Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 SEPTEMBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 SEPTEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Discuss in detail the objectives of National Launch of 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029).(250 words)

Pib

Why this question:

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti, GoI launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029), which focus on sustaining the sanitation behavior change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G), ensuring that no one is left behind, and increasing access to solid and liquid waste management.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the salient features of 

Recently launched National Launch of 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029).

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the significance of rural sanitation in the overall development of the country.

Body:

Explain briefly About the Rural Sanitation Strategy, why is it significant, what have been the strategies in the past, their successes and failures.

How is the current strategy different from the past?

Explain the salient features in detail and suggest way ahead.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Ans:

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS),Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029).

Rural Sanitation Strategy:

 

  • The strategy has been prepared by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation in consultation with the State Governments and other stakeholders.
  • The strategy lays down the roadmap for Open defecation free(ODF) Plus which is the government’s next step in dealing with open defecation and sanitation issues in the country.
  • The aim of the strategy is to take a step further from the construction and maintenance of toilets for rural households by focussing on waste water and solid waste treatment at the village and panchayat level.
  • The strategy also demands focused intervention through (a)capacity strengthening (b)IEC (Information, Education, and Communication), (c)organic waste management (d)plastic waste management and (e) water management.
  • Further, the strategy also involves sanitation coverage of public spaces which will involve construction of community toilets as well as community sanitary complexes in gram panchayats.

 

What is Open defecation?

Open defecation refers to the practice whereby people go out in fields, bushes, forests, open bodies of water, or other open spaces rather than using the toilet to defecate.

A city or ward can be notified as Open defecation free(ODF) if at any point of the day,not a single person is found defecating in the open.

The ODF+ strategy focuses on sustaining community/ public toilet usage by ensuring their functionality, cleanliness and maintenance.

Further, the ODF++ is aimed at achieving sanitation sustainability by addressing complete sanitation value chain, including safe containment, processing and disposal of fecal sludge and seepage.

 

Conclusion:

India has seen a sanitation revolution, and the SBM-G transformed itself into a Jan Andolan (a people’s movement).The 10 year strategy focuses on the need for States/UTs to continue their efforts to sustain the gains of the mission through capacity strengthening, IEC (Information, education and communication), organic waste management, plastic waste management, grey water management and black water management.


Topic: Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) To what extent the sixth schedule of the constitution has been successful in appeasing the demands of people of North Eastern states. Critically examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

A sub-committee constituted by the Meghalaya government has decided to recommend to the Standing Committee of Parliament the removal of the word “unrepresented tribes” from the proposed amendment of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the relevance and importance that sixth schedule holds for India and more so specifically to the North eastern states.

Directive:

Critically examineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the coming of sixth schedule in the Indian constitution.

Body:

Explain the following facts – 

  • Sixth Schedule deals with Article 244(2) and 275(1).
  • It has provisions related to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
  • It provides for the setting up Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) for administration of these tribal areas. Term of the District Councils is for five years from the date of their constitution. It is governed by an Executive Committee.
  • Discuss what makes it important in terms of governance of the region.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of such features of the constitution.

Ans:

India is home to almost 10 crore tribal population who have constitutionally been addressed via two distinct avenues; the Fifth Schedule applies to an Peninsular India’s tribes in nine States, while the Sixth Schedule covers areas that are settled in the northeastern States bordering China and Myanmar.

 

The Sixth Schedule gives tribal communities considerable autonomy; the States of Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Mizoram are autonomous regions under the Sixth Schedule.

The role of the Governor and the State are subject to significant limitations, with greater powers devolved locally.

The District Council and the Regional Council under the Sixth Schedule have real power to make laws, possibility on the various legislative subjects, receiving grants-in-aids from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet the costs of schemes for development, health care, education, roads and regulatory powers to state control.

The mandate towards Devolution, de concentration and divestment determines the protection of their customs, better economic development and most importantly ethnic security.

 Furthermore, the Sixth Schedule has certain features that can be implanted in any governance model for tribal areas, particularly concepts of constitutional and legislative subjects that are exclusive to local governments.

An autonomous district council will give greater role in directing administrative requirements without depending on the Central State structure.

Thus, the Sixth Schedule mandating the state to devolve certain political, administrative and fiscal powers to local governments elected by the communities due to which, it has been quite successful in countering the so called Separatist movements, of which some have become active insurgencies, as a key issue in North-East.


Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

3) “The current case against the actions of prime minister of UK is truly a Kesavananda Bharti moment for the British courts”. Explain. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The United Kingdom Supreme Court, in a slender but significant judgment, decided that the prorogation of parliament by the Queen of England, acting on the advice of the Privy Council, was unlawful on the grounds of parliamentary sovereignty and democratic accountability. Hence the question.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain in what way Indian Supreme Court’s jurisprudence, and its demos prudential co-governance of the nation has similarity with its British counterpart.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the current case of prorogation of parliament by the Queen of England as directed by the judiciary of United Kingdom.

Body:

Explain what is the situation in UK with respect to democratic accountability of the parliament.

Discuss the commonalities it has with Indian scenario in detail, compare and contrast with the Kesavananda Bharti case.

Elaborate on the ongoing issues of the British parliament, discuss the challenges in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Ans:

 The United Kingdom Supreme Court, in a slender but significant judgment, decided that the prorogation of parliament by the Queen of England, acting on the advice of the Privy Council, was unlawful on the grounds of parliamentary sovereignty and democratic accountability.

 

Commonality with India-

  • The situation before the Court was pregnant with the politics of power but it, like the Indian counterpart, focused merely on constitutionality of the prime minister’s action of prorogation of parliament in mid-session.
  • This was truly a Kesavananda Bharti moment for the British court. But unlike the full Indian court, there was no riot of concurring and dissenting opinions.
  • Written in elegant and firm language, and accessible to all, the judgment is very brief (71 paragraphs and 24 pages and heard only for three days).
  • The judicial courage, craft, and contention have a common core in India and UK — judicial review has its basis primarily in safeguarding people’s basic rights but in the Indian context, the end is achieved by a prolixity of judicial opinions addressed to multiple constituencies and the high art of speaking to the future.

 

Unfolding of the events in UK-

  • The UK Supreme Court had available to it two diametrically opposed readings.
  • The first was the model of judicial self-restraint or accommodation with other institutions of co-governance; in effect, to treat the questions raised as the pursuit of politics by other means.
  • The second was to check the political executive by insisting on the basic principles of the common law, which protect parliamentary sovereignty.
  • It adopted the latter course saying that although the “United Kingdom does not have a single document entitled ‘The Constitution’, it nevertheless possesses a Constitution, established over the course of our history by common law, statutes, conventions and practice”.

 

  • Though not codified, “it has developed pragmatically, and remains sufficiently flexible to be capable of further development” and it “includes numerous principles of law, which are enforceable by the courts in the same way as other legal principles”.
  • The principle of judicial duty stands reiterated: “… the courts have the responsibility of upholding the values and principles of our constitution and making them effective.
  • The courts “cannot shirk that responsibility merely on the ground that the question raised is political in tone or context”. The judicial duty then lies in the discovery of the first principles of constitutional law, which regulate the application of constitutional discipline over the uses of political power.
  • The Supreme Court then dexterously linked the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty with democratic accountability to people at large: “Ministers are accountable to parliament through such mechanisms as their duty to answer parliamentary questions and to appear before parliamentary committees, and through parliamentary scrutiny of the delegated legislation which ministers make.
  • Accordingly, the “power to prorogue cannot be unlimited”. Indeed, no power is, at least in a constitutional democracy.

 

Conclusion

Of course, no judicial decision is beyond socially responsible critique. But in asking parliament to finally decide the terms and conditions of Brexit, the British court has valuably upheld the principles of democratic accountability of a sovereign parliament.


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) India needs universities with a core mission of producing educated people who are needed to build and run a flourishing economy, in such a context discuss the relevance of triple helix model to Indian universities.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses the possible application of the triple helix model to the Indian universities.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the concept of triple helix model and in what way the model can be effectively applied to the case of Indian universities.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what is meant by triple helix model. 

Body:

Explain the basics of the model – The triple helix model of innovation refers to constant interactions between academia, industry and governments to foster economic and social development.  

The model emphasizes on boosting innovation for development.  

Explain that problems that Indian universities are currently facing.

Conclusion:

Conclude that we need universities with a core mission of producing educated people who are needed to build and run a flourishing economy. Today, in India, how many universities have been able to connect their activities to society and the nation’s economy is a major concern.it is hoped that the current government takes keen interest in developing scientific research culture in Indian universities.

Ans:

The triple helix model of innovation refers to constant interactions between academia, industry and governments to foster economic and social development. The model emphasizes on boosting innovation for development.

  • It describes the role of a university to join hands with industry and government.
  • It explains social formats for production, transfer and application of knowledge.
  • Triple helix covers creative destruction—a concept coined by Joseph Schumpeter in 1942—i.e. new innovations killing older ones. Innovation arises within each of the three spheres—university, industry and government.
  • Creative destruction cannot be avoided when we embrace innovation. In an economic sense, creativity can produce some destructive consequences.
  • Triple helix was developed in the 1990s by Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdorff.

 

 

What are triple helix interactions?

  • University-industry interactions: Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff emphasised that the initial role of a university is to provide education to individuals and basic research.
  • It’s like the Linear Model of Innovation; universities are supposed to provide research, on which industry builds commercial goods.
  • University-government interactions: The power of interactions between government and universities depends on policies on higher education.
  • Government has a higher influence on universities because they are the main source of funding. Government depends on universities to push innovations for the purpose of defence, economics, medical science, etc.

 

Example of triple helix

 The best example of triple helix is the Silicon Valley.   The government provided land, flexible financing, stretched tax holidays and fitting guidelines to the IT cluster in California. Small and big IT businesses thrived in this cluster.

 The world has seen success stories of Dell, HP, Oracle, Intel, Microsoft, etc. The very needs of the industry, powered by the created market, generate the need for the academia, which, in this case, comprises of ICT professionals who are given all facilities to do R&D and new product development.

 

  • Government, industry and academia all profit as taxes are collected on sales of goods, revenue is generated and knowledge is developed inside a suitable research environment.

 

  • Role of triple helix model in developing institutions-
  • The triple helix model is based on developing institutions, not just individuals. Innovation is the key in any research.
  • Many research scholars registered for PhD in universities can do wonders if only government and industry take interest in them.
  • Government and industry can seed early-stage researches that are useful for business and societies. Progressive organizations increasingly seed it in areas of interest to them.
  • They work closely with the progress of the PhD by funding or co-funding.
  • Difficult scientific problems or new areas of technology are of interest to companies. Their scientists or engineers co-mentor researchers and their guides.

 

Conclusion

We need universities with a core mission of producing educated people who are needed to build and run a flourishing economy. Today, in India, how many universities have been able to connect their activities to society and the nation’s economy is a major concern.it is hoped that the current government takes keen interest in developing scientific research culture in Indian universities.

 


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

5) The Political Meddling in the institutions has deteriorated the credibility of the institutions over time which in turn has crippled the economy. Elaborate with examples.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article explains in what way The credibility of the RBI, the CSO and the Niti Aayog has taken a beating in recent times due to political interference.

Key demand of the question:

Bring out the recent controversies that have arisen due to lack of credibility in the way institutions have been contributing to the economy in justifying their roles.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the ongoing issues with institutions in the country.

Body:

Discuss in brief the role of institutions in a political economy.

Explain the recent instances in which the autonomy of the institutions got crippled- RBI, NITI Aayog, CSO etc. 

Discuss on the present slowdown in the economy vis –a vis the institutional factors.

Suggest measures to address the situation. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Ans:

 

The credibility of the RBI, the CSO and the Niti Aayog has taken a beating in recent times due to political interference.

  • The slowdown in GDP growth rate has been dissected, digressed and disowned by analysts, commentators and policymakers. However, the diagnosis is far from complete and the growth engine is running out of fuel. Both the demand- and supply-side factors have been central in all the analyses, but the crucial role of institutions in shaping the outcomes of both the factors in this episode of slowdown has been neglected. This has resulted in a series of banal policy measures for reviving growth.
  • A market-centered economic model necessitates creating and sustaining credible institutions that further the efficiency of market mechanism. Given the possibility of ‘market failures’, such institutions assume a larger role in the economy in shaping expectations and decisions.
  • The credibility of three such important institutions — the Reserve Bank of India (RBI); the Central Statistical Organization (CSO); and the Planning Commission/NITI Aayog — has taken a beating in recent times.

Examples –

  • Case of RBI – The RBI, which was clamoring for more autonomy, has been systematically brought under the ambit of the Central government. Starting from the sidelining of the central bank on the important issue of currency demonetisation, the attempt has been to steadily erode the central bank’s independence. A three-pronged strategy resulted in this — first, the RBI was bypassed on matters relating to currency; second, its role as regulator of the banking sector was questioned when banks faltered; and, finally, its reserves were siphoned. The net result has been that the RBI has been reduced into an institution which presides over a limited space of monetary policy, that is, inflation targeting.

 

  • NITI Aayog – presents the case of an institution that lost its character in the process of transformation. By abolishing the erstwhile Planning Commission and transforming it into the NITI Aayog, the government lost the space for mid-term appraisals of plans and policies. Course correction and taking stock of the economy have now become routine exercises, with uncritical acceptance due to a lack of well-researched documents.

Conclusion

Institutions are the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction.” Institutions are formed to reduce uncertainty in human exchange. Together with the technology employed, they determine the costs of transacting (and producing). While the formal rules can be changed overnight, as has been practised by the present government, the informal norms change only gradually.

 


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) Fundamental weaknesses in the structure of the economy need to be removed to sustain high growth along with countercyclical policies to boost demand. Explain the role of government in this case.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article states that despite the recessionary conditions in the industrialised countries, it may still be possible to pitch for a higher growth in exports. The recent announcements on boosting exports is a recognition of this

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way fundamental weaknesses in the structure of the economy need to be removed to sustain high growth along with countercyclical policies to boost demand.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the current economy of the country.

Body:

First using statistics explain the issues marring the economy of the country.

Explain – Several sectors such as automobiles and housing are facing a sharp weakening of demand. And there has been a significant fall in the savings and investment rate. Within household savings, the proportion of savings in financial assets has sharply declined.

Discuss what measures need to be taken to overcome this challenge.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Ans:

  • India’s GDP growth rate slowed down to 5 per cent in Q1 of FY20 and is expected to be around 6 per cent or below in this financial year.
  • As former Reserve Bank of India governor Y V Reddy mentioned recently, a combination of cyclical and structural factors have been responsible for the slowdown.
  • Global uncertainties have added to the problem.
  • In the last few weeks, the government has announced several measures to improve both consumption and investment in different sectors and for the economy as a whole.
  • The announcement of reduction in corporate tax rates announced recently may help in reviving the sentiments of the private sector but the tax revenue may also decline and put pressure on fiscal deficit. But, these measures alone may not help in getting higher growth.

 Structural issues to be tackled

  • We need to focus on three structural issues:
  • Physical infrastructure development,
  • Raising human capital and
  • Revival of rural economy for a long-term growth of 7 to 8 per cent and attaining $5 trillion economy by 2024.

 

Infrastructure Development-

  • Spending on infrastructure will have multiplier effects in the overall economy including stimulating private investment, aggregate demand and jobs.
  • Construction sector was an important source of job creation during 2004-05 to 2011-12. This sector has to be revived in order to create growth and employment.
  • The government seems to be fast tracking public capex, encouraging public sector enterprises (PSEs) to invest more and trying to clear the pending bills for the corporate sector and MSMEs.
  • The announcement of Rs 100 lakh crore over five years for infrastructure by the government is an important measure.

 

  • The Vijay Kelkar committee’s recommendation on PPPs would be useful. The private sector’s role is equally important.

 

Raising human capital for higher growth

  • Health and education achievements are essential for human capital. Yet the country’s progress on both these aspects leaves much to be desired
  • The Niti Aayog says that only 3 per cent of Indian workers have formal skill training compared to 70 to 80 per cent in other countries.
  • Promotion of technology and knowledge economy will add to growth. One can’t have a “demographic dividend” for growth with low human capital.
  • Women’s labour participation rates have been low and declining. Raising women’s human capital and participation rates can improve economic growth.
  • We may also not achieve high human capital and productivity with 40 per cent of our children suffering from malnutrition.

 

Revival of rural economy

  • 70 per cent of our population lives in rural areas and has stagnant incomes and wages.
  • There is a need for revival of the rural economy with infrastructure investment and structural reforms.
  • Agricultural marketing reforms should be a priority.
  • For better price discovery, agriculture has to go beyond farming and develop value chains comprising farming, wholesaling, warehousing, logistics, processing and retailing.
  • Agricultural exports should be promoted with various policies. Similarly, rural infrastructure and water management are other priorities.
  • Stimulus and structural reforms can raise farmers’ prices and wages and rise in demand for manufacturing and services.

 

Suggestions:

  • Lower GST and local taxes, as high as 28 % . Like for both tobacco and automobiles.
  • Boost private investment- Thru international MOUs , like petro net and tellurian.
  • Give sops like tax reduction for consumers to have higher disposable income.
  • Experiment on small scale other viable options like, tax free income for low income women.
  • Giving preference to infrastructure over capital expenditure.
  • Taking measures to boost rural demand and unorganized sector which forms 90 % of the workforce.

Recent steps like rolling back of surcharges, merger of banks can give short term gains, but long term requires bringing structural changes.


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss the concept of Integral Humanism outlined by Deendayal Upadhyaya. Also elucidate how integral humanism is the answer to contemporary political, social, economic and religious challenges.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Nation paid homage to Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya on his birth anniversary Yesterday.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss in detail the contributions of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya with special focus on his philosophy of integral humanism.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what you understand by integral humanism. 

Body:

Discuss the following points – 

  • Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya outlined his philosophy for governance in the form of four lectures delivered in 1965 to Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS) party-workers in Bombay, titled “Integral Humanism”. 
  • The title was chosen to contrast it with the thesis of ‘Radical Humanism’ put forward by MN Roy, the former Communist leader. 
  • According to him, the fundamental cause of the numerous problems that modem India is faced with lies in the indiscriminate application of the Western forms of thought to Indian political life. 
  • Thus it is opposed to both western capitalist individualism and Marxist socialism of their excesses and alienness, though welcoming to western science. It presents an indigenous economic model that puts the human being at centre stage.  

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance that the philosophy holds even today

Ans:

 

What is Integral Humanism?

Tracing its origins to the non-dualistic philosophy of Advaita Vedanta, integral humanism propagated the oneness of various souls, be it of human, animal or plant origin. Rejecting the intrinsic diversity based on race, color, caste or religion, it identified all human beings as part of this one organic whole, sharing a common consciousness of national thought. And putting this into a political perspective, either then or now, it meant that Hindus, Muslims, Christians and the people of all other faiths and sects are essentially one and that their intrinsic unity should be based on this common consciousness of “Rashtriyata”.

 

Relevance of Upadhyaya’s teachings in the current context –

Domestic politics – Insights from political science show how for caste-based political parties, merely winning an election based on caste and social identities becomes an end in itself.

 The only contribution such political parties make is giving to its people the psychological security of having formed a vote bank.

Ultimately, for these state governments, providing any real development opportunities to those who are really socially disadvantaged never becomes a priority. This is because the day such caste-based political parties are elected to power, the end goal of winning the elections with some social engineering has already been achieved.

 

Social context– Upadhyaya in his own words said that ‘do not reward/appease (puraskrit) Muslims; do not shun (tiraskrit) them but purify (parishkar)’. And this purification lies in the generation of a common national consciousness and not solely religious conversion as has been made out by the Western media. Just as how “if the country has been divided because of the lack of feeling of unity, the restoration of that feeling will make it united again”.

 

Religious challenges – Nationalism and anti-nationalism can never coexist in harmony”. Hence Upadhyaya advocated for an alternative idea of India where we all belong to only one culture, which is neither the Hindu, Muslim or Christian culture but the Indian or “Bharatiya” culture. According to him, “culture is not related to mode of worship or sect; instead it is related to the country’s tradition. Kabir, Jayasi and Raskhan should serve as models for Muslims.”

 

Economic context – Upadhyaya rejected this Western model of statism and celebrated liberal notions of individual liberty within the broader realm of collective moral responsibility. Just as how economists are now advocating for a public private partnership (PPP) model worldwide, similarly, Upadhya conceived the idea of a “national sector”, where right to work and safety net for the disadvantaged went hand in hand with economic entrepreneurship. And this was a principled stand.

 

Conclusion

Integral humanism builds on an organic thought, where it imagines an Indian nation, which is guided by common principles of moral order. A nation, where all citizens identify themselves as a part of the same Indian ethos, where we modernize but do not westernize, where we have individual economic liberty but that which is coupled with social safety net, and lastly, where we transcend group consciousness as members of different religious and social communities to develop a common national consciousness.