- Issues related to health.
Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report
What to study?
For Prelims: Key findings of the report.
For Mains: India’s TB burden, efforts and measures needed.
Context: The report has been released by WHO.
The report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress in the response at global, regional and country levels for India.
Key findings and observations:
- Tuberculosis incidence rate in India has decreased by almost 50,000 patients over the past one year (26.9 lakh TB patients in India in 2018).
- Incidence per 1,00,000 population has decreased from 204 in 2017 to 199 in 2018.
- Number of patients being tested for rifampicin resistance has increased from 32% in 2017 to 46% in 2018.
- Treatment success rate has increased to 81% for new and relapse cases (drug sensitive) in 2017, which was 69% in 2016.
- TB remains the top infectious killer in the world claiming over 4,000 lives a day.
- However, more people received life-saving treatment in 2018 than ever before, largely due to improved detection and diagnosis.
- Reduction in the number of TB deaths: 5 million people died from TB in 2018, down from 1.6 million in 2017.
- Number of new cases of TB has been declining steadily in recent years.
- The burden remains high among low-income and marginalized populations: around 10 million people developed TB in 2018.
- Fragile health infrastructure and workforce shortages.
- Weak reporting systems.
- More out-of-pocket expenditure.
- Drug resistance.
- Fight against TB remains chronically underfunded.
- The world must accelerate progress if it is to reach the Sustainable Development Goal of ending TB by 2030.
- Sustained progress on TB will require strong health systems and better access to services. That means a renewed investment in primary health care and a commitment to universal health coverage.
- There is an urgent need for funding of TB research and development, with an annual shortfall of US$1.2 billion.
- Priority needs include a new vaccine or effective preventive drug treatment; rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests; and safer, simpler, shorter drug regimens to treat TB.
Global TB targets:
SDG 3.3 includes a target of ending the TB epidemic by 2030
The World Health Assembly-approved Global TB Strategy aims for a 90 per cent reduction in TB deaths and an 80 per cent reduction in the TB incidence rate by 2030 compared with 2015 levels. The Strategy established milestones for 2020 of a 35% reduction in TB deaths and a 20% reduction in the TB incidence rate from 2015 levels.
The UN Political Declaration on TB in 2018 includes 4 new global targets:
- Treat 40 million people for TB disease in the 5-year period 2018-22 (7 million in 2018).
- Reach at least 30 million people with TB preventive treatment for a latent TB infection in the 5-year period 2018-22.
- Mobilize at least US$13 billion annually for universal access to TB diagnosis, treatment and care by 2022.
- Mobilize at least US$2 billion annually for TB research.
- Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.
- About one-quarter of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit it.
- The highest burden of TB in 2018 is in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Africa.
Sources: the Hindu.