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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 17 OCTOBER 2019

Are you Ready for Insta 75 Days Revision Plan (UPSC Prelims - 2020)?


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 17 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1) Discuss the factors due to which the Communists led by Mao-Tse-Tung emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War. How did Mao’s victory impact South Asian politics?(250 words)

World history by Norman Lowe

Key demand of the question:

This question seeks reasons for the victory of Chinese Communist Party over KMT regime in the Chinese Civil War and its impact upon South Asian Politics.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly introduced the Chinese Civil War and how the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) emerged victorious despite the odds. 

Body:

Discuss the following aspects in the answer body:

Political: The administration of both parties, Sino-Japanese War, Long march etc. 

Socio-economic: The peasant and workers, the reforms of CCP, the communism effect etc. 

Comparative Leadership: Mao Tse Tung vs Chiang Kai Shek, the revolutionary spirit of CCP etc. 

The next part of body must outline the effect of Chinese Revolution in the South Asian Region. The Tibet issue, Sino-Indian war, Taiwan and One China Policy etc. must be written. 

Conclusion:

Conclusion must summarize the above mentioned points which changed the fate of China and trace the emerging of the present day assertive China to this civil war.

Introduction:

Few people in history deserve sole credit for changing the fate of an entire nation. One of them is Mao Tse-tung, the man who rose from the peasantry to become the pre-eminent revolutionary theorist, political leader and statesman of Communist China. Mao’s influence endured more than 40 years from the Long March of the 1930s, through the Red Army’s victory in 1949, until his death in 1976 at age 83. He remained chairman of the party to the end. The grip that Maoism — Mao’s philosophy of socialism — had on decision-making and opinion-moulding loosened after 1976.

Body:

Mao Zedong and communist party of china were successful in liberating china. The factors that led to this are:

  • The Chinese emperor was deposed in 1911 and a republic was established in it’s place by the Kuomintang (KMT)
  • The KMT in the subsequent years under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen went on to consolidate the Chinese state which was under the grip of provincial ‘war lords’
  • Sun Yat Sen was able to garner the support of the communists in China who were under the leadership of Mao. However, the relations between Mao and the KMT started to strain after Sun Yat Sen’s demise in 1925
  • The Communists were gradually purged by Chiang Kai Shek who came to head KMT after Sun Yat Sen
  • Civil War broke out in China once again and the Communists under the leadership of Mao had to take refuge in the cold desert region of China. It was Mao’s leadership and determination which ensured that the communists despite the heavy odds failed to cow down
  • The Communists were instrumental in raising the banner of revolt in wake of the Japanese invasion. Joining forces with their sworn enemy, the KMT they were able to put a strong opposition against the Imperial Japanese Army
  • After the end of WW-II, the Western Powers wanted to back pro-capitalist Chiang Kai Shek to acquire power. However, civil war erupted once again and Mao and his comrades were able to wrest power from the KMT and had them take refuge in the island of Formosa leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China

Mao and his role in building China

  • Unlike the traditional Marxist idea of revolution of the workers, Mao Zedong brought a revolution based on peasantry.
  • Unlike the dictatorship of proletariat of Soviet Union he established new democracy in China, where all social classes were considered equal.
  • Emphasised on central control over key areas of economy and private enterprise and private ownership were gradually abolished.
  • To galvanise industrial development, the great leap forward movement was launched in which households were encouraged to build furnaces in their backward.
  • Agriculture was organised in the farm of communes. This raised the productivity.
  • Emphasis was placed in ideology and cultural revolution was brought under which students and professional were sent to the countryside to learn.

Conclusion:

In short, The Chinese communist revolution of 1949 inspired the communists elsewhere and added to the strength of the newly independent nations. On the other hand, the Revolution led the United States of America to tighten the noose on the communist bloc to help prevent the spread of communism.


Topic:History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2) Discuss how the process of Liberation of Latin America resulted in problems which are the root of contemporary issues in the region today. (250 words) 

World history by Norman Lowe

Key demand of the question:

This question asks to trace the link of contemporary issues of Latin America with the Liberation of Latin America.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief introduction about how the Liberation of Latin America resulted in political instability in those regions.

Body:

Firstly divide the Latin American contemporary issues country wise. Use a table to save words. Then develop how these have root in the liberation war. Issues like Venezuelan crisis, Under development, Cuba, Narcotics, Communisms, and Autocracy etc. should all be addressed. Later below the table, briefly offer explanation for the same linking to Liberation wars.

Another way of answering these questions is dividing in to issue wise and addressing it country wise. Drawing a simple representation of Latin American map and pointing out important countries/issues used in the answer will enrich your answer.

Since the issues/countries are may, keep the answer very specific.

Conclusion:

The conclusion must offer a way forward how the conditions in the present area taking the positives from the past.

Introduction:

The term ‘Latin America’ is used to refer to the states which are situated to the south of the United States. Brazil is the only Portuguese speaking state in Latin America. All others speak Spanish.

Body:

Contemporary issues in Latin America today:

  • Inequality is the key issue in Latin America, along with education. It seems that the rich in Latin America don’t feel the need to pitch in, and assist development.
  • Venezuela plunges deeper into crisis
    • Hundreds of thousands of people fled Venezuela’s deepening economic crisis last year, while widespread shortages of food and medicine made daily life a struggle for those who remained.
    • With the IMF predicting an inflation rate of 10,000,000 percent in 2019 and President Nicolas Maduro continuing to blame the economic crisis on an “imperialist conspiracy”, the situation is likely to deteriorate even further in the next 12 months.
  • Securing peace in Colombia:
    • With a fiscal deficit and the potential of a decrease in international cooperation, Colombia must develop innovative ways to finance the process.
    • Disarmament, reintegration of ex-combatants, collective reparation processes, the Special Jurisdiction for Peace, and many other pieces of the puzzle will need adequate funding.
    • The risks are enormous. We could see massacres of left-wing leaders and activists, a return to illicit economies, land grabbing, displacement, deforestation.
  • Latin America is far from peaceful:
    • One thing virtually all countries and cities share is unacceptably high levels of violence.
    • There are virtually no areas and populations untouched, and the burden falls disproportionately on the poor.
    • The problem is getting worse – we are going to see a continued rise to 35 murders per 100,000 people if nothing is done.
    • A key factor in this has to be drug decriminalisation and regulation.
    • The evidence is glaring that the war on drugs has failed, and several Latin American presidents and social leaders have stepped up and changed the tone of the conversation.
  • Migration strains relations
    • The US enters 2019 locked into a government shutdown centred on funding for President Donald Trump’s wall on the border with Mexico.
    • Migration has taken centre stage in US politics in recent months as Trump sought to sow fear over the thousands of Central American migrants and refugees who made their way to the border to apply for asylum.
    • The question of where the migrants will wait out the asylum process has placed a strain on the US’s relationship with Mexico
  • Argentina’s economic crisis:
    • The Argentine peso lost a third of its value in 2018, prompting protests against austerity measures and a staggering $57bn bailout package from the IMF – the largest ever given by the international body.
  • The impact of climate change:
    • The effects of climate change on our coast lands as well as farming capacities is a huge challenge.
    • Additionally, what reductions in yields can do to our rural populations and economies, internal migration patterns.
    • Most of our countries offset carbon from the rest of the world (such as Amazonia).
  • The growing intolerance with corruption:
    • The fight against corruption is probably one of the region’s most significant innovations in recent years.
    • Latin America has long had the reputation of corruption and its cousin “informality”. But action has been sporadic, episodic and half-hearted.
  • Women’s voices are suppressed:
    • Latin American countries continue to live in a region highly unequal for women, especially those from ethnic minorities and living in rural areas.
    • We cannot progress when women’s voices remain at the margins of public policy discussions.

Reasons for the contemporary issues:

  • Post-Colonial Violence:
    • As the empires collapsed, so too did the imperial defence against external intervention and the imperial deterrent against internal strife.
    • The newly independent Latin American countries did not possess internationally or even domestically recognized boundaries. Border wars, especially in Central America,
  • Lost Decades and Violence:
    • In post-colonial Latin America, high levels of violence, political instability, economic balkanization, and anti-trade policies all sabotaged economic growth and reduced state capacities below the already low levels that had characterized the colonial regimes.
  • Lost Decades, Balkanization and Anti-Market Policy:
    • Latin America suffered from economic balkanization which stemmed from fiscal, currency and market fragmentation.
    • in 1820, the two biggest Spanish American economies had an average market size (GDP) only about one-quarter that of the average European core (OECD) country.
    • The same was true of Brazil. In 1870, the figure for Argentina, Chile and Mexico combined was one-seventh of the average European core country.
    • If scale economies and internal trade mattered as much as economists think, Latin America lost a lot after independence since the combined market size of the former Spanish Americas was at least three-quarters the size of the average European core country, or more
  • Violence and the Drift to Liberalism:
    • Post-independence violence and economic decline in Latin America reduced state capacities and thus undermined economic strategies that required strong, centralized national governments – conservatism in most of Latin America.
    • Violence undermined many key institutions of colonial rule in Latin America: caste systems, slavery, state monopolies, internal customs, trade regulations, taxes and fees that burdened urban consumption, state collection and enforcement of the tithe, and archaic property rights in land

Conclusion:

Many of the challenges facing Latin America in the 21st Century are ones with which it has dealt since independence from Spain 200 years ago. The dependence on fragile trade relationships and primary products, the incessant violence, and inequality practically defined the region in the 19th Century. Meeting the challenge implies that countries will need stronger states, not only for implementing specific policies, but more importantly for developing new ways to regularly deal with the increasing risks their populations are facing.

       


        

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3)  Higher minimum wage solutions for the poor can have encouraging multiplier effects to the economy. Elucidate.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the impact of minimum wage solutions for the poor and in what way it would impact the economy.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what is the impact of such a policy and its effect on the economy.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Introduce by mentioning about the government’s recent decision to improve rural wages.

Body:

Recently The central government decided to adopt new indexation of NREGA wages based on CPI-Rural instead of CPI-AL, meant to increase rural incomes. The current daily NREGA wages are just a quarter of the minimum daily living wage of Rs 692 as outlined in the 7th Pay Commission.

Explain the benefits of higher disposable income for the poor on the entire economy.

Give suggestions to increase the income of poor in the conclusion.

Conclusion:

Conclude that increasing the disposable income of the poor is important not only for their livelihood but is also critical for reviving the slowdown in the economy. It is economically prudent to substantially increase the budget for public programmes such as NREGA.

Introduction:

                According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), Minimum wages have been defined as “the minimum amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work performed during a given period, which cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract”.

As per Economic Survey 2018-19, a well-designed minimum wage system is required to reduce wage inequality in the country. According to the International Labour Organisation’s India wage report one in every three wage workers in India is not protected by the minimum wage act.

Body:

Higher minimum wages can have encouraging multiplier effects:

  • According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2017-18, 45% of regular workers are paid less than the minimum wage.
  • The law would benefit about 50 crore workers.
  • With an easily understandable national wage floor— which would apply across job types and geographies—the hope is that compliance will improve.
  • At the moment, women earn roughly 45% less than men in the same occupation. It prohibits gender discrimination in matters related to wages and recruitment of employees for the same work or work of similar nature.
  • A national wage floor would also hopefully reduce rural-urban gaps.
  • Since casual workers can be fired easily, estimates show that the wage may even go down to a miserable ₹20 a day in times of poor demand. A mandated minimum wage will hopefully reduce these glaring inequities.
  • It will substantially reduce the number of minimum wages in the country from the existing more than 2000 rates of minimum wages.
  • This would ensure that every worker gets a minimum wage which will also be accompanied by an increase in the purchasing power of the worker thereby giving a fillip to growth in the economy.
  • Minimum wages are neither a dole nor an act of charity. They are a legal mandate that are arrived at by calculating the minimal nutritional requirement and basic needs of an individual.

Inadequacies in Minimum Wage System:

  • Complex system: Presently the minimum wage system, under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, has different minimum wages defined for different job categories across States.
  • 1,915 minimum wages are defined for various scheduled job categories across various states.
  • Lack of a uniform criteria for fixing the minimum wage rate.
  • Different minimum wages for the same occupation across different states, along with a wide range between the lowest and highest minimum wages, trigger migration of industries towards low wage regions.
  • This can also cause distress migration of labour to better paying states.
  • Gender Bias: Analysis of minimum wage data also shows a systemic gender bias. For example – male-dominated job of security guards pays better than being a domestic worker, most of whom are women.
  • National Floor Level Minimum Wage: Some states have minimum wages even below the non-statutory National Floor Level Minimum Wage (NFLMW) of Rs 176 per day.

Measures needed:

  • Increasing the ambit of the minimum wage system, it recommended deciding minimum wages on the basis of skills and split across geographical regions.
  • With the government in the process of bringing the Code on Wages Bill in Parliament, the survey said the rationalisation of minimum wages proposed by the Bill should be supported.
  • The survey suggested the government should notify a “national floor minimum wage” across five regions, after which States can fix their own minimum wages, but not lower than the floor wage.
  • This would bring uniformity and make States “almost equally attractive from the point of view of labour cost for investment as well as reduce distress migration.”
  • The proposed Code on Wages Bill should extend applicability of minimum wages to all employments/workers in all sectors and should cover both the organized as well as the unorganized sector.
  • A mechanism for regular adjustment of minimum wages should be developed, with a national-level dashboard at the Centre that States can access and update.
  • An easy to recall toll-free number to lodge complaints about non-payment of minimum wages should be publicised.

Conclusion:

A simple, coherent and enforceable Minimum Wage System should be designed with the aid of technology as minimum wages push wages up and reduce wage inequality without significantly affecting employment. An effective minimum wage policy is a potential tool not only for the protection of low paid workers but is also an inclusive mechanism for more resilient and sustainable economic development.


Topic:   Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Discuss the salient features of Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation Act (LAAR) that is about to be heard by the apex court bench. Also explain the case and its impacts on landholders and developers. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

A five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court is set to hear a case on the interpretation of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation Act (LAAR). Thus important from examination point of view to understand the features of the act.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the case and reasons for which it is being heard and the salient features of the Act. 

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the background of the case 

Body:

  • Start by stating the reasons as to why was a referral to a larger Bench made?
  • The Bench headed by Justice Arun Mishra will specifically interpret a provision of the law, Section 24(2), which states that when a developer fails to take possession of the land acquired under the 1894 Act for five years, or if compensation is not paid to the owner, the land acquisition process would fail and will have to initiated afresh under the LAAR. 
  • Discuss the significance of the judgment and the impact it shall have.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (also Land Acquisition Act, 2013) is an Act of Indian Parliament that regulates land acquisition and lays down the procedure and rules for granting compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement to the affected persons in India. The LARR act provided for greatly enhanced compensation, consent of those whose land was sought to be acquired, and detailed rehabilitation and resettlement provisions. In other words, it changed the relationship between the state and the individual by empowering the latter against the former.

Body:

The Section 24(2) of the act, which states that when a developer fails to take possession of the land acquired under the 1894 Act for five years, or if compensation is not paid to the owner, the land acquisition process would fail and will have to initiated afresh under the LAAR.

Section 24(2) says that in cases where acquisition proceedings were initiated under the 1894 law and compensation had been determined –

  • the proceedings would lapse if the state did not take possession of the land for 5 years (and)
  • had not paid compensation to the landowner.

Case:

  • A five-judge Constitution bench headed by Justice Arun Mishra and comprising Justices Indira Banerjee, Vineet Saran, M R Shah and Ravindra Bhat will hear matters relating to correctness of the interpretation of Section 24 of Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (Land Acquisition Act, 2013).
  • Two three-judge Bench rulings delivered by the apex court in 2014 and 2018 on the same issue differed in their interpretations.
  • This has prompted the court to refer the matter to a larger Bench.
  • The hearing will decide the legality of several cases of land acquisition that took place across the country before 2009.
  • The matter also raises significant questions on judicial discipline.
  • It relates to how judgments of the court are applied while deciding subsequent cases on similar issues.

Reasons for a higher judge bench:

  • Days after the 2018 verdict was pronounced, another three-judge Bench Comprising Justices Lokur, Joseph, and Deepak Gupta stayed all cases relating to this provision of the land acquisition Act in all High Courts till the question of law was settled.
  • The Bench also asked “other Benches of the Supreme Court” to not take up the issue until it was decided by a larger Bench.
  • Two of the judges on this Bench, Justices Lokur and Joseph, were also part of the Bench that delivered the 2014 verdict that was invalidated.
  • Justice Joseph in oral observations made in the court strongly criticised the 2018 ruling and said that the 2018 verdict had deviated from “virgin principles” of the institution in declaring a verdict of equal Bench strength ‘per incuriam’.
  • Subsequently, separate Benches headed by Justices Goel and Mishra referred the matter to the CJI, requesting that a larger Bench be set up.

Significance of the judgement:

  • It would be correct to say that thousands of families who had previously given up all hope had their acquisition proceedings set aside and their land returned under Section 24.
  • This Section was upheld and imbued with substance by several judges of the Supreme Court and various High Courts.
  • It has positively impacted the lives of several farmers’/ land owners

Impact of the judgement:

  • Once the proceedings lapse under the old law, the acquisition process would be initiated again under the new law.
  • This would allow the owner to get a higher compensation.
  • The term “paid” in the provision needed interpretation.
  • Since it placed the responsibility on the government, cases were filed before the courts soon after the law was implemented.

Conclusion:

LARR act is hailed as a landmark law in the interest of the all stakeholders so for implementation of this act government needs to consult all stakeholders.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) Critically examine the performance of India’s most ambitious health scheme; Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh have emerged as the top-performing States under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), thus necessitating us to examine the performance of the scheme.

Key demand of the question:

One must examine the performance of the Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.

Directive:

Critically examineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief quote data on the performance of Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.

Body:

The question is direct and straightforward, there isn’t much to deliberate apart from listing of the facts to substantiate the performance of the scheme.

Explain that It was launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage. Provide for details of the scheme.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the scheme will continue to focus on reducing catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure, improving access to quality health care and meeting the unmet need of the population for hospitalization care, so that India can move towards the vision of Universal Health Coverage.

Introduction:

Ayushman Bharat is a progression towards promotive, preventive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative aspects of Universal Healthcare through access of Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs) at the primary level and provision of financial protection for accessing curative care at the secondary and tertiary levels through engagement with both public and private sector (PMJAY).

 

Body:

Performance analysis of PMJAY:

  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh have emerged as the top performing States with free secondary and tertiary treatment worth nearly ₹7,901 crore availed under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), the flagship health assurance scheme of the Government in just over a year.
  • Launched last year, the scheme crossed the 50-lakh treatment mark this week with secondary and tertiary level treatments worth ₹7,901 crore being carried out across 32 States and Union Territories.
  • Half-a-crore hospital treatments have been provided and there are 9 hospital admissions every minute across India.
  • More than 60% of the amount spent has been on tertiary care.
  • Cardiology, Orthopaedics, Radiation Oncology, Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, and Urology have emerged as the top tertiary specialities.
  • It has helped reduce catastrophic expenditure for hospitalizations, which pushes 6 crore people into poverty each year.
  • Helps mitigate the financial risk arising out of catastrophic health episodes.

However, challenges remain:

  • High Out of Pocket Expenditure: Most consumers complain of rising costs. Hundred days into the PMJAY, it remains to be seen if private hospitals provide knee replacement at Rs 80,000 (current charges Rs 3.5 lakh) bypass surgery at Rs 1.7 lakh (against Rs 4 lakh).
  • Commercial motive: lack of transparency and unethical practices in the private sector.
  • Concentrated in Urban areas: Private hospitals don’t have adequate presence in Tier-2 and Tier-3 cities and there is a trend towards super specialisation in Tier-1 cities.
  • Better infrastructure needed: Under the PMJAY, the private hospitals have to get registered and fulfil the minimum requirements. They are also expected to expand their facilities and add hospital beds.
  • Lack of level playing field between the public and private hospitals: This has been a major concern as public hospitals would continue receiving budgetary support. This would dissuade the private players from actively participating in the scheme.
  • Additional incentives to the private players: The setting up hospitals in the underserved areas by private players can happen when there are incentives from the State. Lack of this would maintain status quo of last mile medical care which is in shackles.
  • Populist measures of the government: The idea of bringing the Above Poverty Line (APL) population in the unorganised sector under ambit of scheme has been a bone of contention. A sizeable part would remain uninsured—mostly lower-middle class and middle-class households whose income-earning members work in the unorganised sector. The high cost of insurance as compared to PMJAY would deter this section from being insured.
  • Federal issues: Health is a state subject, and so far these states have declined joining the central government-led scheme.
    • Delhi government argues that it’s existing health scheme has wider coverage and is “10 times bigger than Ayushman Bharat”.
    • Odisha has pointed out certain flaws, saying that the existing Biju Swastya Kalyan Yojana has special provisions like an extra Rs 2 lakh cover for women, which the Ayushman scheme lacks.
    • Telangana too has raised concerns about the rather “narrow ambit” of PM-JAY, saying that its Aarogyasri scheme. benefits more people.
    • West Bengal opted out, refusing to pay its share of the expenditure.

Measures needed:

  • The current approach requires re-emphasising the missing priority on PHCs and CHCs for developing comprehensive primary care.
  • Government hospitals should be removed from the ambit of the scheme as services there are already free of cost.
  • The government should fund public hospitals directly. Under this scheme, it is being done through insurance companies by paying 15 per cent to them.
  • India should not continue the insurance route for healthcare delivery as the administrative cost and the “unholy nexus” with insurance companies point towards profit maximization rather than quality health care delivery.
  • The focus should be to train a pool of social workers, psychiatrists, counsellors with public health orientation who could then transform the primary healthcare delivery system in the country.
  • India needs to design health services to meet local needs with opposite referral mechanism to secondary- and tertiary-care, and this can produce better health outcomes with a considerable cost-advantage.
  • Reorienting resources towards population-based preventive programmes will help set the allocation of scare resources for larger social benefits right.
  • PPP in India needs a nuanced approach and systematic mechanisms, including legislation and regulatory aspects. The process requires wider stakeholder engagement and deliberations and oversight from top leadership.
  • Need of the hour: “Tax funded” universal health coverage rather than the “for profit” insurance model.

Conclusion:

PM-JAY seeks to accelerate India’s progress towards achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and Sustainable Development Goal – 3 (SDG3). While the contribution of the private sector will be the key to its success, it’s the will and zeal of the government to implement it that will make or break the scheme.


TOPIC: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6) Discuss the Renewable energy generation capacity of India.What would be a cost-effective way to enhance the renewable energy generation capacity of India? Elaborate. ( 250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article throws light upon the methods of enhancing cost effective renewable energy generation to augment the capacity of Indian renewable energy sector.

Key demand of the question:

One has to briefly present the Indian renewable energy scenario and explain some of the key cost-effective ways to enhance the renewable energy generation capacity of India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by stating facts – India aims to have a renewables capacity of 175 GW by 2022 and 500 GW by 2030. The editorial analyses how India can achieve these targets in a cost-effective manner.

Body:

First explain Renewable energy generation capacity of India with relevant facts and details such as – currently installed capacity of 358 GW is about four times of what it was in 1997-98, which shows a doubling of capacity in each of the past two decades — or about 75 MW per day. By India’s historical standards, these are astonishing numbers.

Then move onto discuss what the concerns are therein.

Explain What would be a cost-effective way to enhance the renewable energy generation capacity of India?

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

India has been aggressively expanding its power generation capacity. Today’s installed capacity of 358 GW is about four times of what it was in 1997-98, which shows a doubling of capacity in each of the past two decades — or about 75 MW per day. The private sector accounts for almost half the installed generation capacity. For the last three years, growth in generation from renewables has been close to 25%. India aims to have a renewables capacity of 175 GW by 2022 and 500 GW by 2030. Solar and wind power plants would account for much of the targeted capacity from renewables.

Body:

Cost-effective way to enhance the renewable energy capacity:

  • Increasing accessibility to clean energy:
    • India has already committed to bring electricity to every household by 2022. An even more ambitious goal would be to provide electricity to all households on 24×7 basis.
    • To bring clean fuel in rural areas the Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana, should be complemented by: Setting up of biomass pelletising units; and distribution of ‘efficient biomass chullahs’.
    • On the agricultural front, solar irrigation pump distribution target must be stepped up and financed through credit support from NABARD and government subsidy.
    • The potential non-conventional energy sources must be explored and researched to make them technologically economical and accessible, like geothermal energy, tidal energy etc.
  • Enhancing efficiency:
    • The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) should conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the available energy-efficient technologies and products across all sectors, especially agriculture, housing and transportation.
    • At the institutional level, the national and state designated agencies working in the area of energy efficiency should be strengthened.
    • To enhance vehicle fuel efficiency gains, the auto fuel quality should be upgraded to BS VI norms for nation-wide launch in 2020.
  • Policy changes:
    • Around three-quarters of our power comes from coal powered plants. It is important that India increases its domestic coal to reduce its dependence on imports.
    • There is need to fast track the regulatory clearances, improve labour productivity, increase coal production and enhance efficiency of distribution.
    • Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP) intends to minimize government’s discretion in decision making, reduce disputes, reduce administrative delays and introduce concept of revenue sharing, freedom of marketing to stimulate growth in the oil and gas sector in India.
    • The tax structure should be rationalized in import and sale of energy on thermal value basis with a view to enhance the competitiveness of the economy.
    • The India energy security scenarios, 2047(IESS) has been developed as an energy scenario building tool. The guiding ambition of this is to develop energy pathways leading up to the year 2047, comprising of likely energy demand and supply scenarios.
    • NITI Aayog launched the India Energy Security Scenarios 2047 calculator (IESS 2047), as an open source web based tool.
    • The tool aims to explore a range of potential future energy scenarios for India, for diverse energy demand and supply sectors leading up to 2047.
  • Infrastructure:
    • Refining and distribution of oil and gas needs augmentation. Thus, India should sustain its export capacity of refined products by setting up new refineries.
    • At present, 31 companies are developing City Gas Distribution (CGD) networks in 21 states for transportation or distribution of natural gas to consumers in domestic, commercial or industrial and transport sectors through a network of pipelines.
    • For the hydro projects, the government will need to make efforts to expedite progress on capacity under construction through satisfactory Rehabilitation & Resettlement implementation.
    • India has also built its strategic petroleum reserves in order to meet any supply shocks due to any external exigencies like wars, natural disasters etc. Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil and Gas Ministry, has constructed three strategic petroleum reserves in huge underground rock caverns at Visakhapatnam on the East Coast, and at Mangaluru and Padur on the West Coast.
    • These facilities, with total capacity of 5.33 million tonnes, can meet about 10 days of India’s crude oil requirements. India now plans to build another 6.5 million tonnes of storage at Padur and Chandikhole in Odisha which will augment its supply to 22 days.
  • India’s Energy diplomacy:
    • India is setting up a web of energy relationships in the extended neighborhood covering Myanmar, Vietnam in the east, with Central Asian countries like Kazakhstan and Gulf countries in the west.
    • Indo-US Nuclear deal opened new vistas for India in field of Nuclear energy facilitating cutting edge technology and nuclear fuel. India has started to engage with China, Kazakhstan and Australia for nuclear fuel.
    • India’s SCO membership could now play a bigger role in ensuring greater energy cooperation between energy producers and consumers by linking Central Asia and South Asia.
  • Promotion of Renewable Energy:
    • A renewable energy capacity of 100 GW should be achieved by 2019-20 so as to contribute to achievement of 175 GW target by 2022.
    • Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited (SECI) should develop storage solutions within next three years to help bring down prices through demand aggregation of both household and grid scale batteries.
    • A large programme should be launched to tap at least 50% of the bio-gas potential in the country by supporting technology and credit support through NABARD by 2020.

Conclusion

Major transformations are underway in global energy sector, from growing electrification to the expansion of renewable energy, upheavals in oil production and globalization of natural gas markets. India needs to build its capacity in research and skills building to deal with these transformations in energy sector. India needs to ensure long term planning to ensure universal energy access and meeting its commitment under Paris Agreement to ensure sustainable and inclusive growth.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) What do you comprehend by medical ethics? Discuss and also inspect its significance in the context of worsening patient-physician relationship in India.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Medical ethics.

Key demand of the question:

One has to present an account on worsening patient-physician relationship in India, explain what Medical ethics is.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining what you understand by Medical ethics.

Body:

Explain that Medical ethics deals with the right choices of conduct in the field of human health. It deals with the distinction between what is considered right or wrong at a given time in a given culture. Medical ethics is concerned with the obligations of the doctors and the hospital to the patient along with other health professionals and society.

Mention the issues concerning the doctor-patient relationship.

Explain how ethical conduct can improve this relationship.

Suggest solutions as to how these relations can be revived.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the doctor–patient relationship is one based on mutual trust and respect between the two parties thus it is important to keep the relations revived.

Introduction:

Medical ethics deals with the right choices of conduct in the field of human health. It deals with the distinction between what is considered right or wrong at a given time in a given culture. Medical ethics is concerned with the obligations of the doctors and the hospital to the patient along with other health professionals and society.

Body:

In India, the doctors are considered as equivalent to gods (“Vaidyo Narayano Hari”). Medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and in both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, the government and the public to act against dishonest doctors, restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.

Issues concerning the deteriorating patient-physician relationship in India:

  • The situation has become so bad that patients today approach the doctor with mixed feelings – of faith and fear, of hope and hostility. This leads to a distorted doctor-patient relationship, with high chances of exploitation both ways – doctors may fleece patients and, if some lacunae are exposed in treatment, patients or their relatives may blackmail doctors.
  • Such unethical practices may no longer be cause for comment. But there are many reports of doctors actually committing crimes – distorting medical reports in medico-legal cases, providing false certificates to protect criminals, sexually assaulting their patients, and even trading in human organs
  • It goes without saying that such criminal doctors are in a minority. Unfortunately, their number seems to be increasing
  • There are reports of doctors amputating the limbs of poor people at the bidding of the begging mafia. Poor people who resisted the extraction of their kidneys have reportedly been operated upon at gunpoint. The list of such practices is endless. It starts in medical college as MBBS seats are sold for lakhs of rupees. This is merely the tip of the iceberg.
  • Rampant corruption exists at every level, from medical college admissions, getting a degree, to registration with the medical council. Question papers have been leaked and “jockeys” have written medical examinations on behalf of students.
  • Medical college managements are known to charge unofficial “donations” in addition to official fees. Students have been reported to bribe faculty to get good reports, and doctors have been reported to pay bribes to get registered with the state medical council
  • Sex determination tests are performed though they are illegal. Doctors are known to prescribe unnecessary diagnostic tests, hazardous drugs and inappropriate surgical procedures, all for the kickbacks they receive from the healthcare industry
  • Against the recommendations of the WHO that the total health expenditure should be 6.5% of the gross national product (GDP), India spends only 4.8% of GDP on health. Further, public health expenditure is just 1.2% of GDP, or barely 25% of the total health expenditure; the rest of the money is paid by patients directly to private doctors and hospitals
  • The dubious functioning of regulatory bodies of the medical profession, namely the Medical Council of India (MCI) and the Indian Medical Association (IMA), has helped spread corruption in the profession.

Measures needed:

  • Medical humanitarianism: The morale of the doctors needs to be boosted. Regular trainings and support should be given to imbibe the feeling of sympathy and compassion among doctors.
  • Need for respectful interaction: Doctors should be encouraged to effectively communicate with the patients to instil confidence in them. Doctors should be aware of patient’s medical history, habits and routines for effective treatment, thus reviving the culture of ‘family doctors’.
  • Focus on Emergency Medicine: Introducing dedicated and trained EM residents who are sensitized and taught to handle tough situations, charged relatives, and “breaking bad news” is the need of the hour to enable better handling of emergency rooms and trauma centers.
  • Strict enforcement of guidelines, code of ethics: There is an increasing need for culturally sensitive physicians and ethical committees in hospitals and other healthcare settings.
  • Imbibing confidence among the doctors: Doctors must be assured of their safety and security. Steps like having security guards, installing CCTV cameras, pasting chart of guidelines for patient’s kin on hospital walls in regional language, etc. should be initiated by hospital management.

Conclusion:

The doctor–patient relationship is one based on mutual trust and respect between the two parties. However, the rapid changes in the medical field and the corporatization of health-care system have strained the age-old good relations between the patient and the doctors. Thus, there is a need to uphold the legal, ethical, and moral liabilities for both the doctors and the patients. Few of the Gandhi’s Seven Sins – ‘commerce without morality’ and ‘science without humanity’ highlight the need for reviving the spirit of medical ethics in India.