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2)  “In India’s developmental journey, tribals have been left behind”. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Topic:Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2)  “In India’s developmental journey, tribals have been left behind”. Critically analyse. (250 words) 


Why this question:

The question seeks to study the impact of development process on the tribal communities in India.

Key demand of the question:

One has to critically present in what way tribal communities have been on the rear end of receiving benefits of the development stratergy.


Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:


Start introduction by giving some data justifying the statement. Like, overall poverty in India is 21.9%, whereas for tribal population it stands at 46%.

You may even start by briefly describing the distribution of tribal population in India, supported by data.


  • Start by explaining how development has had negative impact on tribals overall socio economic development. For eg. Forced migration, loss of livelihood, displacement, acculturation issues, etc.
  • Refer report by Virginius Xaxa committee.
  • Add case study and maps to support your discussions above. For eg. Niyamgiri hills-Vedanta group case, Sardar sarovar dam case, Can also add datas  on development indicators like MMR,IMR ,Literacy rate ,etc .of the tribal populations on mineral rich regions.
  • Have a discussion on the positive impacts of development on tribal population. For eg. Under khanij kshetra kalyan yojana 60% funds of District mineral funds will be spend on areas like health, sanitation etc.
  • In way forward show the different measures and recent schemes by Govt. for tribal development such as FRA, PESA, Tribal sub plan approach, Van bandhu scheme, Eklavya  scheme,etc.


Conclude with way ahead.