented problems with China’s one-child policy, namely the gender imbalance resulting from a strong preference for boys and millions of undocumented children who were born to parents that already had their one child. These problems risk being replicated in India with the implementation of their two-child policy.
  • By interfering with the birth rate, India faces a future with severe negative population growth, a serious problem that most developed countries are trying to reverse. With negative population growth, the number of old people receiving social services is larger than the young tax base that is paying for the social services. In this case, taxes must be increased and young people risk contributing way more than they will receive in the future.
  • The law related may also be anti-women. Human rights activists argue that, not only does the law discriminate against women right from birth (through abortion or infanticide of female foetuses and babies), but divorce and familial abandonment are at risk of increasing if a man with a large family wants to run for political office. In addition, women in India are, by and large, uneducated and illiterate and, as such, are often unaware of the two-child policy.
  • A legal restriction to two children could force couples to go for sex-selective abortions as there are only two ‘attempts’. A significant proportion of such women, especially those from lower socio-economic strata, would be forced to go for unsafe abortions because of issues of access and affordability. Besides being inhumane, this is bound to create gender imbalances.

There is no need for urgent and aggressive steps to control population required for India due to:

  • It is indeed a fact that population of India is growing and will continue to grow for the next couple of decades. This is because, as compared to the past, there is a higher proportion of people in the marriageable age group who will produce children, and people are now living longer.
  • However, the fertility rates are also declining. The average number of children that a woman is expected to bear in her lifetime is called the total fertility rate (TFR). A TFR of about 2.1 is considered as replacement-level fertility – if achieved, it will lead the population to stabilise in the long run.
  • As per National Family Health Survey data, the country-level TFR in India is 2.23, which is not hugely above the desired level of 2.1.
  • Twenty states/UTs have achieved the replacement-level TFR, another five have got it below 2.2, with the remaining 11 states (including Bihar, UP, MP, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh) having a higher rate. Though these 11 states/UTs accounts for 42% of country’s population, they are already showing a fall in their TFRs.

Conclusion:

The right to seek a government job or contest elections are citizens’ rights. State governments will do well to rethink throttling such rights to enforce population control.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Considering the complexities and ground realities, development in Northeast will require special handling; in such a context discuss the importance of Act East Policy (AEP).(250 words)

Economictimes

 

Why this question:

The article is one amongst the series of articles that have been tracing the developmental aspect of NER and significance of the same to the overall developmental aspect.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the importance of development of Act East Policy.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the complexities and ground realities of North-East.

Body:

Northeast India, considered remote and landlocked, shares 80 percent of its border with other countries, including China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Discuss the key features of the regions and its importance.

Explain the policies and initiatives taken by the government to improvise the region and bring its potential to full use.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward, suggesting benefits of the policy.

Introduction:

North Eastern Region of India consists of eight states namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. (Seven Sisters and Sikkim)

Body:

Importance of Act-East policy:

  • Since its inception, the AEP has been pursued in a multi-faceted manner in wide-ranging areas in trade and connectivity.
  • Northeast has the potential to become a major educational destination, particularly for CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam) countries (from schools to specialisation institutes).
  • India’s relations with its eastern neighbourhood have improved far-flung. India’s proactive role in building a common market with neighbouring Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal, on one side, and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), on the other, with an ambitious but realistic connectivity programme has been the key focus of the AEP.
  • Japan-India Act East Forum is a right step forward, which has been aimed to assist the NER states to attract Japanese technology and investment, sharing of experiences through skill development, improvement of connectivity, among others.
  • The North Eastern Region (NER) is surrounded by international borders, serving as India’s gateway to the east. NER’s geographical position, vast land border, rich nature and agro-climatic conditions, access to growing ASEAN market and presence of mineral and agro-horticulture resources largely explain why NER continues to play an important role in the AEP.

Key challenges related to the development of the North-East region are:

  • Geographical Challenges:
    • Very high rainfall, shifting river courses, poor drainage system and narrow valleys are regularly causing severe floods, erosion, landslides and sand deposition in the North East causing loss of huge areas of valuable agricultural land.
    • Hilly, inaccessible and undulating terrain has led to underdeveloped transport links.
    • Large area of land is under ‘Jhum cultivation’ which leads to large scale deforestation resulting in soil erosion and loss of soil fertility.
  • Disaster Proneness of North East:
    • High rainfall and large river basins of the Brahmaputra and the Barak along with their narrow valleys regularly cause severe floods, erosion, landslides and sand deposition leading to loss of huge areas of valuable agricultural land and thereby reduction of the average size of land holdings in the region.
    • The region is highly prone to Earthquakes and post the great earthquake of intensity of 8.5 in Richter scale of 1950 in Assam, flood and erosion have increased in the state and till date about5000-6000sq.km of land has been lost due to erosion by rivers. This has made lakhs of people landless and homeless in the state.
  • Historical Challenges:
    • Despite the above mentioned challenges, the North-eastern region was at par with rest of the country at independence but post-independence events have retarded the development of the region.
    • Partition of the country: When the major road, rail and river routes connecting North East to the rest of the country suddenly got snapped.
    • The Bangladesh Liberation was of 1971: When crores of people from Bangladesh entered some states of North East as refugees which changed the demographic situation in some state of North-East bordering Bangladesh.
    • Insurgencies: From the end of the seventies of the last century problems of insurgency started in states like Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur, Insurgency affected the present day Nagaland and Mizoram in the fifties and sixties of the last century. Now, of course, due to various actions taken by the Central and State governments, insurgency in this region is no longer a matter of great concern.
  • Infrastructural Factors:
    • NER has about 6 per cent of the national roads and about 13 percent of the national highways. However, their quality is not good due to poor maintenance.
    • The prominent indicators of shortfalls in infrastructure in this region are: increasingly congested roads, power failures, shortage of drinking water etc.
  • Political challenges:
    • Chinese Aggression on Arunachal Pradesh (called NEFA at that time) in 1962, apparently refrain large scale investment from private player in North East.
    • Large scale Migration from Bangladesh led to various socio-economic- political problem
    • The culture of ‘bandhs’ is peculiar problem of NER, widely prevalent in Assam, Manipur and Nagaland.
    • Three fourth of NER have no proper land records and Individual ownership of land is not well established
  • Social Challenges:
    • Remarkable growth of migration from the North East to different parts of the country mostly in search of education and job opportunities gives big blow to the local society.
    • Drug abuse is a serious problem among youth of North east with more than 30% of its youth being drug abusers.
    • The pandemic of HIV/AIDS, spreading fast in Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram, is also a matter of grave concern.
    • Migration from surrounding areas of NERs (Bangladesh and states of Bihar and Bengal) reduced the average size of land holding to about one hectare.
  • Lack of Social Infrastructure:
    • Inadequate number of polytechnics and higher institutions for engineering, medical and nursing studies etc.
    • Teachers’ Training is poor thereby leading to poor standards of education

Way Forward: 

A six-fold strategy for the comprehensive development of the region has been proposed-

  • Empowering people by maximizing self-governance and participatory development through grass-root planning to promote inclusive development.
  • Creation of development opportunities for the rural areas through enhancing productivity in agriculture and allied activities such as animal husbandry, horticulture, floriculture, fisheries and generation of livelihood options through rural non- farm employment.
  • To develop sectors in the region having a comparative advantage such as agro-processing, Hydro-power generation.
  • Enhancing the skills and competencies of the people and building the capacities for institutions with the Government and outside.
  • Creating a hospitable investment climate to encourage investment by the private sector particularly for infrastructure.
  • Harnessing the resources of the Government and the private sector to realize the objectives of the Vision.
  • The way forward for the development of the NER is through getting India, CLMV countries and ASEAN act together and supporting and complimenting each other for connectivity and human resource development, sustainability and inclusiveness.

Conclusion:

Innovation, Initiatives, Ideas and Implementation–all the four needs to go together. Inclusive growth is possible through improved governance, doing away with the draconian laws and ensuring the local communities are empowered to implement basic services. For this, all the stakeholders need to formulate a comprehensive realistic plan for the overall development of North East.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5) Discuss the key features of Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA). Why is it often referred to as a “draconian” law? Analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

Recently, National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister Farooq Abdullah has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, sources have confirmed to The Indian Express.

Last month, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport Wednesday and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA).

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to critically analyse the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA).

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the context of the question in brief.

Body:

Start by explaining the features of Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA).explain the history of J&K Public Safety Act.

Some key features include – The PSA allows for administrative detention for up to two years “in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State”, and for administrative detention up to one year where “any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.

 Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates.

 The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention “which it considers being against the public interest to disclose”.

 Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to “make such Rules consistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act”.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

Introduction:

The Public Safety Act (PSA), 1978, of Jammu & Kashmir is an administrative detention law that allows detention of any individual for up to two years without a trial or charge. The Public Safety Act allows for the arrest and detention of people without a warrant, specific charges, and often for an unspecified period of time.

Body:

Key features of J&K PSA are:

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978.
  • The Act was introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”.
  • The law allows the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
  • The PSA allows for administrative detention for up to two years “in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State”, and for administrative detention up to one year where “any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
  • Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates.
  • Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken “in good faith” under the Act: “No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act.”
  • Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to “make such Rules consistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act”.
  • The only way the administrative preventive detention order can be challenged is through a habeas corpus petition filed by relatives of the detained person.
  • The High Court and the Supreme Court have jurisdiction to hear such petitions and pass a final order seeking quashing of the PSA.
  • However, if the order is quashed, there is no bar on the government passing another detention order under the PSA and detaining the person again.
  • There can be no prosecution or any legal proceeding against the official who has passed the order.

PSA is often referred to as a “draconian” law:

  • Right from the beginning, the law was misused widely, and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
  • In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
  • The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention “which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose”.
  • The terms under which a person is detained under PSA are vague and include a broad range of activities like “acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State” or for “acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
  • The vagueness provided in the act gives unbridled powers to the authorities. The detainees, therefore, are effectively debarred from contesting the legality of their detention.
  • PSA does not provide for a judicial review of detention. To checkmate the J&K High Court orders for release of persons detained under the act the state authorities issue successive detention orders. This ensures prolonged detention of people.
  • PSC has been used against human rights activists, journalists, separatists and others who are considered as a threat to the law & order. Right to dissent is stifled by these Acts.

Cases:

  • Global human rights organisations such as Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) and Amnesty International have noted in their reports that responses by various government authorities to applications filed under the Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 suggest that no Rules have so far been framed to lay down procedures for the implementation of the provisions of the PSA.
  • An Amnesty report published earlier this year, which analysed over 200 case studies of PSA detainees between 2012 and 2018, said former Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti had informed the J&K Assembly in January 2017 that between 2007 and 2016, over 2,400 PSA detention orders were passed, of which about 58% were quashed by the courts.
  • Also, Mehbooba told the Assembly in January 2018 that 525 people had been detained under the PSA in 2016, and 201 in 2017.

Conclusion:

Public Safety Act is a breach of international human rights laws and that its misuse and the failure of the judiciary to prevent such abuse had contributed to the “already widespread fear and alienation felt by people” in the state.


Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

6) Discuss how the border dispute with China is posing a major test to the India-China bilateral relations. List down the efforts taken by both countries in this regard and their consequences.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recurrent conflicts between India and China at the border have brought to light the existing Border dispute between India and China. The failure of the two nations to resolve the issue has had a profound impact on the bilateral relations and the article discusses the need for a more balanced approach. 

Key demand of the question:

Answer must explain the context, issues involved, the background and the causes for fallout while suggesting way ahead to tackle the scenario.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief state the scenario between the two countries.

Body:

  • Explain first the background on India-China border issues.
  • Explain the associated fallouts between the two in the past.
  • Discuss in detail the Agreements and initiatives to resolve border disputes.
  • Suggest what should be the position of both the countries on border disputes.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The border between India and China is not clearly demarcated throughout. Along certain stretches of its 3,488-km length, there is no mutually agreed Line of Actual Control (LAC). India, following Independence, believed it had inherited firm boundaries from the British, but this was contrary to China’s view. China felt the British had left behind a disputed legacy on the boundary between the two newly formed republics.

Body:

The commonly referred “border dispute” between India and China manifests itself in two distinct and separate areas of contention.

The India-China border is divided into three sectors, viz. Western, Middle and Eastern.

  • Western Sector: The boundary dispute here pertains to the Johnson Line proposed by the British in the 1860s that extended up to the Kunlun Mountains and put Aksai Chin in the then princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Independent India used the Johnson Line and claimed Aksai Chin as its own. China initially did not demur when India said so in the early 1950s; however, in the years that followed it reversed its position and stated that it had never acceded to the Johnson Line and therefore did not see why it should cede Aksai Chin to India.
  • Middle Sector: Here the dispute is a minor one. It is the only one where India and China have exchanged maps on which they broadly agree.
  • Eastern Sector: The disputed boundary here in the of the India-China border is over the MacMahon Line. Representatives of China, India and Tibet in 1913-14 met in Shimla, where an agreement was proposed to settle the boundary between Tibet and India, and Tibet and China. Though the Chinese representatives at the meeting initialled the agreement, they subsequently refused to accept it. The Tawang tract claimed by China was taken over by India in 1951. Till the 1960s, China controlled Aksai Chin in the West while India controlled the boundary up to the McMahon Line in the East.
  • India-China-Bhutan tri junction (Doklam): Though the border dispute aggravated many times between China & India, it is different now because, the disputed area i.e Doklam belongs to Bhutan and Indian troops are defending it because of our relations with Bhutan. The region is very close to Siliguri pass or Chicken neck which connects North East – India with mainland India. This region also hosts thousands of Tibetan refugees.

Nearly six decades have passed since then, but the border issue remains unresolved. It has turned into one of the most protracted border disputes in the world. Since 1981, when the first round of border talks was held, officials from India and China have met a number of times to find a solution to the issue.

Measures undertaken:

  • Shimla agreement of 1914: To demarcate the boundary between Tibet and North East India, a convention was held at Shimla in 1914, representatives of all three i.e. Tibet, China and British India. After the discussion, the agreement was signed by British India and Tibet but not by the Chinese officials. Presently India recognises the Mc-mahon line, as agreed by the Shimla convention, as the legal boundary between India and China. However, China rejects the Shimla agreement and the Mc-mahon line, contending that Tibet was not a sovereign state and therefore did not have the power to conclude treaties.
  • Panchsheel Agreement of 1954: The Panchsheel doctrine clearly indicated the willingness to ‘Respect each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity’. Although we have come a long way since, from 1962 war to the cold peace era of 1962-1989, to the revived tensions of the present, the intent of the doctrine was well directed. It must have acted as a safeguard against any such disputes arising at the first place.
  • The two countries are also engaged in Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) on the border with bilateral agreements signed in 1993, 1996, 2005, 2012 and 2013.
  • By the beginning of the 21st century, the two sides had agreed not to let the border dispute affect bilateral engagements.
  • This was inked into the Agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the India-China Boundary Question signed in 2005.
  • During Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit to China in 2003, the two sides agreed on the appointment of special representatives for consultations aimed at arriving at a framework for a boundary settlement that would provide the basis for the delineation and demarcation of the border.

Way forward:

  • Need for a renewed effort to resolve the boundary dispute to maintain peace and tranquillity in border areas.
  • India and China should “reinforce communication and coordination in international affairs and make the international order more just and equitable”.
  • Maintain regular contact and advance the development of bilateral relations in all areas.
  • Seeking mutually acceptable resolutions on the differences with due respect for each other’s sensitivities, concerns and aspirations
  • Need to respect each other’s Sovereignty and sincere adherence to Panchsheel (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence).

Conclusion:

A strong India-China relationship is important not only for the mutual benefit of the people of India and China, but also for the region and the world.


TOPIC: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

7) “The first step towards tackling climate change is to accept the science and create conditions for innovative solutions”. Comment. ( 250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article explains in what way the projections of future climate are based on scenarios of socio-economic changes.

Key demand of the question:

One has to elucidate upon the fact that the first step towards tackling climate change is to accept the science and create conditions for innovative solutions.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the alarming concerns posed by climate change.

Body:

First discuss the significance of science to handle the ill effects of climate change.

Take hints from the article and explain in what way tackling climate change is to accept the science and create conditions for innovative solutions to be found.

Explain what effect the climate change is having upon the children of future generations who are unknowingly compelled to involve in tackling and dealing with climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Climate change is a complex problem. It is inextricably linked with society, economics, politics, and people’s way of life. More than 190 countries signed the Paris Agreement in 2016, committing to change how they create and use energy in order to lower impacts of carbon and other greenhouse gases on the planet. All over the world, people and organizations are taking action to both lower carbon footprints and find innovative ways to adapt to the effects of climate change.

Body:

Climate change is an immediate issue to be tackled:

  • Global warming above pre-industrial levels has touched about 1 degree Celsius.
  • The IPCC 1.5 report basically says, at the current rates at which we are producing greenhouse gases, we are looking at a couple of decades really before what we have available is exhausted.
  • At one level, for many people climate change has become an existential problem, a problem that risks undermining the conditions for productive life and therefore a problem that does not override but certainly permeates all kinds of other issues.
  • For many others, climate change is a distant problem that is overwhelmed by more immediate issues.
  • The rapid change of climate change is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Experts predict that one-fourth of Earth’s species will be headed for extinction by 2050 if the warming trend continues at its current rate.
  • Sea levels have risen between four and eight inches in the past 100 years. Current projections suggest that sea levels could continue to rise between 4 inches and 36 inches over the next 100 years.
  • As temperatures rise globally, droughts will become more frequent and more severe, with potentially devastating consequences for agriculture, water supply and human health. This phenomenon has already been observed in some parts of Asia and Africa, where droughts have become longer and more intense.
  • Hot temperatures and dry conditions also increase the likelihood of forest fires.

Challenges in addressing climate change:

  • Regional Inequality:
    • The principle of Common but differentiated responsibilities was proposed to tackle climate change by addressing the regional inequality.
    • However, the indifferent behaviour by the developed countries has led to partial success of many global initiatives. E.g. Kyoto Protocol.
  • Developed Countries not taking responsibility:
    • Historical emissions and pollution caused due to industrial revolution is not accepted by the industrialized nations.
    • Developed nations are unwilling to accept the responsibility and are moving away from global agreements. E.g. USA rejecting the Paris deal.
  • Finance:
    • Huge amount of funds is required for adaptation and mitigation measures to be adopted.
    • For e.g.: electric mobility, certainly is a green measure, but is actually expensive, in immediate terms, in terms of cost per vehicle kilometre.
    • The cost of shifting into renewable energy is also a fiscal challenge to most countries.
  • Technology:
    • Many adaptation and mitigation measures need sophisticated technologies and Research and Development which is an impediment to many developing and small island nations.
    • Commercialization of technology in form of Patents, evergreening has made it unaffordable.
  • Increasing use of fossil fuels.
  • Complex linkages among emissions, concentrations, climate changes, and impacts.
  • Lack of certainty about the details of future climate change.
  • Significant time lags in human response systems.
  • Risks, judgments about risk, and adaptation needs are highly variable across different contexts.

Way Forward

  • The first step in tackling climate change is to accept the science and create conditions for innovative solutions to be found.
  • Investment in R&D is needed to spur innovations in sustainable climate-friendly and climate-proof productivity, and the private sector can help on this.
  • There should instead be major changes in technological innovation, behaviour, values and governance. This is an unprecedented challenge for humanity.
  • Incremental changes along with increasing contributions from renewables and improvements in energy efficiencies would not be sufficient.
  • This is the time for the world’s leaders to demonstrate that they are ready to go beyond expediency and take the actions needed to avert long-term catastrophe.
  • Wealthy nations like the U.S., and those of the EU argued that emissions from developing countries are consistently rising and they need to commit to more serious emission cuts. A consensus needs to be developed at the earliest.
  • The immediate up scaling of ambition in the second Commitment period of Kyoto Protocol and its early ratification by all Kyoto Protocol parties would be a step in the right direction.
  • Concerning mitigation, distinction enshrined in the Convention between Annex I (Developed) and non-Annex I (developing) Parties must be maintained in accordance with the principles of Equity, CBDR and other provisions of the UN Conventions.
  • The ‘developing versus developed country’ schism needs to be diluted at the earliest and Developed Countries should avoid watering down the CBDR principle envisaged in earlier agreements.